- Research
- Open Access
- Published:

# Infinite propagation speed for the two component *b*-family system

*Journal of Inequalities and Applications*
**volume 2013**, Article number: 382 (2013)

## Abstract

In this paper, we propose the infinite propagation speed for the two component *b*-family system. No matter what the profile of the compactly supported initial datum ({u}_{0}(x),{\rho}_{0}(x)) is, for any t>0 in its lifespan, the solution u(x,t) is positive at infinity and negative at negative infinity.

**MSC:**37L05, 35Q58, 26A12.

## 1 Introduction

In this essay, we consider the following model, named two-component *b*-family system

where m=u-{u}_{xx}. As far as we known, it seems that system (1.1) appears initially by Guha in [1]. There are two cases about this system (i) {k}_{1}=b, {k}_{2}=2b and {k}_{3}=1; (ii) {k}_{1}=b+1, {k}_{2}=2 and {k}_{3}=b with b\in \mathbb{R}. In [2], they applied Kato’s theory [3] to establish the local well-posedness for the Cauchy problem of (1.1). It is proved that there exists a unique solution (u,\rho )\in C([0,T);{H}^{s}\times {H}^{s-1}) for any ({u}_{0},{\rho}_{0})\in {H}^{s}\times {H}^{s-1} with s>\frac{3}{2}. The precise blow-up scenarios and some blow-up criteria were also established in [2].

We only consider the case {k}_{3}=1,

Obviously, under the constraint of \rho =0, system (1.2) reduces to the *b*-family equations

which were derived physically by Holm and Staley in [4]. Detailed description of the corresponding strong solutions to (1.3) with {u}_{0}, being its initial data, was given by Zhou in [5]. He established a sufficient condition in profile on the initial data for blow-up in finite time. The necessary and sufficient condition for blow-up is still a challenging problem for us at present. More precisely, Theorem 3.1 in [5] means that no matter what the profile of the compactly supported initial datum {u}_{0}(x) is (no matter whether it is positive or negative), for any t>0 in its lifespan, the solution u(x,t) is positive at infinity and negative at negative infinity, it is really a very nice property for the *b*-family equations. For b=2 and b=3, (1.3) is the famous Camassa-Holm equation [6] and Degasperis-Procesi equation [7], respectively. Many papers [8–14] are devoted to their studies.

Another related system is the two component Camassa-Holm system. Recently, Constantin and Ivanov in [15] gave a demonstration about its derivation in view of the fluid shallow water theory from the hydrodynamic point of view. This generalization, similarly to the Camassa-Holm equation, possessed the peakon, multi-kink solutions and the bi-Hamiltonian structure [16] and is integrable. Well-posedness and wave breaking mechanism were discussed in [17], and the existence of global solutions was analyzed in [18]. The infinite propagation speed was studied by Henry in [19].

In the following section, we will show our main results and give the detailed proof.

## 2 Main results

Motivated by Mckean’s deep observation for the Camassa-Holm equation [11], we can do the similar particle trajectory as

where *T* is the life span of the solution, then *q* is a diffeomorphism of the line. Differentiating the first equation in (2.1) with respect to *x*, one has

Hence

Our first result will show that *m* and *ρ* have compact support if their initial data have this property. *m* and *ρ* are the solutions of system (1.2).

**Theorem 2.1** *Assume that* {m}_{0}={u}_{0}-{u}_{0xx} *has compact support*, *contained in the interval* [{\alpha}_{{m}_{0}},{\beta}_{{m}_{0}}], *and that* {\rho}_{0} *is also compactly supported*, *with support contained in* [{\alpha}_{{\rho}_{0}},{\beta}_{{\rho}_{0}}]. *If* T=T({u}_{0},{\rho}_{0})>0 *is the maximal existence time of the unique classical solutions* (u,\rho ) *to the system* (1.2) *with the given initial data* {u}_{0}(x) *and* {\rho}_{0}(x), *then for any* t\in [0,T), m(x,t) *and* \rho (x,t) *have compact support*.

*Proof* By the particle trajectory defined in (2.1), we find that

and

Therefore,

Since {q}_{x}\ge 0 and {\rho}_{0} is compactly supported, it follows from this relation that \rho (\cdot ,t) is compactly supported for all times t\in [0,T), with support contained in the interval [q({\alpha}_{{\rho}_{0}},t),q({\beta}_{{\rho}_{0}},t)]. Setting

Due to

it follows that m(\cdot ,t) is compactly supported, with its support contained in the interval [q(\alpha ,t),q(\beta ,t)], for all t\in [0,T). □

In order to prove Theorem 2.3, we will use the following result.

**Lemma 2.2** [9]

*Let* u\in {C}^{2}(\mathbb{R})\cap {H}^{2}(\mathbb{R}) *be such that* m=u-{u}_{xx} *has compact support*. *Then* *u* *has compact support if and only if*

**Theorem 2.3** *Let* {k}_{1}\in [0,3], {k}_{2}\ge 0, *assume that the function* {u}_{0} *has compact support*. *Let* T\ge 0 *be the maximal existence time of the unique solution* u(x,t) *with initial data* {u}_{0}(x). *If at every* t\in [0,T), u(x,t) *has compact support*, *then u and* *ρ* *are identically zero*.

*Proof* Using (1) and differentiating the left hand side of (2.2) with respect to *t* we get

where all boundary terms after integration by parts vanish as both m(\cdot ,t) and, by assumption, u(\cdot ,t) have compact support for all t\in [0,T).

The expression under the integral on the right hand side of this relation must be identically zero by (2.2). This implies that all of the terms in the bracket must be identically zero, and in particular u=\rho =0. This completes the proof. □

The theorem above means that if u\ne 0 is a function with compact support, then the classical solution u(x,t) of system (1.2) must instantly lose the compactness of its support. The following theorem will give a detailed description about the profile of the solution u(x,t).

**Theorem 2.4** *Let* 0\le {k}_{1}\le 3 *and* {k}_{2}\ge 0, *u* *is a nontrivial solution of* (1.2). *If* {u}_{0}(x)=u(x,0) *has compact support* [{\alpha}_{{u}_{0}},{\beta}_{{u}_{0}}], *and* {\rho}_{0} *is also initially compactly supported*, *on the interval* [{\alpha}_{{\rho}_{0}},{\beta}_{{\rho}_{0}}], *then for* t\in (0,T], *we have*

*where* {f}_{-}(t) *and* {f}_{+}(t) *denote continuous nonvanishing functions with* {f}_{-}(t)<0 *and* {f}_{+}(t)>0 *for* t\in (0,T]. *Furthermore*, {f}_{-}(t) *is a strictly decreasing function*, *while* {f}_{+}(t) *is increasing function*.

*Proof* Since {u}_{0} and {\rho}_{0} are compactly supported. By Theorem 2.1, *m* is compactly supported with its support contained in the interval [q(\alpha ,t),q(\beta ,t)]. Hence the following functions are well-defined:

with

Then for x>q(\beta ,t), we have

Similarly, when x<q(\alpha ,t), we get

Hence, as consequences of (2.3) and (2.4), we have

and

On the other hand,

It is easy to get

Substituting the identity (2.7) into dE(t)/dt, we obtain

where we use (2.5) and (2.6).

Therefore, in the lifespan of the solution, we have

By the same argument, one can check that the following identity for F(t) is true

In order to complete the proof, it is sufficient to let {f}_{-}(t)=\frac{1}{2}E(t) and {f}_{+}(t)=\frac{1}{2}F(t). □

**Remark 2.1** Theorem 2.3 means that no matter what the profile of the compactly supported initial datum {u}_{0}(x) is (no matter whether it is positive or negative), for any t>0 in its lifespan, the solution u(x,t) is negative at infinity and positive at negative infinity.

## References

Guha P: Euler-Poincaré formalism of (two component) Degasperis-Procesi and Holm-Staley type systems.

*J. Nonlinear Math. Phys.*2007, 14: 398–429. 10.2991/jnmp.2007.14.3.8Liu J, Yin Z: On the Cauchy problem of a two-component

*b*-family equation.*Nonlinear Anal., Real World Appl.*2011, 12: 3608–3620. 10.1016/j.nonrwa.2011.06.019Kato T: Quasi-linear equations of evolution, with applications to partial differential equations. Lecture Notes in Math. 448. In

*Spectral Theory and Differential Equations*. Springer, Berlin; 1975:25–70.Holm D, Staley M:Nonlinear balance and exchange of stability of dynamics of solitons, peakons, ramps/cliffs and leftons in a 1+1 nonlinear evolutionary PDE.

*Phys. Lett. A*2003, 308: 437–444. 10.1016/S0375-9601(03)00114-2Zhou Y: On solutions to the Holm-Staley

*b*-family of equations.*Nonlinearity*2010, 23: 369–381. 10.1088/0951-7715/23/2/008Camassa R, Holm D: An integrable shallow water equation with peaked solitons.

*Phys. Rev. Lett.*1993, 71: 1661–1664. 10.1103/PhysRevLett.71.1661Degasperis A, Procesi M: Asymptotic integrability. In

*Symmetry and Perturbation Theory*. Edited by: Degasperis A, Gaeta G. World Scientific, Singapore; 1999:23–37.Constantin A, Escher J: Well-posedness, global existence and blow-up phenomena for a periodic quasilinear hyperbolic equation.

*Commun. Pure Appl. Math.*1998, 51: 475–504. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0312(199805)51:5<475::AID-CPA2>3.0.CO;2-5Himonas A, Misiolek G, Ponce G, Zhou Y: Persistence properties and unique continuation of solutions of the Camassa-Holm equation.

*Commun. Math. Phys.*2007, 271: 511–522. 10.1007/s00220-006-0172-4Jiang Z, Ni L, Zhou Y: Wave breaking of the Camassa-Holm equation.

*J. Nonlinear Sci.*2012, 22: 235–245. 10.1007/s00332-011-9115-0Mckean HP: Breakdown of a shallow water equation.

*Asian J. Math.*1998, 2: 767–774.Zhou Y: Wave breaking for a shallow water equation.

*Nonlinear Anal.*2004, 57: 137–152. 10.1016/j.na.2004.02.004Zhou Y: Blow up phenomena for the integrable Degasperis-Procesi equation.

*Phys. Lett. A*2004, 328: 157–162. 10.1016/j.physleta.2004.06.027Zhou Y, Chen H:Wave breaking and propagation speed for the Camassa-Holm equation with \kappa \ne 0.

*Nonlinear Anal., Real World Appl.*2011, 12: 1875–1882. 10.1016/j.nonrwa.2010.12.005Constantin A, Ivanov R: On an integrable two-component Camassa-Holm shallow water system.

*Phys. Lett. A*2008, 372: 7129–7132. 10.1016/j.physleta.2008.10.050Chen M, Liu S, Zhang Y: A two-component generalization of the Camassa-Holm equation and its solutions.

*Lett. Math. Phys.*2006, 75: 1–15. 10.1007/s11005-005-0041-7Guo Z, Zhou Y: On solutions to a two-component generalized Camassa-Holm equation.

*Stud. Appl. Math.*2010, 124: 307–322. 10.1111/j.1467-9590.2009.00472.xGuo Z: Blow-up and global solutions to a new integrable model with two components.

*J. Math. Anal. Appl.*2010, 372: 316–327. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2010.06.046Henry D: Infinite propagation speed for a two-component Camassa-Holm equation.

*Discrete Contin. Dyn. Syst., Ser. B*2009, 12: 597–606.

## Acknowledgements

This work is partially supported by ZJNSF (Grant No. LQ13A010008) and NSFC (Grant No. 11226176). Thanks are also given to the anonymous referees for careful reading and suggestions.

## Author information

### Authors and Affiliations

### Corresponding author

## Additional information

### Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

### Authors’ contributions

ZW proposed the problems and finished the whole manuscript. YJ proved Theorems 2.1 and 2.3. LJ proved Theorem 2.4. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

## Rights and permissions

**Open Access** This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

## About this article

### Cite this article

Wei, Z., Jin, Y. & Jin, L. Infinite propagation speed for the two component *b*-family system.
*J Inequal Appl* **2013, **382 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1186/1029-242X-2013-382

Received:

Accepted:

Published:

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1029-242X-2013-382

### Keywords

- two component
*b*-family system - infinite propagation speed