- Open Access
A note on Schur-concave functions
© Rovenţa; licensee Springer 2012
- Received: 1 April 2012
- Accepted: 6 July 2012
- Published: 19 July 2012
In this paper we consider a class of Schur-concave functions with some measure properties. The isoperimetric inequality and Brunn-Minkowsky’s inequality for such kind of functions are presented. Applications in geometric programming and optimization theory are also derived.
MSC:26B25, 26B15, 52A40.
- Schur-concave functions
- isoperimetric inequality
About 100 years ago, the properties concerning such notions as length, area, volume as well as the probability of events were abstracted under the banner of the word measure. We review the notion of measure using this word in an unusual way. More exactly, we study some measure properties of a special class of Schur-concave functions which will be revealed via some discrete versions of isoperimetric inequality and Brunn-Minkowsky’s inequality.
The notion of Schur-convex function was introduced by I. Schur in 1923 and has had interesting applications in analytic inequalities, elementary quantum mechanics and quantum information theory. See . Let us consider to be two vectors from .
Definition 1 We say that x is majorized by y, denote it by , if the rearrangement of the components of x and y such that , satisfies () and .
Definition 2 The function , where , is called Schur-convex if implies . Any such function F is called Schur-concave if −F is Schur-convex.
An important source of Schur-convex functions can be found in Merkle . Guan [10, 11] proved that all symmetric elementary functions and the symmetric means of order k are Schur-concave functions. Other families of Schur-convex functions are studied in [1–7, 20–24, 27].
In  a class of analytic inequalities for Schur-convex functions that are made of solutions of a second order nonlinear differential equation was established. These analytic inequalities are used to infer some geometric inequalities such as isoperimetric inequality. Li and Trudinger  consider a special class of inequalities for elementary symmetric functions that are relevant to the study of partial differential equations associated with curvature problems.
Recall here a classical result concerning the study of Schur-convexity for the case of smooth functions. See .
holds onfor each. It is strictly Schur-convex if the inequality (1.1) is strict for, . Any such function F is Schur-concave if the inequality (1.1) is reversed.
In other words, by using F as an area measure, the inequality (1.2) says that from all polygons with n edges and the sum of all edges constant, the regular polygon with equal edges has the biggest area.
The main result of the paper concerning the discrete isoperimetric inequality will be presented in Section 2. Generalized geometric programming refers to optimization problems that involve signomial functions which have applications in process synthesis, process design, molecular conformation, chemical equilibrium. See . In Section 3 we introduce a class of Schur-convex functions where we emphasize the relevance of such type of functions in convexification transformations for geometric programming. In addition, we consider a family of symmetric functions which have applications in fully nonlinear elliptic equations such as Monge-Ampère equation. See Theorem 6.4, Corollary 6.5 in .
In this section we define some volume measures by using a family of Schur-concave functions. Some discrete versions of isoperimetric inequality and Brunn-Minkowsky’s inequality will confirm that our approach is correct. Recall here a well-known result concerning Brunn-Minkowski’s inequality for convex bodies, which are nonempty compact, convex subsets of .
with equality when K and L are identically up to a translation.
We replace the volume measure by a Schur-concave function of the form , where f is a nonnegative concave function. In the rest of the paper, will be called the n-dimensional volume function.
Proof Let defined on , which is globally concave and nondecreasing in each variable. What we need to prove is the concavity of the function , which holds since we have a composing between a nondecreasing globally concave function and another concave function. □
Let us consider a more difficult problem concerning the classical isoperimetric inequality for convex bodies from .
Theorem 4 (See )
with equality if and only if K is a ball. Here, means the area of the surface of a convex body K.
We replace the volume measure with , the n-dimensional volume function from above. Notice that the well-known measures - perimeter, area, volume - are Schur-concave functions. For example, in the functions , and are Schur-concave. In fact, could mean the n-dimensional volume of a body with edges.
Remark 1 It is easy to check that if is a Schur-concave function, then is also a Schur-concave function. Hence, our relation between and is well defined.
Now, we are able to present the discrete form of the isoperimetric inequality in the context of this type of n-dimensional volume functions.
If we consider the function , we need to prove that f is nonpositive for every .
If we compute , we have that f is nondecreasing on . Since , it follows that for every . □
Proposition 1 Each elementary symmetric functionsatisfies the isoperimetric inequality (2.3).
We consider the function , where . By Newton’s inequalities we have , and now the inequality (2.5) is equivalent to , which holds for all . □
then the inequality (2.3) holds. We have the equality in (2.6) if , but (2.6) is not necessary. For example, the symmetric fundamental polynomial of degree n satisfies (2.3) but not (2.6).
Finally, it remains an open question if all Schur-concave functions satisfy the isoperimetric inequality (2.3).
where f is a positive function.
In this section, we apply the Schur-convexity of such a family of symmetric functions to infer some applications in generalized geometric programming.
For the case , if f is a convex function, then the Schur-convexity of is obvious. See Hardy-Littlewood-Polya’s inequality . In  an extensive study concerning the Schur convexity of the above class of symmetric functions was given. For the convenience of the reader, we recall here the proof of the Schur-convexity of only in the cases and .
We say that a function is log-convex if the function logf is convex. If f is a log-convex function then f is also a convex function. See .
Theorem 6 Letbe a convex set with a nonempty interior. Ifis a differentiable function in the interior of I, continuous on I, positive and log-convex, then, , is Schur-convex on.
and it follows that is a Schur-convex function. □
Theorem 7 Letbe a convex set with a nonempty interior. Ifis a differentiable function in the interior of I, continuous on I, positive and log-convex, thenis Schur-convex on.
by the same arguments as in the proof from above. □
From many other applications of Schur-convex functions we recall here some results in optimization problems. Generalized geometric programming refers to optimization problems that involve signomial functions which have applications in process synthesis, process design, molecular conformation, chemical equilibrium. See . A signomial function is the sum of products of independent variables, each of them exponentiated to some nonzero rational number. A posynomial is a signomial function with positive coefficients.
In geometric programming, the properties of the function , such that the transformation convexifies a posynomial, are investigated.
The main idea to solve such optimization problems is to convexificate the function which needs to be optimized. It will be easy to find the supremum of a convex function because we are looking only to the boundary of the definition domain. Moreover, in the case of Schur-convex functions, the minimum is attained when all the independent variables are equal.
This is the reason why we investigate the transformation which convexifies a particular function. In fact, in geometric programming, the particular case is reduced to the study of convexity of the transformation.
Consider a family of strict positive and monotone functions and define . Recall here a recent result from .
Theorem 8 Iffor every, and, then the transformation functionis convex in.
We are now in position to use the Schur-convexity of our family of symmetric functions.
Theorem 9 Let, , be a family of strict positive and monotone functions. If each functionis a log-convex function, then the functionis convex. Moreover, the functionis Schur-convex provided that.
Proof Taking into account Theorems 6, 7 and 8 because the constant function is log-convex, summing term by term, we obtain that all functions are convex. □
Finally, we refer to some inequalities for elementary symmetric functions which are related to the study of partial differential equations associated with curvature problems and have applications to fully nonlinear elliptic equations [8, 14]. Other results on min-max inequalities and optimization theory can be found in [17, 25].
Proposition 2 Consider the symmetric function, where, . Thenis Schur-convex, for each.
Remark 2 The convexity of such functions is an open problem and has applications in fully nonlinear elliptic equations such as Monge-Ampère equation. See Theorem 6.4, Corollary 6.5 from , where the above functions are defined on a particular convex cone.
Proof For simplicity, we denote by the elementary symmetric function , by the elementary symmetric function of order i which contains only the variables , by the elementary symmetric function of order i which contains only the variables and by the elementary symmetric function of order i which contains only the variables .
We need to prove that . If we denote by the arithmetic mean of the elementary symmetric function of order i, we have , the so called Newton’s inequalities. Hence, Newton’s inequalities imply the fact that , for .
it is obvious that .
Hence, the Schur convexity of the function follows. □
Remark 3 By a similar argument, it follows that the function is Schur convex for each .
This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, CNCS-UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-RU-TE-2011-3-0223.
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