 Research
 Open Access
 Published:
Generalizations of Hölder inequalities for Csiszar’s fdivergence
Journal of Inequalities and Applications volume 2013, Article number: 151 (2013)
Abstract
In this paper, we establish some new generalizations of the Hölder’s inequality involving Csiszar’s fdivergence of two probability measures. Some related inequalities are also presented.
MSC:26D15, 28A25, 60E15.
1 Introduction
Let 1/p+1/q=1, assume that f(x) and g(x) are continuous realvalued functions on [a,b]. Then

(1)
for p>1, we have the following Hölder inequality (see [1]):
{\int}_{a}^{b}f(x)g(x)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}dx\le {({\int}_{a}^{b}{f}^{p}(x)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}dx)}^{1/p}{({\int}_{a}^{b}{g}^{q}(x)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}dx)}^{1/q};(1.1) 
(2)
for 0<p<1, we have the following reverse Hölder inequality (see [2]):
{\int}_{a}^{b}f(x)g(x)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}dx\ge {({\int}_{a}^{b}{f}^{p}(x)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}dx)}^{1/p}{({\int}_{a}^{b}{g}^{q}(x)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}dx)}^{1/q}.(1.2)
The above inequalities play an important role in many areas of pure and applied mathematics. A large number of generalizations, refinements, variations and applications of (1.1) and (1.2) have been investigated in the literature (see [3–11] and references therein). Recently, G.A. Anastassiou [12] established some Hölder’s type inequalities regarding Csiszar’s fdivergence of two probability measures as follows.
Theorem 1.1 (see [12])
Let p,q>1 such that 1/p+1/q=1. Then
Theorem 1.2 (see [12])
Let {a}_{1},{a}_{2},\dots ,{a}_{m}>1, m\in \mathrm{N}, {\sum}_{j=1}^{m}\frac{1}{{a}_{j}}=1. Then
which is a generalization of Theorem 1.1.
It follows the counterpart of Theorem 1.1.
Theorem 1.3 (see [12])
Let 0<p<1 and q<0 such that 1/p+1/q=1, we assume that {p}_{2}>0 a.e. [\lambda ]. Then we have
The aim of this paper is to give new generalizations of inequalities (1.4) and (1.5). Some related inequalities are also considered. The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we recall some basic facts about the Csiszar’s fdivergence of two probability measures. In Section 3, we will give the main result and its proof.
2 Preliminaries
Assume that f:(0,+\mathrm{\infty})\to \mathrm{R} is an arbitrary convex function which is strictly convex at 1. As in Csiszar [12, 13], we agree with the following expressions:
Suppose that (X,A,\lambda ) is an arbitrary measure space with λ being a finite or σfinite measure. Let {\mu}_{1}, {\mu}_{2} be probability measures on X such that {\mu}_{1},{\mu}_{2}\ll \lambda (absolutely continuous).
The RadonNikodym derivatives (densities) of {\mu}_{i} with respect to λ is expressed by {p}_{i}(x):
Definition 2.1 (see [13])
The fdivergence of the probability measures {\mu}_{1} and {\mu}_{2} is defined as follows:
where the function f is named the base function. From Lemma 1.1 of [13], {\mathrm{\Gamma}}_{f}({\mu}_{1},{\mu}_{2}) is always welldefined and {\mathrm{\Gamma}}_{f}({\mu}_{1},{\mu}_{2})\ge f(1) with equality only for {\mu}_{1}={\mu}_{2}. From [13], we know that {\mathrm{\Gamma}}_{f}({\mu}_{1},{\mu}_{2}) does not depend on the choice of λ. If f(1)=0, then {\mathrm{\Gamma}}_{f} can be considered as the most general measure of difference between probability measures. For arbitrary convex function f, we notice that {\mathrm{\Gamma}}_{f}({\mu}_{1},{\mu}_{2})\le {\mathrm{\Gamma}}_{f}({\mu}_{1},{\mu}_{2}).
The Csiszar’s fdivergence {\mathrm{\Gamma}}_{f} incorporated most of special cases of probability measure distances, including the variation distance, {\chi}^{2}divergence, information for discrimination or generalized entropy, information gain, mutual information, mean square contingency, etc. {\mathrm{\Gamma}}_{f} has many applications to almost all applied sciences where stochastics enters. For more references, one can see [12–22].
In this paper, we assume that the base function f appearing in the function {\mathrm{\Gamma}}_{f} have all the above properties of f.
3 Main results
In the section, we establish some new generalizations of the Hölder inequality involving Csiszar’s fdivergence of two probability measures.
Theorem 3.1 Let 0<{a}_{m}<1, {a}_{j}<0 (j=1,2,\dots ,m1), m\in \mathrm{N}, {\sum}_{j=1}^{m}\frac{1}{{a}_{j}}=1. Then
Proof Here, we use the generalized Hölder’s inequality (see [23]). We obtain
Hence, we get the desired inequality. □
Theorem 3.2 Let {\alpha}_{kj}\in \mathrm{R} (j=1,2,\dots ,m, k=1,2,\dots ,s), {\sum}_{k}^{s}\frac{1}{{a}_{k}}=1, {\sum}_{k=1}^{s}{\alpha}_{kj}=0. Then

(1)
for {a}_{k}>1, we have the following inequality:
(3.3) 
(2)
for 0<{a}_{s}<1, {a}_{k}<0 (k=1,2,\dots ,s1), we have the following reverse inequality:
(3.4)
Proof

(1)
Set
{g}_{k}(x)={(\prod _{j=1}^{m}{f}_{j}^{1+{a}_{k}{\alpha}_{kj}}(x))}^{1/{a}_{k}}.(3.5)
Applying the assumptions {\sum}_{k}^{s}\frac{1}{{a}_{k}}=1 and {\sum}_{k=1}^{s}{\alpha}_{kj}=0, we have
That is,
Then we find
By the inequality (1.4), we obtain
In view of (3.5), we have
By (3.6), (3.7) and (3.8), we obtain inequality (3.3).

(2)
Similar to the proof of inequality (3.3), by (3.5), (3.6), (3.8) and the inequality (3.1), we have inequality (3.4) immediately. □
Corrollary 3.1 Under the assumptions of Theorem 3.2, taking s=m, {\alpha}_{kj}=t/{a}_{k} for j\ne k and {\alpha}_{kk}=t(11/{a}_{k}) with , then we have

(1)
for {\alpha}_{k}>0, we have the following inequality:
(3.9) 
(2)
for 0<{\alpha}_{m}<1, {\alpha}_{k}<0 (k=1,2,\dots ,m1), we have the following reverse inequality:
(3.10)
Theorem 3.3 Let (j=1,2,\dots ,m, k=1,2,\dots ,s), {\sum}_{k}^{s}\frac{1}{{\alpha}_{k}}=r, {\sum}_{k=1}^{s}{\alpha}_{kj}=0. Then

(1)
for r{\alpha}_{k}>1, we have the following inequality:
(3.11) 
(2)
for 0<r{\alpha}_{s}<1, r{\alpha}_{k}<0 (k=1,2,\dots ,s1), we have the following reverse inequality:
(3.12)
Proof (1) Since r{\alpha}_{k}>1 and {\sum}_{k}^{s}\frac{1}{{\alpha}_{k}}=r, we get {\sum}_{k}^{s}\frac{1}{r{\alpha}_{k}}=1. Then by (3.3), we immediately obtain the inequality (3.11).

(2)
Since 0<r{\alpha}_{s}<1, r{\alpha}_{k}<0 and {\sum}_{k}^{s}\frac{1}{{\alpha}_{k}}=r, we have {\sum}_{k}^{s}\frac{1}{r{\alpha}_{k}}=1, by (3.4), we immediately have the inequality (3.12). This completes the proof. □
Theorem 3.4 Under the assumptions of Theorem 3.3, and let s=2, {\alpha}_{1}=p, {\alpha}_{2}=q, {\alpha}_{1j}={\alpha}_{2j}={\beta}_{j}, then

(1)
for rp>0, we have the following inequality:
(3.13) 
(2)
for 0<rp<1, we have the following reverse inequality:
(3.14)
Proof (1) By inequality (1.3), we get

(2)
Similar to the proof of inequality (3.13), by inequality (1.5), we obtain inequality (3.14). □
Remark Assume that X is a finite or countable discrete set, A is its power set P(X) and λ has mass 1 for each x\in X, then {\mathrm{\Gamma}}_{f} becomes a finite or infinite sum, respectively. As a consequence, all the above obtained integral inequalities are discretized and become summation inequalities.
References
Mitrinović DS: Analytic Inequalities. Springer, New York; 1970.
Kuang J: Applied Inequalities. Shandong Science Press, Jinan; 2003.
Hardy G, Littlewood JE, Pólya G: Inequalities. 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; 1952.
Yang X: A generalization of Hölder inequality. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 2000, 247: 328–330.
Yang X: Refinement of Hölder inequality and application to Ostrowski inequality. Appl. Math. Comput. 2003, 138: 455–461.
Yang X: A note on Hölder inequality. Appl. Math. Comput. 2003, 134: 319–322.
Yang X: Hölder’s inequality. Appl. Math. Lett. 2003, 16: 897–903.
Wu S, Debnath L: Generalizations of Aczél’s inequality and Popoviciu’s inequality. Indian J. Pure Appl. Math. 2005, 36(2):49–62.
He WS: Generalization of a sharp Hölder’s inequality and its application. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 2007, 332: 741–750.
Wu S: A new sharpened and generalized version of Hölder’s inequality and its applications. Appl. Math. Comput. 2008, 197: 708–714.
Kwon EG, Bae EK: On a continuous form of Hölder inequality. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 2008, 343: 585–592.
Anastassiou GA: Hölderlike Csiszar’s type inequalities. Int. J. Pure Appl. Math. 2004, 1: 9–14. www.gbspublisher.com
Csiszar I: Informationtype measures of difference of probability distributions and indirect observations. Studia Sci. Math. Hung. 1967, 2: 299–318.
Anastassiou GA, et al.: Basic optimal approximation of Csiszar’s f divergence. In Proceedings of 11th Internat. Conf. Approx. Th Edited by: Chui CK. 2004, 15–23.
Anastassiou GA: Fractional and other approximation of Csiszar’s f divergence. Rend. Circ. Mat. Palermo Suppl. 2005, 76: 197–212.
Anastassiou GA: Representations and estimates to Csiszar’s f divergence. Panam. Math. J. 2006, 16: 83–106.
Anastassiou GA: Higher order optimal approximation of Csiszar’s f divergence. Nonlinear Anal. 2005, 61: 309–339.
Csiszar I: Eine Informationstheoretische Ungleichung und ihre Anwendung auf den Beweis der Ergodizität von Markoffschen Ketten. Magy. Tud. Akad. Mat. Kut. Intéz. Közl. 1963, 8: 85–108.
Csiszar I: On topological properties of f divergences. Studia Sci. Math. Hung. 1967, 2: 329–339.
Dragomir SS: Inequalities for Csiszar fDivergence in Information Theory. Victoria University, Melbourne; 2000. Edited monograph. On line: http://rgmia.vu.edu.au
Anwar M, Hussain S, Pečarić J: Some inequalities for Csiszárdivergence measures. Int. J. Math. Anal. 2009, 3(26):1295–1304.
Kafka P, Österreicher F, Vincze I: On powers of f divergences defining a distance. Studia Sci. Math. Hung. 1991, 26(4):415–422.
Cheung WS: Genegralizations of Hölder’s inequality. Int. J. Math. Math. Sci. 2001, 26(1):7–10.
Acknowledgements
Dedicated to Professor Hari M Srivastava.
The authors thank the editor and the referees for their valuable suggestions to improve the quality of this paper.
Author information
Authors and Affiliations
Corresponding author
Additional information
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Authors’ contributions
All the authors contributed to the writing of the present article. They also read and approved the final manuscript.
Rights and permissions
Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
About this article
Cite this article
Chen, GS., Shi, XJ. Generalizations of Hölder inequalities for Csiszar’s fdivergence. J Inequal Appl 2013, 151 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1186/1029242X2013151
Received:
Accepted:
Published:
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1029242X2013151
Keywords
 Csiszar’s discrimination and divergence
 Hölder inequality
 generalization
 probabilistic inequality