# Non-differentiable multiobjective mixed symmetric duality under generalized convexity

- Jueyou Li
^{1}Email author and - Ying Gao
^{1}

**2011**:23

https://doi.org/10.1186/1029-242X-2011-23

© Li and Gao; licensee Springer. 2011

**Received: **21 January 2011

**Accepted: **21 July 2011

**Published: **21 July 2011

## Abstract

The objective of this paper is to obtain a mixed symmetric dual model for a class of non-differentiable multiobjective nonlinear programming problems where each of the objective functions contains a pair of support functions. Weak, strong and converse duality theorems are established for the model under some suitable assumptions of generalized convexity. Several special cases are also obtained.

**MS Classification:** 90C32; 90C46.

## Keywords

## 1 Introduction

Dorn [1] introduced symmetric duality in nonlinear programming by defining a program and its dual to be symmetric if the dual of the dual is the original problem. The symmetric duality for scalar programming has been studied extensively in the literature, one can refer to Dantzig et al. [2], Bazaraa and Goode [3], Devi [4], Mond and Weir [5, 6]. Mond and Schechter [7] studied non-differentiable symmetric duality for a class of optimization problems in which the objective functions consist of support functions. Following Mond and Schechter [7], Hou and Yang [8], Yang et al. [9], Mishra et al. [10] and Bector et al. [11] studied symmetric duality for such problems. Weir and Mond [6] presented two models for multiobjective symmetric duality. Several authors, such as the ones of [12–14], studied multiobjective second and higher order symmetric duality, motivated by Weir and Mond [6].

Very recently, Mishra et al. [10] presented a mixed symmetric dual formulation for a non-differentiable nonlinear programming problem. Bector et al. [11] introduced a mixed symmetric dual model for a class of nonlinear multiobjective programming problems. However, the models given by Bector et al. [11] as well as by Mishra et al. [10] do not allow the further weakening of generalized convexity assumptions on a part of the objective functions. Mishra et al [10] gave the weak and strong duality theorems for mixed dual model under the sublinearity. However, we note that they did not discuss the converse duality theorem for the mixed dual model.

In this paper, we introduce a model of mixed symmetric duality for a class of non-differentiable multiobjective programming problems with multiple arguments. We also establish weak, strong and converse duality theorems for the model and discuss several special cases of the model. The results of Mishra et al. [10] as well as that of Bector et al. [11] are particular cases of the results obtained in the present paper.

## 2 Preliminaries

Let **R**^{
n
} be the *n*-dimensional Euclidean space and let
be its non-negative orthant. The following convention will be used: if *x*, y ∈ **R**^{
n
} , then
;
;
; *x* ≰ *y* is the negation of *x* ≰ *y*.

*f*(

*x*,

*y*) be a real valued twice differentiable function defined on

**R**

^{ n }×

**R**

^{ m }. Let and denote the gradient vector of

*f*with respect to

*x*and

*y*at . Also let denote the Hessian matrix of

*f*(

*x*,

*y*) with respect to the first variable

*x*at . The symbols , and are defined similarly. Consider the following multiobjective programming problem (VP):

where *X* is an open set of **R**^{
n
} , *f*_{
i
} : *X* → **R**, *i* = 1, 2,..., *p* and *h* : *X* → **R**^{
m
} .

**Definition 2.1** A feasible solution
is said to be an efficient solution for (VP) if there exists no other *x* ∈ *X* such that
.

*z*∈

**R**

^{ n }such that

It is obvious that for a compact convex set *C*, *y* ∈ *N*_{
C
} (*x*) if and only if *s*(*y*|*C*) = *x*^{
T
}*y*, or equivalently, *x* ∈ *∂s*(*y*|*C*).

Let us consider a function *F* : *X* × *X* × **R**^{
n
} → **R** (where *X* ⊂ **R**^{
n
} ) with the properties that for all (*x*, *y*) ∈ *X* × *X*, we have

(i)*F*(*x*, *y*; ·) is a convex function, (ii)*F*(*x*, *y*; 0) ≧ 0.

If *F* satisfies (i) and (ii), we obviously have *F*(*x*, *y*; *-a*) ≧ *- F*(*x*, *y*; *a*) for any *a* ∈ **R**^{
n
} .

For example, *F*(*x*, *y*; *a*) = *M*_{1}||*a*|| + *M*_{2}||*a*||2, where *a* depends on *x* and *y*, *M*_{1}, *M*_{2} are positive constants. This function satisfies (i) and (ii), but it is neither subadditive, nor positive homogeneous, that is, the relations

(i')*F*(*x*, *y*; *a* + *b*) ≦ *F*(*x*, *y*; *a*) + *F*(*x*, *y*; *b*), (ii')*F*(*x*, *y*; *ra*) = *rF*(*x, y*; *a*) are not fulfilled for any *a*, *b* ∈ **R**^{
n
} and *r* ∈ **R**_{+}. We may conclude that the class of functions that verify (i) and (ii) is more general than the class of sublinear functions with respect the third argument, i.e. those which satisfy (I') and (ii'). We notice that till now, most results in optimization theory were stated under generalized convexity assumptions involving the functions *F* which are sublinear. The results of this paper are obtained by using weaker assumptions with respect to the above function *F*.

Throughout the paper, we always assume that *F*, *G* : *X* × *X* × **R**^{
n
} → **R** satisfy (i) and (ii).

**Definition 2.2**Let

*X*⊂

**R**

^{ n },

*Y*⊂

**R**

^{ m }.

*f*(·,

*y*) is said to be

*F*-convex at , for fixed

*y*∈

*Y*, if

**Definition 2.3**Let

*X*⊂

**R**

^{ n },

*Y*⊂

**R**

^{ m }.

*f*(

*x*,·) is said to be

*F*-concave at , for fixed

*x*∈

*X*, if

## 3 Mixed type multiobjective symmetric duality

For *N* = {1, 2,..., *n*} and *M* = {1, 2,..., *m*}, let *J*_{1} ⊂ *N*, *K*_{1} ⊂ *M* and *J*_{2} = *N\J*_{1} and *K*_{2} = *M\K*_{1}. Let |*J*_{1}| denote the number of elements in the set *J*_{1}. The other numbers |*J*_{2}|, |*K*_{1}| and |*K*_{2}| are defined similarly. Notice that if *J*_{1} = ∅, then *J*_{2} = *N*, that is, |*J*_{1}| = 0 and |*J*_{2}| = *n*. Hence,
is zero-dimensional Euclidean space and
is *n*-dimensional Euclidean space. It is clear that any *x* ∈ **R**^{
n
} can be written as *x* = (*x*^{1}, *x*^{2}),
,
. Similarly, any *y* ∈ **R**^{
m
} can be written as *y* = (*y*^{1}, *y*^{2}),
,
. Let
and
be twice continuously differentiable functions and *e* = (1, 1,..., 1) ∈ **R**^{
l
}.

Now we can introduce the following pair of non-differentiable multiobjective programs and discuss their duality theorems under some mild assumptions of generalized convexity.

where

*i*=

*i*= 1, 2,...,

*l*and is a compact and convex subset of for

*i*= 1, 2,...,

*l*. Similarly, is a compact and convex subset of for

*i*= 1, 2,...,

*l*and is a compact and convex subset of for

*i*= 1, 2,...,

*l*.

**Theorem 3.1**(Weak duality). Let (

*x*

^{1},

*x*

^{2},

*y*

^{1},

*y*

^{2},

*z*

^{1},

*z*

^{2},

*λ*) be feasible for (MP) and (

*u*

^{1},

*u*

^{2},

*v*

^{1},

*v*

^{2},

*w*

^{1},

*w*

^{2},

*λ*) be feasible for (MD). Suppose that for

*i*= 1, 2,...,

*l*, is

*F*

_{1}-convex for fixed

*v*

^{1}, is

*F*

_{2}-concave for fixed

*x*

_{1}, is

*G*

_{1}-convex for fixed

*v*

^{2}and is

*G*

_{2}-concave for fixed

*x*

^{2}, and the following conditions are satisfied:

- (I)
*F*_{1}(*x*^{1},*u*^{1};*a*) + (*u*^{1})^{ T }*a*≧ 0 if*a*≧ 0; - (II)
*G*_{1}(*x*^{2},*u*^{2};*b*) + (*u*^{2})^{ T }*b*≧ 0 if*b*≧ 0; - (III)
*F*_{2}(*v*^{1},*y*^{1};*c*) + (*y*^{1})^{ T }*c*≧ 0 if*c*≧ 0; and - (IV)
*G*_{2}(*v*^{2},*y*^{2};*d*) + (*y*^{2})^{ T }*d*≧ 0 if*d*≧ 0.

Then *H*(*x*^{1}, *x*^{2}, *y*^{1}, *y*^{2}, *z*^{1}, *z*^{2}, *λ*) ≰ *G*(*u*^{1}, *u*^{2}, *v*^{1}, *v*^{2}, *w*^{1}, *w*^{2}, *λ*).

**Proof**. Assume that the result is not true, that is

*H*(

*x*

^{1},

*x*

^{2},

*y*

^{1},

*y*

^{2},

*z*

^{1},

*z*

^{2},

*λ*) ≤

*G*(

*u*

^{1},

*u*

^{2},

*v*

^{1},

*v*

^{2},

*w*

^{1},

*w*

^{2},

*λ*). Then, since

*λ*> 0, we have

By the *F* 1-convexity of
, we have

*G*

_{1}-convexity of and

*G*

_{2}-concavity of , for

*i*= 1, 2,...,

*l*, and condition (II) and (IV), we get

which is a contradiction to (15). Hence *H*(*x*^{1}, *x*^{2}, *y*^{1}, *y*^{2}, *z*^{1}, *z*^{2}, *λ*) ≰ *G*(*u*^{1}, *u*^{2}, *v*^{1}, *v*^{2}, *w*^{1}, *w*^{2}, *λ*).

**Remark 3.1**. Theorem 3.1 can be established for more general classes of functions such as *F*_{1}-pseudoconvexity and *F*_{2}-pseudoconcavity, and *G*_{1}-pseudoconvexity and *G*_{2}-pseudoconcavity on the functions involved in the above theorem. The proofs will follow the same lines as that of Theorem 3.1.

Strong duality theorem for the given model can be established on the lines of the proof of Theorem 2 of Yang et al. [9].

**Theorem 3.2**(Strong duality). Let
be an efficient solution for (MP), fix
in (MD), and suppose that

(A1) either the matrices and are positive definite; or and are negative definite; and

(A2) the sets and are linearly independent.

Then is feasible for (MD) and the corresponding objective function values are equal. If in addition the hypotheses of Theorem 3.1 hold, then there exist , such that is an efficient solution for (MD).

Mishra et al. [10] gave weak and strong duality theorems for the mixed model. However, we note that they did not discuss the converse duality theorem for the mixed dual model. Here, we will give a converse duality theorem for the model under some weaker assumptions.

**Theorem 3.3**(Converse duality). Let
be an efficient solution for (MD),
in (MP), and suppose that

(B1) either the matrices and are positive definite; or and are negative definite; and

(B2) the sets and are linearly independent.

Then is feasible for (MP) and the corresponding objective function values are equal. If in addition the hypotheses of Theorem 3.1 hold, then there exist , such that is an efficient solution for (MP).

**Proof**. Since be an efficient solution for (MD), by the modifying Fritz-John conditions [7], there exist

*α*∈

**R**

^{ l }, , ,

*β*

_{1}∈

**R**,

*β*

_{2}∈

**R**, , ,

*δ*∈

**R**

^{ l }such that

If *β*_{1} = 0, then from (43) and (42), *β*_{2} = 0, *α* = 0, *α*_{1} = 0, *α*_{2} = 0, and from (24) and (26), *μ*_{1} = 0, *μ*_{2} = 0. This contradicts (38). Hence *β*_{1} = *β*_{2} > 0 and *α* > 0.

*α*> 0, we have ,

*i*= 1, 2,...,

*l*, that is

Thus . By the weak duality and (51), is an efficient solution for (MD).

## 4 Special cases

- (i)
If

*F*(*x*,*y*; ·) is sublinear, then (MP) and (MD) reduce to the pair of problems (MP2) and (MD2) studied in Mishra et al. [10]. - (ii)
If

*F*(*x*,*y*; ·) is sublinear, |*J*_{2}| = 0, |*K*_{2}| = 0 and*l*= 1, then (MP) and (MD) reduce to the pair of problems (P1) and (D1) of Mond and Schechter [7]. Thus (MP) and (MD) become multiobjective extension of the pair of problems (P1) and (D1) in [7]. - (iii)
If

*F*(*x*,*y*; ·) is sublinear and*l*= 1, then (MP) and (MD) are an extension of the pair of problems studied in Yang et al. [9]. - (iv)
From the symmetry of primal and dual problems (MP) and (MD), we can construct other new symmetric dual pairs. For example, if we take and , where , ,

*i*= 1,2,,...,*l*, are positive semi definite matrices, then it can be easily verified that , and ,*i*= 1, 2,...,*l*. Thus, a number of new symmetric dual pairs and duality results can be established.

## Declarations

### Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the Education Committee Project Research Foundation of Chongqing (No.KJ110624), the Doctoral Foundation of Chongqing Normal University (No.10XLB015) and Chongqing Key Lab of Operations Research and System Engineering.

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Dorn WS:
**A symmetric dual theorem for quadratic programming.***J Oper Res Soc Jpn*1960,**2:**93–97.Google Scholar - Dantzig GB, Eisenberg E, Cottle RW:
**Symmetric dual nonlinear programs.***Pacific J Math*1965,**15:**809–812.MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Bazaraa MS, Goode JJ:
**On symmetric duality in nonlinear programming.***Oper Res*1973,**21:**1–9. 10.1287/opre.21.1.1MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Devi G:
**Symmetric duality for nonlinear programming problem involving g-convex functions.***Eur J Oper Res*1998,**104:**615–621. 10.1016/S0377-2217(97)00020-9MATHView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Mond B, Weir T:
**Symmetric duality for nonlinear multiobjective programming.**In*Recent Developments in Mathematical Programming*. Edited by: Kumar S. Gordon and Breach, London; 1991.Google Scholar - Weir T, Mond B:
**Symmetric and self duality in multiobjective programming.***Asia Pacific J Oper Res*1991,**5:**75–87.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar - Mond B, Schechter M:
**Nondifferentiable symmetric duality.***Bull Aust Math Soc*1996,**5:**177–188.MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Hou SH, Yang XM:
**On second order symmetric duality in nondifferentiable programming.***J Math Anal Appl*2001,**255:**491–498. 10.1006/jmaa.2000.7242MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Yang XM, Teo KL, Yang XQ:
**Mixed symmetric duality in nondifferentiable mathematical programming.***Indian J Pure Appl Math*2003,**34:**805–815.MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar - Mishra SK, Wang SY, Lai KK, Yang FM:
**Mixed symmetric duality in nondifferentiable multiobjective mathematical programming.***Eur J Oper Res*2007,**181:**1–9. 10.1016/j.ejor.2006.04.041MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Bector CR, Chandra S:
**Abha: On mixed symmetric duality in multiobjective programming.***Opsearch*1999,**36:**399–407.MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar - Yang XM, Yang XQ, Teo KL, Hou SH:
**Second order symmetric duality in non-differentiable multiobjective programming with F-convexity.***Eur J Oper Res*2005,**164:**406–416. 10.1016/j.ejor.2003.04.007MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Yang XM, Yang XQ, Teo KL, Hou SH:
**Multiobjective second order symmetric duality with F-convexity.***Eur J Oper Res*2005,**165:**585–591. 10.1016/j.ejor.2004.01.028MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Chen X:
**Higher-order symmetric duality in nondifferentiable multiobjective programming problems.***J Math Anal Appl*2004,**290:**423–435. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2003.10.004MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar

## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.