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Strong convergence theorems for equilibrium problems and fixed point problem of multivalued nonexpansive mappings via hybrid projection method

Abstract

In this paper, a new iterative process by the hybrid projection method is constructed. Strong convergence of the iterative process to a common element of the set of common fixed points of a finite family of generalized nonexpansive multivalued mappings and the solution set of two equilibrium problems in a Hilbert space is proved. Our results extend some important recent results.

MSC:47H10, 47H09.

1 Introduction

Let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of a Hilbert space H. A subset CH is called proximal if for each xH there exists an element yC such that

xy=dist(x,C)=inf { x z : z C } .

We denote by CB(C) and P(C) the collection of all nonempty closed bounded subsets and nonempty proximal bounded subsets of C, respectively. The Hausdorff metric H on CB(H) is defined by

H(A,B):=max { sup x A dist ( x , B ) , sup y B dist ( y , A ) } ,

for all A,BCB(H).

Let T:H 2 H be a multivalued mapping. An element xH is said to be a fixed point of T, if xTx. The set of fixed points of T will be denoted by F(T).

Definition 1.1 A multivalued mapping T:HCB(H) is called

  1. (i)

    nonexpansive if

    H(Tx,Ty)xy,x,yH.
  2. (ii)

    quasi-nonexpansive if F(T) and H(Tx,Tp)xp for all xH and all pF(T).

Recently, J. Garcia-Falset, E. Llorens-Fuster and T. Suzuki [1] introduced a new condition on singlevalued mappings, called condition (E), which is weaker than nonexpansiveness.

Definition 1.2 A mapping T:HH is said to satisfy the condition ( E μ ) provided that

xTyμxTx+xy,x,yH.

We say that T satisfies the condition (E) whenever T satisfies ( E μ ) for some μ1.

Now we modify this condition for multivalued mappings as follows (see also [2]):

Definition 1.3 A multivalued mapping T:HCB(H) is said to satisfy the condition (P) provided that

H(Tx,Ty)μdist(x,Tx)+ηxy,x,yH,

for some μ,η1.

It is obvious that every nonexpansive multivalued mapping satisfies the condition (P). The theory of multivalued mappings has applications in control theory, convex optimization, differential equations and economics. Theory of nonexpansive multivalued mappings is harder than the corresponding theory of nonexpansive single valued mappings. Different iterative processes have been used to approximate fixed points of multivalued nonexpansive mappings (see [38]). Let Φ be a bifunction from C×C into R, where R is the set of real numbers. The equilibrium problem for Φ:C×CR is to find xC such that

Φ(x,y)0,yC.

The set of solutions is denoted by EP(Φ). It is well known that this problem is closely related to minimax inequalities (see [9] and [10]). The equilibrium problem includes fixed point problems, optimization problems and variational inequality problems as special cases. Some methods have been proposed to solve the equilibrium problem, see, for example, [1114].

Recently, many authors have studied the problems of finding a common element of the set of fixed points of nonexpansive single valued mappings and the set of solutions of an equilibrium problem in the framework of Hilbert spaces: see, for instance, [1529] and the references therein. In this paper, a new iterative process by the hybrid projection method is constructed. Strong convergence of the iterative process to a common element of a set of common fixed points of a finite family of multivalued mappings satisfying the condition (P) and the solution set of two equilibrium problems in a Hilbert space is proved. Our results generalize some results of Tada, Takahashi [15] and many others.

2 Preliminaries

Let us recall the following definitions and results which will be used in the sequel.

Lemma 2.1 ([6])

Let H be a real Hilbert space. Then fori,j=1,2,,kwe have

a 1 x 1 + a 2 x 2 + + a k x k 2 a 1 x 1 2 + a 2 x 2 2 ++ a k x k 2 a i a j x i x j 2

for all x i , x j Hand a i , a j [0,1]with i = 1 k a i =1.

Let C be a closed convex subset of H. For every point xH, there exists a unique nearest point in C, denoted by P C x such that

x P C xxy,yC.

P C is called the metric projection of H onto C. It is well known that P C is a nonexpansive mapping.

Lemma 2.2 ([16])

Let C be a closed convex subset of H. GivenxHand a pointzC. Thenz= P C xif and only if

xz,zy0,yC.

Lemma 2.3 ([30])

Let C be a closed convex subset of H. Then for allxHandyCwe have

y P C x 2 + x P C x 2 x y 2 .

For solving the equilibrium problem, we assume that the bifunction Φ satisfies the following conditions:

(A1) Φ(x,x)=0 for any xC,

(A2) Φ is monotone, i.e., Φ(x,y)+Φ(y,x)0 for any x,yC,

(A3) Φ is upper-hemicontinuous, i.e., for each x,y,zC,

lim sup t 0 + Φ ( t z + ( 1 t ) x , y ) Φ(x,y),

(A4) Φ(x,) is convex and lower semicontinuous for each xC.

The following lemma was proved in [11].

Lemma 2.4 Let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of H and let Φ be a bifunction ofC×CintoRsatisfying (A 1)-(A 4). Letr>0andxH. Then, there existszCsuch that

Φ(z,y)+ 1 r yz,zx0yC.

The following lemma was given in [14].

Lemma 2.5 Assume thatΦ:C×CRsatisfies (A 1)-(A 4). Forr>0andxH, define a mapping T r :HCas follows:

T r x= { z C : Φ ( z , y ) + 1 r y z , z x 0 , y C } .

Then, the following hold:

  1. (i)

    T r is single valued;

  2. (ii)

    T r is firmly nonexpansive, i.e., for any x,yH,

    T r x T r y 2 T r x T r y,xy;
  3. (iii)

    F( T r )=EP(Φ);

  4. (iv)

    EP(Φ) is closed and convex.

The following lemma was proved in [31] for nonexpansive multivalued mappings. The statement is true for quasi-nonexpansive multivalued mappings as well. To avoid repetition, we omit the details of the proof.

Lemma 2.6 Let C be a closed convex subset of a real Hilbert space H. LetT:CCB(C)be a quasi-nonexpansive multivalued mapping such thatT(p)={p}for allpF(T). ThenF(T)is closed and convex.

Now, following Shahzad and Zegeye [3], we remove the restriction T(p)={p} for all pF(T). Let T:CP(C) be a multivalued mapping and

P T (x)= { y T x : x y = dist ( x , T x ) } .

We use a similar argument as in the proof of Lemma 3.1 in [31] to obtain the following lemma.

Lemma 2.7 Let C be a closed convex subset of a real Hilbert space H. LetT:CP(C)be a multivalued mapping such that P T is quasi-nonexpansive. ThenF(T)is closed and convex.

Note that for all pF(T), P T (p)={p}. We remark that there exist some examples of multivalued mappings for which P T is nonexpansive (see [3] for details), so that the assumption on T is not artificial.

3 The main result

Theorem 3.1 Let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of a real Hilbert space H, Φ 1 and Φ 2 be two bifunctions ofC×CintoRsatisfying (A 1)-(A 4). Let T i :CCB(C), (i=1,2,,m), be a finite family of quasi-nonexpansive multivalued mappings, each satisfying the condition (P). Assume further thatF= i = 1 m F( T i )EP( Φ 1 )EP( Φ 2 )and T i (p)={p}, (i=1,2,,m), for eachpF. For C 0 =C, let{ x n }and{ u n }be sequences generated by the following algorithm:

{ x 0 C , u n C such that Φ 1 ( u n , y ) + 1 r n y u n , u n x n 0 ; y C , u n C such that Φ 2 ( u n , y ) + 1 s n y u n , u n x n 0 ; y C , v n = δ n u n + ( 1 δ n ) u n , w n = a n , 0 v n + a n , 1 z n , 1 + + a n , m z n , m , y n = b n , 0 v n + b n , 1 z n , 1 + + b n , m z n , m , C n + 1 = { v C n : y n v x n v } , x n + 1 = P C n + 1 x 0 : n 0 ,

where z n , i T i v n , z n , i T i w n fori=1,2,,m. Assume that{ a n , j }, { b n , j }, { δ n }and{ r n }, { s n }satisfy the following conditions:

  1. (i)

    { a n , j },{ b n , j },{ δ n }[a,b](0,1) (j=0,1,2,,m),

  2. (ii)

    { r n },{ s n }(0,), and lim inf n r n >0 and lim inf n s n >0.

Then, the sequences{ x n }and{ v n }converge strongly to P F x 0 .

Proof First, we show that F C n for all n0. Fix qF. We set

T r Φ 1 (x)= { z C : Φ 1 ( z , y ) + 1 r y z , z x 0 y C } .

Hence we have u n = T r n Φ 1 x n and u n = T s n Φ 2 x n . By Lemma 2.5, we have

u n q= T r n Φ 1 x n T r n Φ 1 q x n q

and

u n q = T s n Φ 2 x n T s n Φ 2 q x n q,

which implies that

v n q δ n u n q+(1 δ n ) u n q x n q.

Since T i is quasi-nonexpansive, for i=1,2,,m, we have

w n q = a n , 0 v n + a n , 1 z n , 1 + + a n , m z n , m q a n , 0 v n q + a n , 1 z n , 1 q + + a n , m z n , m q a n , 0 x n q + a n , 1 dist ( z n , 1 , T 1 q ) + + a n , m dist ( z n , m , T m q ) a n , 0 x n q + a n , 1 H ( T 1 v n , T 1 q ) + + a n , m H ( T m v n , T m q ) a n , 0 x n q + a n , 1 v n q + + a n , m v n q a n , 0 x n q + a n , 1 x n q + + a n , m x n q x n q ,

and also

y n q = b n , 0 v n + b n , 1 z n , 1 + + b n , m z n , m q b n , 0 v n q + b n , 1 z n , 1 q + + b n , m z n , m q b n , 0 x n q + b n , 1 dist ( z n , 1 , T 1 q ) + + b n , m dist ( z n , m , T m q ) b n , 0 x n q + b n , 1 H ( T 1 w n , T 1 q ) + + b n , m H ( T m w n , T m q ) b n , 0 x n q + b n , 1 w n q + + b n , m w n q b n , 0 x n q + b n , 1 x n q + + b n , m x n q x n q .

Therefore q C n , which implies that

F= i = 1 m F( T i )EP( Φ 1 )EP( Φ 2 ) C n ,for all n0.

We observe that C n is closed and convex (see [32]). Now we show that lim n x n x 0 exists. By Lemma 2.6 we have F is closed and convex. Put w= P F x 0 . From x n = P C n x 0 and x n + 1 C n + 1 C n we have

x n x 0 x n + 1 x 0 .

Also from wF C n and x n = P C n x 0 for all n0, we get that

x n x 0 w x 0 .

It follows that the sequence { x n } is bounded and nondecreasing. Hence the limit lim n x n x 0 exists. We show that lim n x n =uC. For k>n we have x k = P C k x 0 C k C n . Now by applying Lemma 2.3 we have

x k x n 2 x k x 0 2 x n x 0 2 .

Since lim n x n x 0 exists, it follows that { x n } is a Cauchy sequence, and hence there exists uC such that lim n x n =u. Putting k=n+1, in the above inequality we have

lim n x n + 1 x n =0.

From x n + 1 C n + 1 , we have

y n x n + 1 x n x n + 1 ,

so that lim n y n x n + 1 =0. This implies that lim n y n =u. Take qF. By Lemma 2.1, for each 1im, we have

w n q 2 = a n , 0 v n + a n , 1 z n , 1 + + a n , m z n , m q 2 a n , 0 v n q 2 + a n , 1 z n , 1 q 2 + + a n , m z n , m q 2 a n , i a n , o v n z n , i 2 a n , 0 v n q 2 + a n , 1 dist ( z n , 1 , T 1 q ) 2 + + a n , m dist ( z n , m , T m q ) 2 a n , i a n , o v n z n , i 2 a n , 0 v n q 2 + a n , 1 H ( T 1 v n , T 1 q ) 2 + + a n , m H ( T m v n , T m q ) 2 a n , i a n , o v n z n , i 2 a n , 0 v n q 2 + a n , 1 v n q 2 + + a n , m v n q 2 a n , i a n , o v n z n , i 2 v n q 2 a n , i a n , o v n z n , i 2 ,

and also

y n q 2 = b n , 0 v n + b n , 1 z n , 1 + + b n , m z n , m q 2 b n , 0 v n q 2 + b n , 1 z n , 1 q 2 + + b n , m z n , m q 2 b n , 0 v n q 2 + b n , 1 dist ( z n , 1 , T 1 q ) 2 + + b n , m dist ( z n , m , T m q ) 2 b n , 0 v n q 2 + b n , 1 H ( T 1 w n , T 1 q ) 2 + + b n , m H ( T m w n , T m q ) 2 b n , 0 v n q 2 + b n , 1 w n q 2 + + b n , m w n q 2 b n , 0 v n q 2 + b n , 1 v n q 2 + + b n , m v n q 2 b n , i a n , i a n , o v n z n , i 2 x n q 2 b n , i a n , i a n , o v n z n , i 2 .
(1)

So we have that

a 2 b v n z n , i 2 b n , i a n , i a n , o v n z n , i 2 v n q 2 y n q 2 x n q 2 y n q 2 ,

which implies that

lim n v n z n , i =0,for i=1,2,,m.

Hence

lim n dist( v n , T i v n ) lim n v n z n , i =0(i=1,2,,m).

As above u n = T r n Φ 1 x n so that

u n q 2 = T r n Φ 1 x n T r n Φ 1 q 2 T r n Φ 1 x n T r n Φ 1 q , x n q = u n q , x n q = 1 2 ( u n q 2 + x n q 2 x n u n 2 )

and hence

u n q 2 x n q 2 x n u n 2 .
(2)

And also by u n = T s n Φ 2 x n we have

u n q 2 = T s n Φ 2 x n T s n Φ 2 q 2 T s n Φ 2 x n T s n Φ 2 q , x n q = u n q , x n q = 1 2 ( u n q 2 + x n q 2 x n u n 2 )

and hence

u n q 2 x n q 2 x n u n 2 .
(3)

Now we use (2) and (3) to obtain

v n q 2 δ n u n q 2 + ( 1 δ n ) u n q 2 x n q 2 δ n x n u n 2 ( 1 δ n ) x n u n 2 .

It follows from (1) and the last inequality that

y n q 2 v n q 2 x n q 2 δ n x n u n 2 (1 δ n ) x n u n 2 .

So we have

a x n u n 2 δ n x n u n 2 x n q 2 y n q 2 ,

and

(1b) x n u n 2 (1 δ n ) x n u n 2 x n q 2 y n q 2 .

Since lim n x n = lim n y n =u, we obtain that

lim n u n x n = lim n u n x n =0,

which implies that

lim n v n x n =0.

Since lim n v n x n =0, for i=1,2,,m, we obtain that

dist ( x n , T i x n ) x n v n + dist ( v n , T i v n ) + H ( T i v n , T i x n ) ( η + 1 ) x n v n + ( μ + 1 ) dist ( v n , T i v n ) 0 as  n .
(4)

We observe that u i = 1 m F( T i ). Indeed,

dist ( u , T i u ) u x n + dist ( x n , T i x n ) + H ( T i x n , T i u ) ( η + 1 ) u x n + ( μ + 1 ) dist ( x n , T i x n ) 0 as  n ,

which implies that u i = 1 m F( T i ). Let us show that uEP( Φ 1 )EP( Φ 2 ). From lim n x n =u and lim n x n u n =0, we have u n u as n. Since u n = T r n Φ 1 x n we obtain

Φ 1 ( u n ,y)+ 1 r n y u n , u n x n 0yC.

From (A2), we have

1 r n y u n , u n x n Φ 1 (y, u n ),

and hence

y u n , u n x n r n Φ 1 (y, u n ).

Since

u n x n r n 0,

and u n u, from (A4) we have

0 Φ 1 (y,u),yC.

For t(0,1] and yC, let y t =ty+(1t)u. Since y,uC, and C is convex we have y t C and hence Φ 1 ( y t ,u)0. So, from (A1) and (A4), we have

0= Φ 1 ( y t , y t )t Φ 1 ( y t ,y)+(1t) Φ 1 ( y t ,u)t Φ 1 ( y t ,y),

which gives Φ 1 ( y t ,y)0. From (A3) we have 0 Φ 1 (u,y), yC and hence uEP( Φ 1 ). Similarly, we have uEP( Φ 2 ). Now we show that u= P F x 0 . Since x n = P C n x 0 , by Lemma 2.2 we have

z x n , x 0 x n 0,z C n .

Since uF C n we get

zu, x 0 u0,zF.

Now by Lemma 2.2 we obtain that u= P F x 0 . □

By substituting P T i by T i and using a similar argument as in Theorem 3.1, we obtain the following result.

Theorem 3.2 Let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of a real Hilbert space H, Φ 1 and Φ 2 be two bifunctions ofC×CintoRsatisfying (A 1)-(A 4). Let T i :CP(C), (i=1,2,,m), be a finite family of multivalued mappings such that each P T i is quasi-nonexpansive and satisfies the condition (P). Assume further thatF= i = 1 m F( T i )EP( Φ 1 )EP( Φ 2 ). For C 0 =C, let{ x n }and{ v n }be sequences generated by the following algorithm:

{ x 0 C , u n C such that Φ 1 ( u n , y ) + 1 r n y u n , u n x n 0 ; y C , u n C such that Φ 2 ( u n , y ) + 1 s n y u n , u n x n 0 ; y C , v n = δ n u n + ( 1 δ n ) u n , w n = a n , 0 v n + a n , 1 z n , 1 + + a n , m z n , m , y n = b n , 0 v n + b n , 1 z n , 1 + + b n , m z n , m , C n + 1 = { v C n : y n v x n v } , x n + 1 = P C n + 1 x 0 : n 0 ,

where z n , i P T i ( v n ), z n , i P T i ( w n )fori=1,2,,m. Assume that{ a n , j }, { b n , j }, { δ n }and{ r n }, { s n }satisfy the following conditions:

  1. (i)

    { a n , j },{ b n , j },{ δ n }[a,b](0,1) (j=0,1,2,,m),

  2. (ii)

    { r n },{ s n }(0,), and lim inf n r n >0 and lim inf n s n >0.

Then, the sequences{ x n }and{ v n }converge strongly to P F x 0 .

As a result, for single valued mappings we obtain the following theorem.

Theorem 3.3 Let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of a real Hilbert space H and Φ 1 and Φ 2 be two bifunctions ofC×CintoRsatisfying (A 1)-(A 4). Let T i :CC (i=1,2,,m), be a finite family of quasi-nonexpansive mappings, each satisfying the condition (P). Assume further thatF= i = 1 m F( T i )EP( Φ 1 )EP( Φ 2 ). For C 0 =C, let{ x n }and{ v n }be sequences generated by the following algorithm:

{ x 0 C , u n C such that Φ 1 ( u n , y ) + 1 r n y u n , u n x n 0 ; y C , u n C such that Φ 2 ( u n , y ) + 1 s n y u n , u n x n 0 ; y C , v n = δ n u n + ( 1 δ n ) u n , w n = a n , 0 v n + a n , 1 T 1 v n + + a n , m T m v n , y n = b n , 0 v n + b n , 1 T 1 w n + + b n , m T m w n , C n + 1 = { v C n : y n v x n v } , x n + 1 = P C n + 1 x 0 : n 0 .

Assume that{ a n , j }, { b n , j }, { δ n }and{ r n }, { s n }satisfy the following conditions:

  1. (i)

    { a n , j }, { b n , j }, { δ n }[a,b](0,1) (j=0,1,2,,m),

  2. (ii)

    { r n },{ s n }(0,), and lim inf n r n >0 and lim inf n s n >0.

Then, the sequences{ x n }and{ v n }converge strongly to P F x 0 .

Theorem 3.4 Let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of a real Hilbert space H. Let T i :CP(C) (i=1,2,,m), be a finite family of multivalued mappings such that P T i is quasi-nonexpansive and satisfies the condition (P). Assume further thatF= i = 1 m F( T i ). For C 0 =C, let{ x n }be the sequence generated by the following algorithm:

{ x 0 C , w n = a n , 0 x n + a n , 1 z n , 1 + + a n , m z n , m , y n = b n , 0 x n + b n , 1 z n , 1 + + b n , m z n , m , C n + 1 = { v C n : y n v x n v } , x n + 1 = P C n + 1 x 0 : n 0 ,

where z n , i P T i ( x n ), z n , i P T i ( w n )fori=1,2,,m. Assume that{ a n , j },{ b n , j }[a,b](0,1) (j=0,1,2,,m), Then, the sequence{ x n }converges strongly to P F x 0 .

Proof Putting Φ 1 (x,y)= Φ 2 (x,y)=0 for all x,yC and r n = s n =1 in Theorem 3.2, we have u n = u n = x n and hence v n = x n . Now, the desired conclusion follows directly from Theorem 3.2. □

Now, we supply an example to illustrate the main result of this paper.

Example 3.5 We consider the nonempty closed convex subset C=[0,5] of the Hilbert space R. Define two mappings T 1 and T 2 on C as follows:

T 1 (x)= [ x 6 , x 2 ] , T 2 (x)={ , x 5 , { 1 } , x = 5 .

We note that T 1 and T 2 are quasi-nonexpansive mappings satisfying the condition (P), (for details, see [2]). Also we define two bifunctions Φ 1 and Φ 2 as follows:

{ Φ 1 : C × C R , Φ 1 ( x , y ) = y x , { Φ 2 : C × C R , Φ 2 ( x , y ) = y 2 + x y 2 x 2 .

It is easy to see that Φ 1 and Φ 2 satisfy the conditions (A1)-(A4). If we put r n =5 and s n =1, then u n = T r n Φ 1 x n =0 and u n = T s n Φ 1 x n = x n 3 s n + 1 = x n 4 (for details, see [26]). Put a n , i = b n , i = 1 3 for i=0,1,2 and δ n = 1 2 . For any arbitrary x 0 C we have

C 1 = { v C : | y 0 v | | x 0 v | } = [ 0 , x 0 + y 0 2 ] .

Since x 0 + y 0 2 x 0 , we obtain that

x 1 = P C 1 x 0 = x 0 + y 0 2 .

By continuing this process we obtain

C n + 1 = { v C n : | y n v | | x n v | } = [ 0 , x n + y n 2 ] ,

and hence

x n + 1 = P C n + 1 x 0 = x n + y n 2 .

Now, we have the following algorithm:

{ x 0 C , v n = x n 8 , z n , i T i ( v n ) , i = 1 , 2 , w n = 1 3 v n + 1 3 z n , 1 + 1 3 z n , 2 , z n , i T i w n , i = 1 , 2 , y n = 1 3 v n + 1 3 z n , 1 + 1 3 z n , 2 , x n + 1 = x n + y n 2 : n 0 .

Putting z n , 1 = z n , 2 = v n 6 and z n , 1 = z n , 2 = w n 6 we get that

x n + 1 = 679 1 , 296 x n = ( 679 1 , 296 ) n + 1 x 0 ,n0.

We observe that for an arbitrary x 0 C, x n is convergent to zero. We note that F=F( T 1 )F( T 2 )EP( Φ 1 )EP( Φ 2 )={0}.

Remark 3.6 Since every nonexpansive mapping is quasi-nonexpansive and satisfies the condition (P), our results hold for nonexpansive mappings.

Remark 3.7 Our results generalize the results of Tada and Takahashi [15], of a nonexpansive single valued mapping to a finite family of generalized nonexpansive multivalued mappings.

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Acknowledgements

Research of the first author was supported in part by a grant from Imam Khomeini International University, under the grant number 751164-91.

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Correspondence to Mohammad Eslamian.

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Abkar, A., Eslamian, M. Strong convergence theorems for equilibrium problems and fixed point problem of multivalued nonexpansive mappings via hybrid projection method. J Inequal Appl 2012, 164 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1186/1029-242X-2012-164

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Keywords

  • equilibrium problem
  • hybrid projection method
  • strong convergence
  • common fixed point
  • generalized nonexpansive multivalued mapping