- Research Article
- Open Access
Norm Comparison Inequalities for the Composite Operator
© Y. Xing and S. Ding. 2009
- Received: 2 August 2008
- Accepted: 15 January 2009
- Published: 22 January 2009
We establish norm comparison inequalities with the Lipschitz norm and the BMO norm for the composition of the homotopy operator and the projection operator applied to differential forms satisfying the A-harmonic equation. Based on these results, we obtain the two-weight estimates for Lipschitz and BMO norms of the composite operator in terms of the -norm.
- Projection Operator
- Differential Form
- Radon Measure
- Convex Domain
- Expansion Factor
The purpose of this paper is to establish the Lipschitz norm and BMO norm inequalities for the composition of the homotopy operator and the projection operator applied to differential forms in , . The harmonic projection operator , one of the key operators in the harmonic analysis, plays an important role in the Hodge decomposition theory of differential forms. In the meanwhile, the homotopy operator is also widely used in the decomposition and the -theory of differential forms. In many situations, we need to estimate the various norms of the operators and their compositions.
We always assume that is a bounded, convex domain and is a ball in , , throughout this paper. Let be the ball with the same center as and with , . We do not distinguish the balls from cubes in this paper. For any subset , we use to denote the Lebesgue measure of . We call a weight if and a.e. Differential forms are extensions of functions in . For example, the function is called a 0-form. Moreover, if is differentiable, then it is called a differential 0-form. A differential -form is generated by , , that is, where , , and are differentiable functions. Let be the set of all -forms in , be the space of all differential -forms on and be the -forms on satisfying for all ordered -tuples , . We denote the exterior derivative by for . The Hodge codifferential operator is given by on , . We write and , where is a weight. Let be the th exterior power of the cotangent bundle and be the space of smooth -forms on . We set has generalized gradient . The harmonic -fields are defined by for some The orthogonal complement of in is defined by for all The harmonic projection operator is the operator involved in the Poisson's equation where is the Green's operator. See [1–4] for more propeties of the projection operator and Green's operator.
for some . Again, the factor here is for convenience and the norm is independent of the expansion factor , see . When is a -form, (1.5) reduces to the classical definition of BMO .
The following Hölder inequality will be used in the proofs of main theorems.
Let , and . If and are measurable functions on , then for any .
Lemma 2.2 (see ).
We first prove the following Poincaré-type inequality for the composition of the homotopy operator and the projection operator.
for all balls with .
The proof of Theorem 2.3 has been completed.
Using Theorem 2.3, we estimate the following Lipschitz norm of the composite operator .
where is a constant with .
The proof of Theorem 2.4 has been completed.
In order to prove Theorem 2.6, we extend [11, Lemma 8.2.2] into the following version for differential forms.
where is a positive constant.
The proof of Lemma 2.5 is completed.
where is a constant with .
The proof of Theorem 2.6 has been completed.
Note that inequality (2.14) implies that the norm of can be controlled by the norm when is a 1-form.
where and are constants with . We have completed the proof of Theorem 2.7.
We have developed some estimates for the Lipschitz norm in last section. Now, we estimates the BMO norm . We first prove the following inequality between the BMO norm and the Lipschitz norm for the composite operator.
The proof of Theorem 3.1 has been completed.
for some , where the Radon measure is defined by , is a weight and is a real number. Again, the factor in the definitions of the norms and is for convenience and in fact these norms are independent of this expansion factor. We also write to replace when it is clear that the integral is weighted.
Lemma (see ).
for all balls or cubes with .
for all balls with , where , and , , , and are constants with , , , and .
where and are constants with and .
We have completed the proof of Theorem 3.4.
We now estimate the norm in terms of the norm.
where is a constant with .
The proof of Theorem 3.5 has been completed.
This ends the proof of Theorem 3.6.
The authors thank the referee and the editor, Professor András Rontó, for their precious and thoughtful suggestions on this paper. The first author was supported by Science Research Foundation in Harbin Institute of Technology (HITC200709) and Development Program for Outstanding Young Teachers in HIT.
- Scott C: theory of differential forms on manifolds. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society 1995,347(6):2075–2096. 10.2307/2154923MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Wang Y, Wu C: Poincaré inequalities for Green's operator on solutions of the nonhomogeneous -harmonic equation. Computers & Mathematics with Applications 2004,47(10–11):1545–1554. 10.1016/j.camwa.2004.06.006MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Warner FW: Foundations of Differentiable Manifolds and Lie Groups, Graduate Texts in Mathematics. Volume 94. Springer, New York, NY, USA; 1983:ix+272.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xing Y, Wu C: Global weighted inequalities for operators and harmonic forms on manifolds. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2004,294(1):294–309. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2004.02.018MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Ding S: Weighted Hardy-Littlewood inequality for -harmonic tensors. Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society 1997,125(6):1727–1735. 10.1090/S0002-9939-97-03762-3MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Iwaniec T, Lutoborski A: Integral estimates for null Lagrangians. Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis 1993,125(1):25–79. 10.1007/BF00411477MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Liu B: -weighted imbedding inequalities for -harmonic tensors. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2002,273(2):667–676. 10.1016/S0022-247X(02)00331-1MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Nolder CA: Hardy-Littlewood theorems for -harmonic tensors. Illinois Journal of Mathematics 1999,43(4):613–632.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Xing Y: Two-weight imbedding inequalities for solutions to the -harmonic equation. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 2005,307(2):555–564. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2005.03.019MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Cartan H: Differential Forms. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, Mass, USA; 1970.MATHGoogle Scholar
- Agarwal RP, Ding S, Nolder CA: Inequalities for Differential Forms. Springer, New York, NY, USA; 2009.View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.