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# Forced oscillation of second-order differential equations with mixed nonlinearities

- Yongfang Wang
^{1, 2}, - Tongxing Li
^{1, 2}Email author and - Ethiraju Thandapani
^{3}

**2014**:520

https://doi.org/10.1186/1029-242X-2014-520

© Wang et al.; licensee Springer. 2014

**Received:**12 August 2014**Accepted:**18 November 2014**Published:**12 December 2014

## Abstract

We study oscillatory behavior of a class of second-order forced differential equations with mixed nonlinearities. Some new oscillation theorems are presented that improve and complement those related results given in the literature. An example is provided to illustrate the main results.

**MSC:**34K11.

## Keywords

- oscillation
- forced differential equation
- second-order
- mixed nonlinearities

## 1 Introduction

where $t\ge {t}_{0}>0$, $n\ge 1$ is a natural number, ${\beta}_{i}\ge 1$ ($i=1,2,\dots ,n$) are constants, $r\in {\mathrm{C}}^{1}([{t}_{0},\mathrm{\infty}),\mathbb{R})$, ${q}_{j},{\tau}_{j},e\in \mathrm{C}([{t}_{0},\mathrm{\infty}),\mathbb{R})$, $r(t)>0$, ${r}^{\prime}(t)\ge 0$, ${q}_{j}(t)\ge 0$ ($j=0,1,2,\dots ,n$), $e(t)\le 0$. We also assume that there exists a function $\tau \in {\mathrm{C}}^{1}([{t}_{0},\mathrm{\infty}),\mathbb{R})$ such that $\tau (t)\le {\tau}_{j}(t)$ ($j=0,1,2,\dots ,n$), $\tau (t)\le t$, ${lim}_{t\to \mathrm{\infty}}\tau (t)=\mathrm{\infty}$, and ${\tau}^{\prime}(t)>0$.

We consider only those solutions *x* of equation (1.1) which satisfy condition $sup\{|x(t)|:t\ge T\}>0$ for all $T\ge {t}_{0}$. We assume that (1.1) possesses such solutions. As usual, a solution of (1.1) is called oscillatory if it has arbitrarily large zeros on the interval $[{t}_{0},\mathrm{\infty})$; otherwise, it is termed nonoscillatory. Equation (1.1) is said to be oscillatory if all its solutions are oscillatory.

Functional differential equations arise in many applied problems in natural sciences, technology, and automatic control; see, for instance, Hale [1]. In mechanical and engineering problems, questions related to the existence of oscillatory and nonoscillatory solutions play an important role. As a result, many theoretical studies have been undertaken during the past few years. We refer the reader to [2–12] and the references cited therein.

*et al.*[11] considered the equation

Equation (1.1) was studied by Zhong *et al.* [12] who established the following oscillation theorem.

**Theorem 1.1** (see [[12], Theorem 3.1])

*Assume that*

*and there exists a function*$\rho \in {\mathrm{C}}^{1}([{t}_{0},\mathrm{\infty}),(0,\mathrm{\infty}))$

*such that*

*where*

*and*

*Then equation* (1.1) *is oscillatory*.

The purpose of this paper is to refine Theorem 1.1 in some cases and analyze the oscillatory behavior of solutions to (1.1) in the case when the integral in (1.2) is finite. This paper proceeds as follows: in Section 2, we present our main results; in Section 3, an example is provided to illustrate the results obtained.

## 2 Oscillation criteria

In what follows, all functional inequalities are tacitly assumed to hold eventually, that is, for all *t* large enough. Before stating the main results, we begin with the following lemma.

**Lemma 2.1** (Bernoulli’s inequality)

*For*$y\ge -1$

*and*$\gamma \ge 1$,

**Theorem 2.2**

*Assume that condition*(1.2)

*is satisfied*,

*and let*

*If there exists a function*$\rho \in {\mathrm{C}}^{1}([{t}_{0},\mathrm{\infty}),(0,\mathrm{\infty}))$

*such that*,

*for all constants*$M>0$,

*where* ${\rho}_{+}^{\prime}$ *is defined as in* (1.4), *then equation* (1.1) *is oscillatory*.

*Proof*Assume that (1.1) has a nonoscillatory solution

*x*. Without loss of generality, we can assume that

*x*is an eventually positive solution,

*i.e.*, there exists a ${t}_{1}\ge {t}_{0}$ such that $x(t)>0$ for $t\ge {t}_{1}$. Equation (1.1) yields

*t*, we conclude that

which contradicts (2.2). This completes the proof. □

On the basis of Theorem 2.2, we can obtain the following results due to condition (2.1).

**Corollary 2.3**

*Assume that conditions*(1.2)

*and*(2.1)

*are satisfied*.

*If there exists a function*$\rho \in {\mathrm{C}}^{1}([{t}_{0},\mathrm{\infty}),(0,\mathrm{\infty}))$

*such that*

*where* ${\rho}_{+}^{\prime}$ *is defined as in* (1.4), *then equation* (1.1) *is oscillatory*.

Using $\rho (t)=t$ in Corollary 2.3, we can get the following criterion.

**Corollary 2.4**

*Assume that conditions*(1.2)

*and*(2.1)

*are satisfied*.

*If*

*then equation* (1.1) *is oscillatory*.

**Theorem 2.5**

*Assume that conditions*(2.1)

*and*(2.10)

*are satisfied*,

*and let*${\tau}_{j}(t)\le t$ ($j=0,1,2,\dots ,n$).

*Suppose also that there exists a function*$\rho \in {\mathrm{C}}^{1}([{t}_{0},\mathrm{\infty}),(0,\mathrm{\infty}))$

*such that*(2.2)

*holds*.

*If*

*holds for all constants*$K>0$,

*where*

*then equation* (1.1) *is oscillatory*.

*Proof*Assume that (1.1) has a nonoscillatory solution

*x*. As above, we may assume that there is a ${t}_{1}\ge {t}_{0}$ such that $x(t)>0$ for $t\ge {t}_{1}$. By virtue of (1.1), we have (2.3). Then there exist two possible cases,

*i.e.*, ${x}^{\prime}(t)>0$ or

*ω*by

*t*to

*l*, we deduce that

*i.e.*,

*t*, we obtain

which contradicts (2.11). The proof is complete. □

**Theorem 2.6**

*Assume that conditions*(2.1)

*and*(2.10)

*are satisfied*,

*and let*${\tau}_{j}(t)\ge t$ ($j=0,1,2,\dots ,n$).

*Suppose further that there exists a function*$\rho \in {\mathrm{C}}^{1}([{t}_{0},\mathrm{\infty}),(0,\mathrm{\infty}))$

*such that*(2.2)

*holds*.

*If*,

*for all constants*$K>0$,

*where* *δ* *is as in* (2.12), *then equation* (1.1) *is oscillatory*.

*Proof*Assume again that there exists a ${t}_{1}\ge {t}_{0}$ such that $x(t)>0$ for $t\ge {t}_{1}$. From (1.1), we have (2.3). Then there exist two possible cases,

*i.e.*, ${x}^{\prime}(t)>0$ or (2.13). Suppose that ${x}^{\prime}(t)>0$. Following the same lines as in Theorem 2.2, we can obtain a contradiction to (2.2). Assume now that (2.13) is satisfied. Define the function

*ω*by (2.14). We have $\omega (t)<0$ for $t\ge {t}_{1}$ and (2.15). On the other hand, it has been established in Theorems 2.2 and 2.5 that (2.7) and (2.19) hold. By virtue of (2.19),

The remainder of the proof is similar to that of Theorem 2.5 and hence is omitted. This completes the proof. □

**Remark 2.7** From the proof of Theorems 2.5 and 2.6, one can obtain oscillation results for equation (1.1) with delayed and advanced arguments. The details are left to the reader.

## 3 Example

The following example illustrates possible applications of the theoretical results presented in this paper.

**Example 3.1**For $t\ge 1$, consider a second-order differential equation

Hence, by Corollary 2.4, equation (3.1) is oscillatory for any $\gamma >5$.

*Q*be defined as in Theorem 1.1. Then

Using the latter inequality and $\rho (t)=t$ in (1.3), we observe that Theorem 1.1 cannot ensure oscillation of (3.1) on the interval $(5,5.073]$. Therefore, Corollary 2.4 improves Theorem 1.1.

**Remark 3.2** In this paper, several new oscillation criteria for equation (1.1) are obtained by using the Riccati substitution and Bernoulli’s inequality. Employing inequalities different from those exploited in [12], we improve Theorem 1.1; see Example 3.1. Furthermore, Theorems 2.5 and 2.6 complement those by Zhong *et al.* [12] since our results can be applied to the case where (2.10) holds.

## Declarations

### Acknowledgements

The authors express their sincere gratitude to the editors and anonymous referees for the careful reading of the original manuscript and useful comments that helped to improve the presentation of the results and accentuate important details. This research is supported by the AMEP of Linyi University, P.R. China.

## Authors’ Affiliations

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