- Open Access
Some inequalities on generalized entropies
© Furuichi et al.; licensee Springer 2012
- Received: 18 February 2012
- Accepted: 25 September 2012
- Published: 9 October 2012
We give several inequalities on generalized entropies involving Tsallis entropies, using some inequalities obtained by the improvements of Young’s inequality. We also give a generalized Han’s inequality.
- refined Young’s inequality
- Tsallis entropy
- quasilinear entropy
- Han’s inequality
Generalized entropies have been studied by many researchers (we refer the interested reader to [1, 2]). Rényi  and Tsallis  entropies are well known as one-parameter generalizations of Shannon’s entropy, being intensively studied not only in the field of classical statistical physics [5–7], but also in the field of quantum physics in relation to the entanglement [8–11]. The Tsallis entropy is a natural one-parameter extended form of the Shannon entropy, hence it can be applied to known models which describe systems of great interest in atomic physics . However, to our best knowledge, the physical relevance of a parameter of the Tsallis entropy was highly debated and it has not been completely clarified yet, the parameter being considered as a measure of the non-extensivity of the system under consideration. One of the authors of the present paper studied the Tsallis entropy and the Tsallis relative entropy from the mathematical point of view. Firstly, fundamental properties of the Tsallis relative entropy were discussed in . The uniqueness theorem for the Tsallis entropy and Tsallis relative entropy was studied in . Following this result, an axiomatic characterization of a two-parameter extended relative entropy was given in . In , information theoretical properties of the Tsallis entropy and some inequalities for conditional and joint Tsallis entropies were derived. These entropies are again used in the present paper, to derive the generalized Han’s inequality. In , matrix trace inequalities for the Tsallis entropy were studied. And in , the maximum entropy principle for the Tsallis entropy and the minimization of the Fisher information in Tsallis statistics were studied. Quite recently, we provided mathematical inequalities for some divergences in , considering that it is important to study the mathematical inequalities for the development of new entropies. In this paper, we define a further generalized entropy based on Tsallis and Rényi entropies and study mathematical properties by the use of scalar inequalities to develop the theory of entropies.
where , , for and . If we take , then coincides with the weighted arithmetic mean . If we also take , then coincides with the weighted geometric mean .
From a viewpoint of application on source coding, the relation between the weighted quasilinear mean and the Rényi entropy has been studied in Chapter 5 of  in the following way.
Theorem A ()
where the exponential function is defined on .
Motivated by the above results and recent advances on the Tsallis entropy theory, we investigate the mathematical results for generalized entropies involving Tsallis entropies and quasilinear entropies, using some inequalities obtained by improvements of Young’s inequality.
On the other hand, the studies on refinements for Young’s inequality have given a great progress in the papers [24–35]. In the present paper, we give some inequalities on Tsallis entropies applying two types of inequalities obtained in [29, 32]. In addition, we give the generalized Han’s inequality for the Tsallis entropy in the final section.
As an analogy with (5), we may define the following entropy.
where is a probability distribution with for all .
We notice that if ψ does not depend on q, then .
Proof We assume that ψ is an increasing function. Then we have from for for all . Thus, we have which implies , since is also increasing. For the case that ψ is a decreasing function, we can prove it similarly. □
From (16), we have the following proposition.
holds, which proves the present proposition. □
We give a sufficient condition on nonnegativity of the Tsallis quasilinear relative entropy.
Proof We firstly assume that ψ is a concave increasing function. The concavity of ψ shows that we have which is equivalent to . From the assumption, is also increasing so that we have . Therefore, we have , since is increasing and . For the case that ψ is a convex decreasing function, we can prove similarly nonnegativity of the Tsallis quasilinear relative entropy. □
for , .
for , .
We also find that (24) implies the monotonicity of the Rényi relative entropy.
which proves the statement. □
In this section, we give inequalities for the Tsallis quasilinear entropy and f-divergence. For this purpose, we review the results obtained in  as one of generalizations of refined Young’s inequality.
Proposition 3.1 ()
for any and any .
We have the following inequalities on the Tsallis quasilinear entropy and Tsallis entropy.
(which coincides with Theorem 3.3 in ). In the inequalities (29), we put and for any , then we obtain the statement. □
Proof Put in Theorem 3.2. □
Remark 3.4 Corollary 3.3 improves the well-known inequalities . If we take the limit , the inequalities (30) recover Proposition 1 in .
We also have the following inequalities.
we have the statement. □
Corollary 3.6 ()
We firstly give Lagrange’s identity , to establish an alternative generalization of refined Young’s inequality.
Lemma 4.1 (Lagrange’s identity)
where with and for all .
In the above calculations, we used Lemma 4.1. Thus, we proved the first part of the inequalities. Similarly, one can prove the second part of the inequalities putting the function defined by . We omit the details. □
This concludes the proof. □
where for all and , and .
We also have the following inequalities for the Tsallis entropy.
where and are positive numbers depending on the parameter and satisfying and for all .
From the inequalities (39) and (40), we have the statement. □
Remark 4.7 The first part of the inequalities (40) gives another improvement of the well-known inequalities .
where and are positive numbers satisfying and for all .
Proof Take the limit in Theorem 4.6. □
Using the inequality (42), we derive the following result.
Proof In the inequality (42), we put and which satisfy . Then we have the present proposition. □
In order to state our result, we give the definitions of the Tsallis conditional entropy and the Tsallis joint entropy.
We summarize briefly the following chain rules representing relations between the Tsallis conditional entropy and the Tsallis joint entropy.
Proposition 5.2 implied the following propositions.
Proposition 5.3 ()
Consequently, we have the following self-bounding property of the Tsallis joint entropy.
Theorem 5.5 (Generalized Han’s inequality)
due to Proposition 5.3. Therefore, we have the present proposition. □
We gave an improvement of Young’s inequalities for scalar numbers. Using this result, we gave several inequalities on generalized entropies involving Tsallis entropies. We also provided a generalized Han’s inequality, based on the conditional Tsallis entropy and the joint Tsallis entropy.
We would like to thank the anonymous reviewer for providing valuable comments to improve the manuscript. The author SF was supported in part by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Grant-in-Aid for Encouragement of Young Scientists (B), 20740067. The author NM was supported in part by the Romanian Ministry of Education, Research and Innovation through the PNII Idei project 842/2008. The author FCM was supported by CNCSIS Grant 420/2008.
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