- Research Article
- Open Access
© Mi Ray Ohm et al. 2010
- Received: 9 November 2009
- Accepted: 23 January 2010
- Published: 21 February 2010
We analyze discontinuous Galerkin methods with penalty terms, namely, symmetric interior penalty Galerkin methods, to solve nonlinear Sobolev equations. We construct finite element spaces on which we develop fully discrete approximations using extrapolated Crank-Nicolson method. We adopt an appropriate elliptic-type projection, which leads to optimal error estimates of discontinuous Galerkin approximations in both spatial direction and temporal direction.
- Galerkin Method
- Constant Independent
- Spatial Discretization
- Discrete Method
- Discrete Version
where denotes the unit outward normal vector to and is a given function defined on . The initial data , , and are assumed to be such that (1.1) admits a solution sufficiently smooth to guarantee the convergence results to be presented below. For details about the physical significance and various properties of existence and uniqueness of the Sobolev equations, see [1–6].
Early, in [7–9] the authors constructed the Galerkin approximations to the solution of (1.1) with periodic boundary conditions in one-dimensional space and obtained the optimal convergence in normed space and superconvergence results. Recently, Lin  constructed the Galerkin approximation of (1.1) with using Crank-Nicolson method and proved the optimal convergence of error in normed space. In  the authors constructed the semidiscrete finite element approximations of (1.1) with nonlinear boundary condition and obtained the optimal -error estimates.
In this work we will approximate the solution of (1.1) using a discontinuous symmetric Galerkin method with interior penalties for the spatial discretization and extrapolated Crank-Nicolson method for the time stepping. By implementing the extrapolated technique, we induce the linear systems which can be solved explicitly, and thus obviate the order reduction phenomenon which occurs when the system involved is nonlinear.
Compared to the classical Galerkin method, the discontinuous Galerkin method is very well suited for adaptive control of error and can deliver high orders of accuracy when the exact solution is sufficiently smooth. In  Rivière and Wheeler formulated and analyzed a family of discontinuous methods to approximate the solution of the transport problem with nonlinear reaction. They construct semidiscrete approximations which converge optimally in and suboptimally in for the energy norm and suboptimally for the norm. They also constructed fully discrete approximations and proved the optimal convergence in the temporal direction. Furthermore to solve reactive transport problems Sun and Wheeler in  analyzed three discontinuous Galerkin methods, namely, symmetric interior penalty Galerkin method, nonsymmetric interior penalty Galerkin method, and incomplete interior penalty Galerkin method. They obtained error estimates in which are optimal in and nearly optimal in and they developed a parabolic lift technique for SIPG which leads to -optimal and nearly -optimal error estimates in and negative norms. Recently in [14, 15] Sun and Yang adapted discontinuous Galerkin methods to nonlinear Sobolev equations and obtained the optimal error estimates. The main object of this paper is to obtain the optimal error estimates in both the spatial direction and the temporal direction by adopting an appropriate elliptic-type projection.
This paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we introduce some notations and preliminaries. In Section 3, we construct appropriate finite element spaces and define an auxiliary projection and prove its convergence. In Section 4, we construct the extrapolated discontinuous Galerkin fully discrete method which yields the second-order convergence in the temporal direction. The corresponding error estimates of the approximate solutions are also discussed.
Let be a regular quasi-uniform subdivision of where is a triangle or a quadrilateral if and is a -simplex or -rectangle if . Let and . Here, the regular requirement is that there exists a constant such that each contains a ball of radius . The quasi-uniformity requirement is that there is a constant such that
We denote the edges (resp., faces for ) of by where has positive dimensional Lebesgue measure, , , and , . With each edge (or face) , we associate a unit normal vector to if and . For , is taken to be the unit outward vector normal to .
For an and a domain , we denote by the Sobolev space of order equipped with the usual Sobolev norm . We simply write instead of if and instead of if . And also the usual seminorm defined on is denoted by .
Wheeler  introduced an elliptic projection to prove the optimal -error estimates for Galerkin approximation to parabolic differential equations. Adopting this idea we construct a projection such that
By simple computations and the applications of Theorem 4.2 we obtain the following lemmas.
Lemma 4.7 can be proved by the similar process of Theorem 4.6. as follows
This research was supported by Dongseo University Research Grants in 2009.
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