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The stability of minimal solution sets for set optimization problems via improvement sets
Journal of Inequalities and Applications volumeÂ 2023, ArticleÂ number:Â 75 (2023)
Abstract
In this paper we investigate the stability of solution sets for set optimization problems via improvement sets. Some sufficient conditions for the upper semicontinuity, lower semicontinuity, and compactness of Eminimal solution mappings are given for parametric set optimization under some suitable conditions. We also give some examples to illustrate our main results.
1 Introduction
In recent years, set optimization problems have received increasing attention and have been intensively discussed due to extensive applications in many areas such as vector optimization, vector variational inequalities, mathematical economics, game theory, engineering management, control system field, and many others; for details, see [1â€“6] and the references therein.
It is well known that the stability of solutions is a very interesting topic in the study of set optimization. Xu and Li [7] established the semicontinuity of minimal solution mappings and weak minimal solution mappings to a parametric set optimization problem by making use of the converse uproperty of objective mappings. Han and Huang [8] studied the upper semicontinuity, lower semicontinuity, and convexity of solution mappings of parametric set optimization problems. Khoshkhabaramiranloo [9] studied the semicontinuity and compactness of minimal solutions of parametric set optimization problems. Karuna and Lalitha [10] discussed the continuity of approximate weak efficient solution mappings of parametric set optimization problems under the strict quasiconvexity of the objective map. Under some suitable conditions Zhang et al. [11] discussed the semicontinuity and compactness of minimal solution mappings to a parametric set optimization with the general preorder relations. Mao and Han [12] discussed the semicontinuity of solution mappings for parametric set optimization problems via improvement sets under several suitable conditions. Since the compactness of objective values is so strong, it limits the application of stability of set optimization problems. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the upper semicontinuity, lower semicontinuity, and closedness of solution maps to the parametric set optimization problem via improvement sets under appropriate assumptions. In our results we have no compactness assumption on the objective maps. Moreover, the continuity of the objective map is replaced by (weak, converse) \(\leq _{E}^{l}\)continuity assumptions, which is of great interest and importance. Our results extend and improve the corresponding ones of [7, 8, 10â€“14].
The rest of this paper is organized as follows. The next section presents some necessary notations, concepts, and results to be used throughout the paper. In Sect. 3 we obtain the upper semicontinuity, lower semicontinuity, and compactness of Eminimal solution mappings for a parametric set optimization problem under weaker and simpler assumptions.
2 Preliminaries
Throughout the paper, unless otherwise specified, we assume that X, Y, and Î› are real normed vector spaces. We assume that \(K\subseteq Y\) is a convex, closed, and pointed cone with nonempty interior. We denote the family of nonempty subsets of Y by \(P(Y)\). We denote by intA, clA, and \(A^{c}\) the topological interior, the closure of A, and the complementary set of A, respectively.
A set \(A\in P(Y)\) is called Kclosed if \(A+K\) is closed; Kproper if \(A+K\neq Y\).
The sets of all minimal solutions and weak minimal solutions of \(A\in P(Y)\) are defined as follows:
In [15], for any \(A,B\in P(Y)\), the lower set less order relation \(\leq _{K}^{l}\) and the strict lower set less order relation \(\ll _{K}^{l}\) on \(P(Y)\) are defined by
In [16], Chicco et al. defined the upper comprehensive set of a set \(E\subseteq Y\) by
Definition 2.1
([16])
Let E be a nonempty subset in Y. E is called an improvement set with respect to K iff \(0\notin E\) and \(E+K=E\).
In the sequel, we assume that \(E\subseteq Y\) is an improvement set with \(E\subseteq K\backslash \{0\}\). Dhigra and Lalitha [17] defined a set relation as follows:
Let \(F : X \rightarrow 2^{Y}\) be a setvalued mapping with nonempty values and \(G\subseteq X\) with \(G\neq \emptyset \). We consider the following set optimization problem:
Definition 2.2
([17])
An element \(\bar{x}\in G \) is said to be

(i)
a Klminimal solution of \((SOP)\) if \(x\in G \) such that \(F(x)\leq _{K}^{l} F(\bar{x})\) imply \(F(\bar{x})\leq _{K}^{l}F(x)\);

(ii)
an Elminimal solution of \((SOP)\) if \(x\in G \) such that \(F(x)\leq _{E}^{l} F(\bar{x})\) imply \(F(\bar{x})\leq _{E}^{l}F(x)\);

(iii)
a weak Elminimal solution of \((SOP)\) if \(x\in G \) such that \(F(x)\ll _{E}^{l} F(\bar{x})\) imply \(F(\bar{x})\ll _{E}^{l}F(x)\).
Let \(K_{l}(G)\), \(E_{l}(G)\), \(W_{l}(G)\) denote the Klminimal solution, Elminimal solution, and the weak Elminimal solution set of \((SOP)\), respectively.
Remark 2.1
([12])
\(K_{l}(G)\subseteq E_{l}(G)\subseteq W_{l}(G)\).
We say that F is Kclosedvalued (Kpropervalued) on G if \(F(x)\) is Kclosed (Kproper) for each \(x\in G\).
Definition 2.3
Let G be a nonempty convex subset of X and E be an improvement set. A setvalued mapping \(F : X \rightarrow 2^{Y}\) is said to be lEstrictly quasiconvex at \(\bar{x}\in G\) if, for any \(x\in G\) with \(x\neq \bar{x}\), \(t\in (0,1)\)
The map \(F : X \rightarrow 2^{Y}\) is said to be lEstrictly quasiconvex on G if it is lEstrictly quasiconvex at every \(x\in G\).
We use the following example to illustrate the existence of lEstrictly quasiconvex for setvalued mappings.
Example 2.1
Let \(X=Y=\mathbb{R}^{2}\), \(G=[0,2]\times [0,2]\), and \(K=\mathbb{R}^{2}_{+}\), \(E=[0.1,+\infty )\times [0.1,+\infty )\). Consider \(F : X \rightarrow 2^{Y}\) defined as
We can verify that F is lEstrictly quasiconvex at \((0,0)\).
Definition 2.4
([4])
Let \(F : X \rightarrow 2^{Y}\) be a setvalued mapping. Then F is said to be

(i)
Klower semicontinuous (Kl.s.c.) at xÌ„ if, for any open subset U of Y with \(F(\bar{x})\cap U\neq \emptyset \), there is a neighborhood \(N(\bar{x})\) of xÌ„ such that \(F(x)\cap (UK)\neq \emptyset \) for all \(x\in N(\bar{x})\).

(ii)
Kupper semicontinuous (Ku.s.c.) at xÌ„ if, for any open neighborhood U of \(F(\bar{x})\), there is a neighborhood \(N(\bar{x})\) of xÌ„ such that for every \(x\in N(\bar{x})\), \(F(x)\subseteq U+K\).

(iii)
KHausdorff lower semicontinuous (KHl.s.c.) at xÌ„ if, for any open neighborhood U of zero, there is a neighborhood \(N(\bar{x})\) of xÌ„ such that for every \(x\in N(\bar{x})\), \(F(\bar{x})\subseteq F(x)+U+K\).

(iv)
KHausdorff upper semicontinuous (KHu.s.c.) at xÌ„ if, for any open neighborhood U of zero, there is a neighborhood \(N(\bar{x})\) of xÌ„ such that for every \(x\in N(\bar{x})\), \(F(x)\subseteq F(\bar{x})+U+K\).
We say that F is Kl.s.c., Ku.s.c., KHl.s.c., and KHu.s.c. on X if it is Kl.s.c., Ku.s.c., KHl.s.c., and KHu.s.c. at each point \(x\in X\), respectively. Taking \(K=\{0\}\), we get the definition of lower semicontinuity (l.s.c.), upper semicontinuity (u.s.c.), Hausdorff lower semicontinuity (Hl.s.c.), and Hausdorff upper semicontinuity (Hu.s.c.), respectively.
Remark 2.2
u.s.c. â‡’ Hu.s.c. â‡’ KHu.s.c.; u.s.c. â‡’ Ku.s.c. â‡’ KHu.s.c.; and Hl.s.c. â‡’ l.s.c. â‡’ Kl.s.c.; Hl.s.c. â‡’ KHl.s.c. â‡’ Kl.s.c.
As pointed out in [4], F is Hl.s.c. (resp. KHl.s.c.) at x if F is l.s.c. (resp. Kl.s.c.) at x and \(F(x)\) is compact. Moreover, F is Ku.s.c. (resp.u.s.c.) at x if F is KHu.s.c. (resp. Hu.s.c.) at x and \(F(x)\) is compact.
Lemma 2.1
A setvalued mapping \(F : X \rightarrow 2^{Y}\) is l.s.c. at \(\bar{x}\in X\) if and only if, for any sequence \(\{x_{n}\}\subseteq X\) with \(x_{n}\rightarrow \bar{x}\) and for any \(\bar{y}\in F(\bar{x})\), there exists \(y_{n}\in F(x_{n})\) such that \(y_{n}\rightarrow \bar{y}\).
Lemma 2.2
Let \(F : X \rightarrow 2^{Y}\) be a setvalued mapping. For any given \(\bar{x}\in X\), if \(F(\bar{x})\) is compact, then F is u.s.c. at \(\bar{x}\in X\). If and only if for any sequence \(\{x_{n}\}\subseteq X\) with \(x_{n}\rightarrow \bar{x}\) and for any \(y_{n}\in F(x_{n})\) there exist \(\bar{y}\in F(\bar{x})\) and a subsequence \(\{y_{n_{k}}\}\) of \(\{y_{n}\}\) such that \(y_{n_{k}}\rightarrow \bar{y}\).
Lemma 2.3
([18])
If E is an improvement set, then \(E+\operatorname{int}K=\operatorname{int}E\) and \(\operatorname{int}E+K=\operatorname{int}E\).
Lemma 2.4
([9])
Let \(A\in P(Y)\). Then \(Wmin A\neq \emptyset \) if A is Kclosed and Kproper.
Lemma 2.5
Let E be an improvement set. For any given \(\bar{x}\in G\), if \(F(\bar{x})\) is compact, then xÌ„ is an Elminimal solution if and only if there is no \(x\in G\) such that \(F(x)\leq _{E}^{l} F(\bar{x})\).
Theorem 2.1
Let E be an improvement set. For any given \(\bar{x}\in G\), if \(F(\bar{x})\) is Kclosed and Kproper, then xÌ„ is a weak Elminimal solution if and only if there is no \(x\in G\) such that \(F(x)\ll _{E}^{l} F(\bar{x})\).
Proof
In view of Lemma 2.4, we have \(Wmin F(\bar{x})\neq \emptyset \). Suppose that there exists \(x\in G\) such that \(F(x)\ll _{E}^{l} F(\bar{x})\). Since \(\bar{x}\in W_{l}(G)\), we have \(F(\bar{x})\ll _{E}^{l} F(x)\). So, we get
Let \(\bar{y}\in Wmin F(\bar{x})\). Consequently,
It follows from (2.1) that there exist \(y_{0}\in F(\bar{x})\) and \(k\in \operatorname{int}K\) such that \(\bar{y}=y_{0}+k\). Thus,
which contradicts (2.2). The converse is obvious.â€ƒâ–¡
Lemma 2.6
([12])
Let A be a nonempty and compact subset of Y. Then \(Min(A)\neq \emptyset \) and \(Max(A)\neq \emptyset \). Furthermore, \(A\nsubseteq A+K\backslash \{0\}\) and \(A\nsubseteq AK\backslash \{0\}\).
Lemma 2.7
Let G be a nonempty convex subset of X and E be an improvement set. \(F : X \rightarrow 2^{Y}\) is lEstrictly quasiconvex on G with nonempty compact values. Then \(E_{l}(G)=W_{l}(G)\).
Proof
It suffices to prove that \(W_{l}(G)\subseteq E_{l}(G)\). Let \(\bar{x}\in W_{l}(G)\). If there exists \(x_{0}\in G\) such that \(F(x_{0})\leq _{E}^{l} F(\bar{x})\), then
Since \(E\subseteq K\backslash \{0\}\), we get \(F(\bar{x})\subseteq F(x_{0})+K\backslash \{0\}\). This together with Lemma 2.6 implies that \(x_{0}\neq \bar{x}\). Since F is lEstrictly quasiconvex on G, one has
By Theorem 2.1, we can see that \(\bar{x}\notin W_{l}(G)\), which contradicts \(\bar{x}\in W_{l}(G)\). Therefore, \(\bar{x}\in E_{l}(G)\).â€ƒâ–¡
Definition 2.5
Let G be a nonempty subset of X and \(F:D \rightarrow 2^{Y}\) be a setvalued mapping. We say that

(i)
F is \(\leq _{E}^{l}\)continuous at \(x_{0}\in G\) with respect to \(y_{0}\in G\) if for all sequences \(\{x_{n}\}\), \(\{y_{n}\}\subseteq G\) satisfy \(x_{n}\rightarrow x_{0}\), \(y_{n}\rightarrow y_{0}\) such that \(F(x_{n})\leq _{E}^{l}F(y_{n})\) for sufficiently large n, then \(F(x_{0})\leq _{E}^{l}F(y_{0})\);

(ii)
F is weak \(\ll _{E}^{l}\)continuous at \(x_{0}\in G\) with respect to \(y_{0}\in G\) if for all sequences \(\{x_{n}\}\), \(\{y_{n}\}\subseteq G\) satisfy \(x_{n}\rightarrow x_{0}\), \(y_{n}\rightarrow y_{0}\) such that \(F(x_{n})\ll _{E}^{l}F(y_{n})\) for sufficiently large n, then \(F(x_{0})\ll _{E}^{l}F(y_{0})\);

(iii)
F is converse \(\leq _{E}^{l}\)continuous at \(x_{0}\in G\) with respect to \(y_{0}\in G\) if \(F(x_{0})\leq _{E}^{l}F(y_{0})\) and for any sequences \(\{x_{n}\}\), \(\{y_{n}\}\subseteq G\) satisfy \(x_{n}\rightarrow x_{0}\), \(y_{n}\rightarrow y_{0}\), we have \(F(x_{n})\leq _{E}^{l}F(y_{n})\) for sufficiently large n;

(iv)
F is weak converse \(\ll _{E}^{l}\)continuous at \(x_{0}\in G\) with respect to \(y_{0}\in G\) if \(F(x_{0})\ll _{E}^{l}F(y_{0})\) and for any sequences \(\{x_{n}\}\), \(\{y_{n}\}\subseteq G\) satisfy \(x_{n}\rightarrow x_{0}\), \(y_{n}\rightarrow y_{0}\), we have \(F(x_{n})\ll _{E}^{l}F(y_{n})\) for sufficiently large n.
F is \(\leq _{E}^{l}\)continuous (resp., weak \(\ll _{E}^{l}\)continuous) on G if F is \(\leq _{E}^{l}\)continuous (resp., weak \(\ll _{E}^{l}\)continuous) at each \(x_{0}\in G\) with respect to each \(y_{0}\in G\); F is converse \(\leq _{E}^{l}\)continuous (resp., weak converse \(\ll _{E}^{l}\)continuous) on G if F is converse \(\leq _{E}^{l}\)continuous (resp., weak converse \(\ll _{E}^{l}\)continuous) at each \(x_{0}\in G\) with respect to each \(y_{0}\in G\).
Proposition 2.1
Let G be a nonempty subset of X. Assume that a setvalued mapping \(F:G\rightarrow 2^{Y}\) is KHu.s.c. at \(x_{0}\in G\) and Kl.s.c. at \(y_{0}\in G\). If \(F(x_{0})+E\) is closed, then F is \(\leq _{E}^{l}\)continuous at \(x_{0}\in G\) with respect to \(y_{0}\in G\).
Proof
Since \(F:G\rightarrow 2^{Y}\) is KHu.s.c. at \(x_{0}\in G\), take two sequences \(\{x_{n}\}\) and \(\{y_{n}\}\) that satisfy \(x_{n}\rightarrow x_{0}\), \(y_{n}\rightarrow y_{0}\) such that \(F(x_{n})\leq _{E}^{l}F(y_{n})\) for sufficiently large n. Let \(e\in\operatorname{int}K\) and \(\epsilon >0\). Then \(\epsilon e+\operatorname{int}K\) is an open neighborhood of 0 in Y. Since F is KHu.s.c. at \(x_{0}\), we have \(F(x_{n})\subseteq F(x_{0})\epsilon e+\operatorname{int}K+K\) for sufficiently large n. Then we have
Since \(F(x_{0})+E\) is closed, letting \(\epsilon \rightarrow 0\), we have
We now claim that \(F(x_{0})\leq _{E}^{l}F(y_{0})\); otherwise, \(F(y_{0})\cap (F(x_{0})+E)^{C}\neq \emptyset \). Since F is Kl.s.c. at \(y_{0}\), we have \(F(y_{n})\cap ((F(x_{0})+E)^{C}K)\neq \emptyset \) for n sufficiently large. That is, \(F(x_{0})\nleq _{E}^{l}F(y_{n})\), (indeed, if \(F(x_{0})\leq _{E}^{l}F(y_{n})\), then we have \((F(y_{n})+K)\subseteq (F(x_{0})+E+K)=F(x_{0})+E\), so we get \((F(y_{n})+K))\cap (F(x_{0})+E)^{C}=\emptyset \). We conclude that \(F(y_{n})\cap ((F(x_{0})+E)^{C}K)=\emptyset \). This is a contradiction.), which contradicts (2.3).â€ƒâ–¡
Proposition 2.2
Let G be a nonempty subset of X. Assume that a setvalued mapping \(F:G\rightarrow 2^{Y}\) is HKu.s.c. at \(x_{0}\in G\) and HKl.s.c. at \(y_{0}\in G\). If \(F(x)+K\) is closed for any \(x\in G\), then F is weak \(\ll _{E}^{l}\)continuous at \(x_{0}\in G\) with respect to \(y_{0}\in G\).
Proof
Since \(F:G\rightarrow 2^{Y}\) is HKu.s.c. at \(x_{0}\in G\) and HKl.s.c. at \(y_{0}\in G\). Take two sequences \(\{x_{n}\}\) and \(\{y_{n}\}\) that satisfy \(x_{n}\rightarrow x_{0}\), \(y_{n}\rightarrow y_{0}\) such that \(F(x_{n})\ll _{E}^{l}F(y_{n})\) for n sufficiently large. Let \(e\in\operatorname{int}K\) and \(\epsilon >0\). Then \(\epsilon e+\operatorname{int}K\) is a neighborhood of 0 in Y. We have \(F(x_{n})\subseteq F(x_{0})\epsilon e+\operatorname{int}K+K\) and \(F(y_{0})\subseteq F(y_{n})\epsilon e+\operatorname{int}K+K\) for n sufficiently large. Since \(F(x_{0})+K\) and \(F(y_{n})+K\) is closed, letting \(\epsilon \rightarrow 0\), we have \(F(x_{n})\subseteq F(x_{0})+K\) and \(F(y_{0})\subseteq F(y_{n})+K\). Then we have
That is, \(F(x_{0})\ll _{E}^{l}F(y_{0})\).â€ƒâ–¡
Proposition 2.3
Let G be a nonempty subset of X. Assume that a setvalued mapping \(F:G\rightarrow 2^{Y}\) is HKu.s.c. at \(y_{0}\in G\) and HKl.s.c. at \(x_{0}\in G\). If \(F(x)+K\) is closed for any \(x\in G\), then F is converse \(\leq _{E}^{l}\)continuous and weak converse \(\ll _{E}^{l}\)continuous at \(x_{0}\in G\) with respect to \(y_{0}\in G\).
Proof
Let \(e\in\operatorname{int}K\) and \(\epsilon >0\), then \(\epsilon e+\operatorname{int}K\) is an open neighborhood of 0 in Y. Take two sequences \(\{x_{n}\}\) and \(\{y_{n}\}\) satisfy \(x_{n}\rightarrow x_{0}\), \(y_{n}\rightarrow y_{0}\) such that \(F(x_{0})\ll _{E}^{l}F(y_{0})\). Since \(F:G\rightarrow 2^{Y}\) is HKu.s.c. at \(x_{0}\in G\) and HKl.s.c. at \(y_{0}\in G\), we have \(F(x_{0})\subseteq F(x_{n})\epsilon e+\operatorname{int}K+K\) and \(F(y_{n})\subseteq F(y_{0})\epsilon e+\operatorname{int}K+K\) for n sufficiently large. Since \(F(x_{n})+K\) and \(F(y_{0})+K\) is closed, letting \(\epsilon \rightarrow 0\), we have \(F(x_{0})\subseteq F(x_{n})+K\) and \(F(y_{n})\subseteq F(y_{0})+K\) for n sufficiently large. Then we have
for n sufficiently large. That is, \(F(x_{n})\ll _{E}^{l}F(y_{n})\) for n sufficiently large.
The proof of converse \(\leq _{E}^{l}\)continuous property is similar to the proof of weak converse \(\ll _{E}^{l}\)continuous property.â€ƒâ–¡
Assume that \(G: \Lambda \rightarrow 2^{X}\) and \(F:X\rightarrow 2^{Y}\) are two setvalued mappings with nonempty values. For any \(\lambda \in \Lambda \), now we consider the following parametric set optimization problem (for short, PSOP):
We denote the solution mappings \(E_{l}:\Lambda \rightarrow 2^{X}\), \(W_{l}:\Lambda \rightarrow 2^{X}\) for (PSOP) as follows: \(E_{l}(\lambda )= E_{l}(G(\lambda ))\), \(W_{l}(\lambda )= W_{l}(G(\lambda ))\).
3 Main results
In this section, we make an investigation of the continuity of solution mappings for (PSOP). Firstly, we give the upper semicontinuity and compactness of the weak Eminimal solution mapping for (PSOP).
Theorem 3.1
Let \(\lambda _{0}\in \Lambda \). Suppose that

(i)
G is continuous and compactvalued at \(\lambda _{0}\);

(ii)
F is weak converse \(\ll _{E}^{l}\)continuous on \(G(\lambda _{0})\), Kclosedvalued, and Kpropervalued.
Then \(W_{l}(\lambda )\) is u.s.c. at \(\lambda _{0}\) and \(W_{l}(\lambda _{0})\) is compact.
Proof
We first assert that \(W_{l}(\lambda )\) is u.s.c. at \(\lambda _{0}\). Suppose on the contrary that \(W_{l}(\lambda )\) is not u.s.c. at \(\lambda _{0}\), hence there exist an open neighborhood \(W_{0}\) in X with \(W_{l}(\lambda _{0})\subseteq W_{0}\) and a sequence \(\{\lambda _{n}\}\) with \(\lambda _{n}\rightarrow \lambda _{0}\) such that \(W_{l}(\lambda _{n})\nsubseteq W_{0}\). Therefore, there is a sequence \(\{x_{n}\}\) with \(x_{n}\in W_{l}(\lambda _{n})\) and
Since G is upper semicontinuous and compactvalued at \(\lambda _{0}\), by Lemma 2.2, there exist \(x_{0}\in G(\lambda _{0})\) and a subsequence \(\{x_{n_{k}}\}\) of \(\{x_{n}\}\) such that \(x_{n_{k}}\rightarrow x_{0}\). Without loss of generality, let \(x_{n}\rightarrow x_{0}\).
We now claim that \(x_{0}\in W_{l}(\lambda _{0})\). If \(x_{0}\notin W_{l}(\lambda _{0})\), then by Theorem 2.1 there exists \(y_{0}\in G(\lambda _{0})\) such that \(F(y_{0})\ll _{E}^{l}F(x_{0})\). By the lower semicontinuity of G at \(\lambda _{0}\) and Lemma 2.1, there exists a sequence \(\{y_{n}\}\) with \(y_{n}\in G(\lambda _{n})\) such that \(y_{n}\rightarrow y_{0}\). F is weak converse \(\ll _{E}^{l}\)continuous on \(G(\lambda _{0})\). By Proposition 2.3 we have \(F(y_{n})\ll _{E}^{l}F(x_{n})\) for n sufficiently large, which is a contradiction to \(x_{n}\in W_{l}(\lambda _{n})\), and so \(x_{0}\in W_{l}(\lambda _{0})\). Therefore, from the assumption that \(x_{n}\rightarrow x_{0}\), we have \(x_{n}\in W_{0}\) for n large enough, which contradicts (3.1). Therefore, \(W_{l}(\lambda )\) is u.s.c. at \(\lambda _{0}\).
Next, we state that \(W_{l}(\lambda _{0})\) is compact. In fact, since \(W_{l}(\lambda _{0})\subseteq G(\lambda _{0})\) and \(G(\lambda _{0})\) is compact, it is only sufficient to prove that \(W_{l}(\lambda _{0})\) is closed. Let \(\{z_{n}\}\subseteq W_{l}(\lambda _{0})\) be a sequence with \(z_{n}\rightarrow z_{0}\). If \(z_{0}\notin W_{l}(\lambda _{0})\), then there exists \(z^{*}\in G(\lambda _{0})\) such that \(F(z^{*})\ll _{E}^{l}F(z_{0})\). It yields the same proof as above that we have \(F(z^{*})\ll _{E}^{l}F(z_{n})\) for n large enough, which contradicts \(\{z_{n}\}\subseteq W_{l}(\lambda _{0})\), and so \(\{z_{0}\}\subseteq W_{l}(\lambda _{0})\). Therefore \(W_{l}(\lambda _{0})\) is compact.â€ƒâ–¡
Now, we give the following example to illustrate Theorem 3.1.
Example 3.1
Let \(X=\mathbb{R}\), \(Y=\mathbb{R}^{2}\), \(\Lambda =[0,1]\), and \(K=\mathbb{R}_{+}^{2}\), \(E=[0.1,+\infty )\times [0.1,+\infty )\). Assume that \(G(\lambda )=[0,\lambda ]\) for all \(\lambda \in \Lambda \). Let \(F:X\rightarrow 2^{Y}\) be a setvalued mapping defined as \(F(x)=[1, x)\times [0,1)\) for all \(x\in \mathbb{R}\). Let \(\lambda _{0}=1\). Then it is easy to check that all conditions of Theorem 3.1 are satisfied. By a simple computation, we know that \(W_{l}(\lambda )=[0,\lambda ]\) for all \(\lambda \in \Lambda \). Clearly, we can see that \(W_{l}(\lambda )\) is u.s.c. at 1 and \(W_{l}(1)=[0,1]\) is compact.
Theorem 3.2
Let \(\lambda _{0}\in \Lambda \). Suppose that

(i)
G is continuous and compactvalued at \(\lambda _{0}\);

(ii)
F is weak converse \(\ll _{E}^{l}\)continuous on \(G(\lambda _{0})\), Kclosedvalued, and Kpropervalued;

(iii)
F is lEstrictly quasiconvex on G.
Then \(E_{l}(\lambda )\) is u.s.c. at \(\lambda _{0}\) and \(E_{l}(\lambda _{0})\) is compact.
Proof
We show that \(E_{l}(\lambda )\) is u.s.c. at \(\lambda _{0}\). Suppose on the contrary that \(E_{l}(\lambda )\) is not u.s.c. at \(\lambda _{0}\), then there exist an open neighborhood W in X with \(E_{l}(\lambda _{0})\subseteq W\) and a sequence \(\{\lambda _{n}\}\) with \(\lambda _{n}\rightarrow \lambda _{0}\) such that
Since F is lEstrictly quasiconvex on G, then by Lemma 2.7 we get \(E_{l}(\lambda _{0})=W_{l}(\lambda _{0})\subseteq W\). By employing Theorem 3.1, it follows that \(W_{l}(\lambda )\) is u.s.c. at \(\lambda _{0}\); therefore, there exists a neighborhood V of \(\lambda _{0}\) such that \(W_{l}(\lambda )\subseteq W\) for all \(\lambda \in V\). Since \(\lambda _{n}\rightarrow \lambda _{0}\), it is clear that \(\lambda _{n}\in V\) for n large enough. Thus, \(E_{l}(\lambda _{n})\subseteq W_{l}(\lambda _{n})\subseteq W\) for n large enough, which is a contradiction to (3.2). Hence, \(E_{l}(\lambda )\) is u.s.c. at \(\lambda _{0}\). \(E_{l}(\lambda _{0})=W_{l}(\lambda _{0})\) together with Theorem 3.1 indicates that \(E_{l}(\lambda _{0})\) is compact.â€ƒâ–¡
Remark 3.1
By Remark 2.2 and Proposition 2.3, it is easy to see that Theorem 3.1 and Theorem 3.2 are the generalizations of Theorem 4.1 and Theorem 4.2 in [12], Theorem 3.1 and Theorem 3.7 in [10]. In Example 3.1, F is Kclosedvalued but not compactvalued. Therefore, Theorem 4.1 and Theorem 4.2 in [12], as well as Theorem 3.1 and Theorem 3.7 in [10], cannot be used.
The following theorem establishes the lower semicontinuity of the Eminimal solution mapping for (PSOP).
Theorem 3.3
Let \(\lambda _{0}\in \Lambda \). Assume that

(i)
G is continuous and compactvalued at \(\lambda _{0}\);

(ii)
F is \(\leq _{E}^{l}\)continuous on \(G(\lambda _{0})\) with nonempty and compact values and \(F(x)+E\) is closed on \(G(\lambda _{0})\).
Then \(E_{l}(\lambda )\) is l.s.c. at \(\lambda _{0}\).
Proof
Assume on the contrary that \(E_{l}(\lambda )\) is not l.s.c. at \(\lambda _{0}\), then there exist \(y\in E_{l}(\lambda _{0})\), an open neighborhood \(W_{0}\) of 0 in X, and a sequence \(\{\lambda _{n}\}\) with \(\lambda _{n}\rightarrow \lambda _{0}\) such that
We conclude from \(y\in E_{l}(\lambda _{0})\) that \(y\in G(\lambda _{0})\). Since G is l.s.c. at \(\lambda _{0}\), by Lemma 2.1 there exists a sequence \(\{y_{n}\}\) with \(y_{n}\in G(\lambda _{n})\) such that \(y_{n}\rightarrow y\). We now claim that \(y_{n}\in E_{l}(\lambda _{n})\) for n large enough. Indeed, if not, there is a subsequence \(\{y_{n_{k}}\}\) of \(\{y_{n}\}\) and a subsequence \(\{\lambda _{n_{k}}\}\) of \(\{\lambda _{n}\}\) such that \(y_{n_{k}}\notin E_{l}(\lambda _{n_{k}})\) for \(k=1,2,\ldots \)â€‰. Without loss of generality, we suppose \(y_{n}\notin E_{l}(\lambda _{n})\) for \(n=1,2,\ldots \)â€‰. Then by Lemma 2.5 there exists \(x_{n}\in G(\lambda _{n})\) such that \(F(x_{n})\leq _{E}^{l}F(y_{n})\). Since G is upper semicontinuous and compactvalued at \(\lambda _{0}\), by Lemma 2.2, there exist \(x\in G(\lambda _{0})\) and a subsequence \(\{x_{n_{k}}\}\) of \(\{x_{n}\}\) such that \(x_{n_{k}}\rightarrow x\). Without loss of generality, let \(x_{n}\rightarrow x\). It follows from \(F(x_{n})\leq _{E}^{l}F(y_{n})\) and F is \(\leq _{E}^{l}\)continuous on \(G(\lambda _{0})\). By Proposition 2.1 we get \(F(x)\leq _{E}^{l}F(y)\), which contradicts \(y\in E_{l}(\lambda _{0})\). Hence \(y_{n}\in E_{l}(\lambda _{n})\) for n large enough. Therefore, it is obvious to find that \(y_{n}\in (y+W_{0})\cap E_{l}(\lambda _{n})\) for n large enough, which contradicts (3.3). Hence, \(E_{l}(\lambda )\) is l.s.c. at \(\lambda _{0}\).â€ƒâ–¡
Now, we give the following example to illustrate Theorem 3.3.
Example 3.2
Let \(X=\mathbb{R}\), \(Y=\mathbb{R}^{2}\), \(\Lambda =[0,1]\), and \(K=\mathbb{R}_{+}^{2}\), \(E=[0.1,+\infty )\times [0.1,+\infty )\). Assume that \(G(\lambda )=[0,1]\) for all \(\lambda \in \Lambda \). Let \(F:X\rightarrow 2^{Y}\) be a setvalued mapping defined as
Let \(\lambda _{0}=0\). Then it is easy to check that all conditions of Theorem 3.3 are satisfied. By a simple computation, we know that \(E_{l}(\lambda )=[0,1]\) for all \(\lambda \in \Lambda \). Clearly, we can see that \(E_{l}(\lambda )\) is l.s.c. at 0.
We show the lower semicontinuity of the weak Eminimal solution mapping for (PSOP) as follows.
Theorem 3.4
Let \(\lambda _{0}\in \Lambda \). Assume that

(i)
G is continuous and compactvalued at \(\lambda _{0}\);

(ii)
F is \(\ll _{E}^{l}\)continuous on \(G(\lambda _{0})\) with nonempty and compact values and \(F(x)+E\) is closed on \(G(\lambda _{0})\);

(iii)
F is lEstrictly quasiconvex on G.
Then \(W_{l}(\lambda )\) is l.s.c. at \(\lambda _{0}\).
Proof
Applying Theorem 3.3, we know that \(E_{l}(\lambda )\) is l.s.c. at \(\lambda _{0}\). By Lemma 2.7, we have \(E_{l}(\lambda _{0})=W_{l}(\lambda _{0})\). For any open set V with \(V\cap W_{l}(\lambda _{0})\neq \emptyset \), so we have that \(V\cap E_{l}(\lambda _{0})\neq \emptyset \). Since \(E_{l}(\lambda )\) is l.s.c. at \(\lambda _{0}\), there exists a neighbourhood U of \(\lambda _{0}\) such that, for all \(\lambda \in U\),
By Remark 2.1, we have \(E_{l}(\lambda )\subseteq W_{l}(\lambda )\), then
Hence, \(W_{l}(\lambda )\) is l.s.c. at \(\lambda _{0}\).â€ƒâ–¡
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This work is partially supported by the Project of Humanity and Social Science Foundation of Ministry of Education (19YJC790035), the Major Project of Humanity and Social Science in Zhejiang universities (2021QN063), the Startup Foundation for Talents of Jiyang College of Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University (RQ2020D07).
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Li, T., Wei, Y. The stability of minimal solution sets for set optimization problems via improvement sets. J Inequal Appl 2023, 75 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13660023029826
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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13660023029826
MSC
 90C
Keywords
 Improvement set
 Set optimization
 Upper semicontinuity
 Lower semicontinuity