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RETRACTED ARTICLE: On stability analysis for generalized Minty variational-hemivariational inequality in reflexive Banach spaces
- Lu-Chuan Ceng^{1},
- Ravi P. Agarwal^{2, 3},
- Jen-Chih Yao^{4} and
- Yonghong Yao^{5}Email author
https://doi.org/10.1186/s13660-018-1890-9
© The Author(s) 2018
- Received: 3 August 2018
- Accepted: 25 October 2018
- Published: 30 October 2018
The Retraction Note to this article has been published in Journal of Inequalities and Applications 2019 2019:95
Abstract
The stability for a class of generalized Minty variational-hemivariational inequalities has been considered in reflexive Banach spaces. We demonstrate the equivalent characterizations of the generalized Minty variational-hemivariational inequality. A stability result is presented for the generalized Minty variational-hemivariational inequality with \((f,J)\)-pseudomonotone mapping.
Keywords
- Generalized variational-hemivariational inequality
- Stability
- Clarke’s generalized directional derivative
- Pseudomonotone mapping
- Reflexive Banach space
1 Introduction
It is well known that the variational inequality theory has wide applications in finance, economics, transportation, optimization, operations research, and engineering sciences, see [16–25]. In 2010, Zhong and Huang [19] studied the stability of solution sets for the generalized Minty mixed variational inequality in reflexive Banach spaces.
Inspired and motivated by the above work of Zhong and Huang [19], we investigate the stability of solution sets for the generalized Minty variational-hemivariational inequality in reflexive Banach spaces. We first present several equivalent characterizations for the generalized Minty variational-hemivariational inequality. Consequently, we show the stability of a solution set for the generalized Minty variational-hemivariational inequality with \((f,J)\)-pseudomonotone mapping in reflexive Banach spaces. As an application, we give the stability result for a generalized variational-hemivariational inequality. The results presented in this paper extend the corresponding results of Zhong and Huang [19] from the generalized mixed variational inequalities to the generalized variational-hemivariational inequalities.
2 Preliminaries
Proposition 2.1
([1])
- (i)
The function \(y\mapsto J^{\circ}(x,y)\) is finite, convex, positively homogeneous, and subadditive;
- (ii)
\(J^{\circ}(x,y)\) is upper semicontinuous and is Lipschitz continuous on the second variable;
- (iii)
\(J^{\circ}(x,-y)=(-J)^{\circ}(x,y)\);
- (iv)
\(\overline{\partial}J(x)\) is a nonempty, convex, bounded, and weak ^{∗}-compact subset of \(X^{*}\);
- (v)
For every \(y\in X\), \(J^{\circ}(x,y)=\max\{\langle\xi,y\rangle:\xi\in\overline{\partial}J(x)\}\);
- (vi)
The graph of \(\overline{\partial}J(x)\) is closed in \(X\times (w^{*}-X^{*})\) topology, where \((w^{*}-X^{*})\) denotes the space \(X^{*}\) equipped with weak ^{∗} topology, i.e., if \(\{x_{n}\}\subset X\) and \(\{x^{*}_{n}\}\subset X^{*}\) are sequences such that \(x^{*}_{n}\in\overline{\partial}J(x_{n}), x_{n}\to x\) in X and \(x^{*}_{n}\to x^{*}\) weakly ^{∗} in \(X^{*}\), then \(x^{*}\in\overline{\partial}J(x)\).
Let K be a nonempty, closed, and convex subset of X. Let Y be a topological space. We use \(\operatorname{barr}(K)\) to denote the barrier cone of K which is defined by \(\operatorname{barr}(K):=\{x^{*}\in X^{*}:\sup_{x\in K}\langle x^{*},x\rangle<\infty\} \). The recession cone of K, denoted by \(K_{\infty}\), is defined by \(K_{\infty}:=\{d\in X:x_{0}+\mu d\in K, \forall\mu>0, \forall x_{0}\in K\}\). The negative polar cone \(K^{-}\) of K is defined by \(K^{-}:=\{x^{*}\in X^{*}:\langle x^{*},x\rangle\leq0, \forall x\in K\}\). The positive polar cone of K is defined as \(K^{+}:=\{x^{*}\in X^{*}:\langle x^{*},x\rangle\geq0, \forall x\in K\}\).
Definition 2.2
- (i)upper semicontinuous at \(x_{0}\in K\) iff, for any neighborhood \(\mathrm{N}(F(x_{0}))\) of \(F(x_{0})\), there exists a neighborhood \(\mathrm{N}(x_{0})\) of \(x_{0}\) such that$$ F(x)\subset\mathrm{N}\bigl(F(x_{0})\bigr), \quad\forall x\in\mathrm{N}(x_{0})\cap K; $$
- (ii)lower semicontinuous at \(x_{0}\in K\) iff, for any \(y_{0}\in F(x_{0})\) and any neighborhood \(\mathrm{N}(y_{0})\) of \(y_{0}\), there exists a neighborhood \(\mathrm{N}(x_{0})\) of \(x_{0}\) such that$$ F(x)\cap\mathrm{N}(y_{0})\neq\emptyset, \quad\forall x\in\mathrm{N}(x_{0})\cap K. $$
F is said to be continuous at \(x_{0}\) iff it is both upper and lower semicontinuous at \(x_{0}\); and F is continuous on K iff it is both upper and lower semicontinuous at every point of K.
Definition 2.3
- (i)monotone on K iff, for all \((x,x^{*}),(y,y^{*})\) in the \(\operatorname{graph}(F)\),$$ \bigl\langle y^{*}-x^{*},y-x\bigr\rangle \geq0; $$
- (ii)pseudomonotone on K iff, for all \((x,x^{*}),(y,y^{*})\) in the \(\operatorname{graph}(F)\),$$ \bigl\langle x^{*},y-x\bigr\rangle \geq0 \quad\text{implies that}\quad \bigl\langle y^{*},y-x \bigr\rangle \geq0; $$
- (iii)
stably pseudomonotone on K with respect to a set \(U\subset X^{*}\) iff F and \(F(\cdot)-u\) are pseudomonotone on K for every \(u\in U\);
- (iv)f-pseudomonotone on K iff, for all \((x,x^{*}),(y,y^{*})\) in the \(\operatorname{graph}(F)\),$$ \bigl\langle x^{*},y-x\bigr\rangle +f(y)-f(x)\geq0 \quad\Rightarrow\quad\bigl\langle y^{*},x-y \bigr\rangle +f(x)-f(y)\leq0; $$
- (v)\((f,J)\)-pseudomonotone on K iff, for all \((x,x^{*}),(y,y^{*})\) in the \(\operatorname{graph}(F)\),$$ \bigl\langle x^{*},y-x\bigr\rangle +J^{\circ}(x,y-x)+f(y)-f(x)\geq0 \quad\Rightarrow\quad \bigl\langle y^{*},x-y\bigr\rangle +J^{\circ}(y,x-y)+f(x)-f(y) \leq0. $$
Definition 2.4
Definition 2.5
Lemma 2.6
([29])
Let \(K\subset X\) be a nonempty, closed, and convex set with \(\operatorname{int}(\operatorname{barr}(K))\neq\emptyset\). Then there exists no sequence \(\{x_{n}\}\subset K\) satisfying \(\|x_{n}\|\to\infty\) and \(\frac{x_{n}}{\|x_{n}\| }\rightharpoonup0\). If K is a cone, then there exists no sequence \(\{d_{n}\}\subset K\) with \(\|d_{n}\|=1\) satisfying \(d_{n}\rightharpoonup0\).
Lemma 2.7
([30])
Let \(K\subset X\) be a nonempty, closed, and convex set with \(\operatorname{int}(\operatorname{barr}(K))\neq\emptyset\). Then there exists no sequence \(\{d_{n}\}\subset K_{\infty}\) with \(\|d_{n}\|=1\) satisfying \(d_{n}\rightharpoonup0\).
Lemma 2.8
([30])
Let \((Z,d)\) be a metric space and \(u_{0}\in Z\) be a given point. Let \(L:Z\to2^{X}\) be a set-valued mapping with nonempty values, and let L be upper semicontinuous at \(u_{0}\). Then there exists a neighborhood U of \(u_{0}\) such that \((L(u))_{\infty}\subset(L(u_{0}))_{\infty}\) for all \(u\in U\).
Lemma 2.9
([31])
- (i)
G is a KKM mapping, i.e., for every finite subset A of K, \(\operatorname{conv}(A)\subset\bigcup_{x\in A}G(x)\);
- (ii)
\(G(x)\) is closed in E for every \(x\in K\);
- (iii)
\(G(x_{0})\) is compact in E for some \(x_{0}\in K\).
3 Boundedness of solution sets
In this section, we introduce several characterizations for the solution set D of \(\operatorname{GMVHVI}(F,J,K)\).
Let \(K\subset X\) be a nonempty, closed, and convex set. Let \(F:K\to 2^{X^{*}}\) be a set-valued mapping with nonempty values, \(J:X\to\mathbf {R}\) be a locally Lipschitz functional, and \(f:K\subset X\to\mathbf{R}\) be a convex and lower semicontinuous function.
Theorem 3.1
Proof
Corollary 3.2
Proof
If \(J=0\), then \(J^{\circ}=0\). In this case, \(\operatorname{GMVHVI}(F,J,K)\) reduces to \(\operatorname{GMMVI}(F,K)\). Utilizing Theorem 3.1, we immediately deduce Corollary 3.2. □
Remark 3.3
Theorem 3.4
- (i)
D is nonempty and bounded;
- (ii)
\(K_{\infty}\cap\{d\in X:\langle y^{*},d\rangle+J^{\circ}(y,d)+f_{\infty}(d)\leq0, \forall y^{*}\in F(y),y\in K\}=\{0\}\);
- (iii)There exists a bounded set \(C\subset K\) such that, for every \(x\in K\setminus C\), there exists some \(y\in C\) satisfying$$ \sup_{y^{*}\in F(y)}\bigl\langle y^{*},x-y\bigr\rangle +J^{\circ}(y,x-y)+f(x)-f(y)>0. $$
Proof
The relationship (i)⇒(ii) can be deduced from Theorem 3.1.
Let \(z\in\bigcap_{y\in M}G'(y)\). Then \(z\in C\) by (11) and so \(z\in \bigcap^{m}_{i=1}(G(y_{i})\cap C)\). This shows that the collection \(\{G(y)\cap C:y\in K\}\) has the finite intersection property. For each \(y\in K\), it follows from the weak compactness of \(G(y)\cap C\) that \(\bigcap_{y\in K}(G(y)\cap C)\) is nonempty, which coincides with the solution set of \(\operatorname{GMVHVI}(F,J,K)\). This completes the proof. □
Corollary 3.5
- (i)
D is nonempty and bounded;
- (ii)
\(K_{\infty}\cap\{d\in X:\langle y^{*},d\rangle+f_{\infty}(d)\leq 0, \forall y^{*}\in F(y),y\in K\}=\{0\}\);
- (iii)There exists a bounded set \(C\subset K\) such that, for every \(x\in K\setminus C\), there exists some \(y\in C\) satisfying$$ \sup_{y^{*}\in F(y)}\bigl\langle y^{*},x-y\bigr\rangle +f(x)-f(y)>0. $$
Remark 3.6
It is known that if \(J=0\) then Theorem 3.4 reduces to Theorem 3.2 in Zhong and Huang [19]. Thus, Theorem 3.4 generalizes and extends Theorem 3.2 in Zhong and Huang [19] from \(\operatorname{GMMVI}(F,K)\) to \(\operatorname{GMVHVI}(F,J,K)\). If \(f=0\) additionally, then \(f_{\infty}=0\). Consequently, statements (i), (ii), and (iii) in [19, Theorem 3.2] reduce to (i), (ii), and (iii) in [29, Theorem 3.1], respectively. Thus, Zhong and Huang’s Theorem 3.2 in [19] is a generalization of Theorem 3.1 in [29].
4 Stability of solution sets
In this section, we will establish the stability of solution sets for the generalized Minty variational-hemivariational inequality \(\operatorname{GMVHVI}(F,J,K)\) and the generalized variational-hemivariational inequality \(\operatorname{GVHVI}(F,J,K)\) with \((f,J)\)-pseudomonotone mappings.
Let \((Z_{1},d_{1})\) and \((Z_{2},d_{2})\) be two metric spaces, \(u_{0}\in Z_{1}\) and \(v_{0}\in Z_{2}\) be given points. Let \(L:Z_{1}\to2^{X}\) be a continuous set-valued mapping with nonempty, closed, and convex values and \(\operatorname{int}(\operatorname{barr}L(u_{0}))\neq\emptyset\). Suppose that there exists a neighborhood \(U\times V\) of \((u_{0},v_{0})\) such that \(M=\bigcup_{u\in U}L(u)\), \(F:M\times V\to 2^{X^{*}}\) is a lower semicontinuous set-valued mapping with nonempty values, and let \(f:M\subset X\to\mathbf{R}\) be a convex and lower semicontinuous function. Let \(J:X\to\mathbf{R}\) be a locally Lipschitz functional such that \(J^{\circ}:M\times M\subset X\times X\to\mathbf{R}\) is bi-sequentially weakly lower semicontinuous.
Theorem 4.1
Proof
Corollary 4.2
Proof
Whenever \(J=0\), we know that \(J^{\circ}=0\) and hence \(J^{\circ}\) is bi-sequentially weakly lower semicontinuous. In this case, (4.1) and (4.2) in Theorem 4.1 reduce to (4.3) and (4.4), respectively. Utilizing Theorem 4.1, we immediately deduce Corollary 4.2. □
Remark 4.3
It is known that if \(J=0\) then Theorem 4.1 reduces to Theorem 4.1 in Zhong and Huang [19]. Thus, Theorem 4.1 generalizes and extends Zhong and Huang’s Theorem 4.1 [19] to the case of Clarke’s generalized directional derivative of a locally Lipschitz functional. If \(f=0\) additionally, then \(f_{\infty}=0\). Thus, (4.3) and (4.4) in Corollary 4.2 reduce to (3.1) and (3.2) in [30, Theorem 3.1], respectively. Therefore, Zhong and Huang’s Theorem 4.1 in [19] is a generalization of Theorem 3.1 in [30].
Theorem 4.4
- (i)
for each \(v\in V\), the mapping \(x\mapsto F(x,v)\) is \((f,J)\)-pseudomonotone on M;
- (ii)
the solution set of \(\operatorname{GMVHVI}(F(\cdot,v_{0}),J,L(u_{0}))\) is nonempty and bounded.
Proof
Corollary 4.5
- (i)
for each \(v\in V\), the mapping \(x\mapsto F(x,v)\) is f-pseudomonotone on M;
- (ii)
the solution set of \(\operatorname{GMMVI}(F(\cdot,v_{0}),L(u_{0}))\) is nonempty and bounded.
Proof
Whenever \(J=0\), we know that \(J^{\circ}=0\), \(\operatorname{GMVHVI}(F(\cdot ,v),J,L(u))\) (resp., \(\operatorname{GMVHVI}(F(\cdot, v_{0}),J,L(u_{0}))\)) reduces to \(\operatorname{GMMVI}(F(\cdot,v),L(u))\) (resp., \(\operatorname{GMMVI}(F(\cdot,v_{0}),L(u_{0}))\)), \(S_{\mathrm{GM}}(u,v)\) (resp., \(S_{\mathrm{GM}}(u_{0},v_{0})\)) reduces to \(S_{M}(u,v)\) (resp., \(S_{M}(u_{0},v_{0})\)), and the \((f,J)\)-pseudomonotonicity of F in the first variable reduces to the f-pseudomonotonicity of F in the first variable. Utilizing Theorem 4.9, we immediately deduce Corollary 4.5. □
Remark 4.6
It is known that if \(J=0\) then Theorem 4.4 reduces to Theorem 4.2 in Zhong and Huang [19]. Thus, Theorem 4.4 generalizes and extends Theorem 4.2 in Zhong and Huang [19] from the generalized Minty mixed variational inequality to the generalized Minty variational-hemivariational inequality. If \(f=0\) additionally, then \(f_{\infty}=0\), and so the generalized Minty mixed variational inequality \(\operatorname{GMMVI}(F,K)\) reduces to the generalized Minty variational inequality. Hence, Zhong and Huang’s Theorem 4.2 [19] generalizes [30, Theorem 3.2] from the generalized Minty variational inequality to the generalized Minty mixed variational inequality. In addition, for the case of \(J=f=0\), He [29] obtained the corresponding result of Zhong and Huang’s Theorem 4.2 [19] when either the mapping or the constraint set is perturbed (see Theorems 4.1 and 4.4 of [29]). Therefore, Zhong and Huang’s Theorem 4.2 [19] is a generalization of Theorems 4.1 and 4.4 in [29].
The following lemma shows that \(\operatorname{GVHVI}(F,J,K)\) is closely related to its generalized Minty variational-hemivariational inequality.
Lemma 4.7
(i) If F is \((f,J)\)-pseudomonotone on K, then every solution of \(\operatorname{GVHVI}(F,J,K)\) solves \(\operatorname{GMVHVI}(F,J,K)\). (ii) If F is upper hemicontinuous on K with nonempty values, then every solution of \(\operatorname{GMVHVI}(F,J,K)\) solves \(\operatorname{GVHVI}(F,J,K)\).
Proof
Corollary 4.8
(i) If F is f-pseudomonotone on K, then every solution of \(\operatorname{GMVI}(F,K)\) solves \(\operatorname{GMMVI}(F,K)\). (ii) If F is upper hemicontinuous on K with nonempty values, then every solution of \(\operatorname{GMMVI}(F,K)\) solves \(\operatorname{GMVI}(F,K)\).
Proof
Whenever \(J=0\), we know that \(J^{\circ}=0\), \(\operatorname{GMVHVI}(F,J,K)\) (resp., \(\operatorname{GVHVI}(F,J,K)\)) reduces to \(\operatorname{GMMVI}(F,K)\) (resp., \(\operatorname{GMVI}(F,K)\)), and the \((f,J)\)-pseudomonotonicity of F reduces to the f-pseudomonotonicity of F. Utilizing Lemma 4.7, we immediately deduce Corollary 4.8. □
Lemma 4.9
- (i)
the solution set of \(\operatorname{GVHVI}(F,J,K)\) is nonempty and bounded;
- (ii)
the solution set of \(\operatorname{GMVHVI}(F,J,K)\) is nonempty and bounded;
- (iii)
\(K_{\infty}\cap\{d\in X:\langle y^{*},d\rangle+J^{\circ}(y,d)+f_{\infty}(d)\leq0, \forall y^{*}\in F(y), y\in K\}=\{0\}\).
Proof
Under the assumptions of F, the equivalence of (i) and (ii) is stated in Lemma 4.7. Then the conclusion follows from Theorem 3.4. □
Corollary 4.10
- (i)
the solution set of \(\operatorname{GMVI}(F,K)\) is nonempty and bounded;
- (ii)
the solution set of \(\operatorname{GMMVI}(F,J,K)\) is nonempty and bounded;
- (iii)
\(K_{\infty}\cap\{d\in X:\langle y^{*},d\rangle+f_{\infty}(d)\leq 0, \forall y^{*}\in F(y), y\in K\}=\{0\}\).
Proof
Whenever \(J=0\), we know that \(J^{\circ}=0\), the \((f,J)\)-pseudomonotonicity of F reduces to the f-pseudomonotonicity of F, and statements (i), (ii), and (iii) in Lemma 4.9 reduce to (i), (ii), and (iii) in Corollary 4.10. Utilizing Lemma 4.9, we deduce the desired result. □
Remark 4.11
It is known that if \(J=0\) then Lemmas 4.7 and 4.9 reduce to Lemmas 4.1 and 4.2 in [19], respectively. Thus, Lemmas 4.7 and 4.9 generalize and extend Lemmas 4.1 and 4.2 in [19] from the generalized mixed variational inequality to the generalized variational-hemivariational inequality. If \(f=0\) additionally, then Lemma 4.2 in [19] reduces to Theorem 3.2 of [29]. Therefore, Lemma 4.2 in [19] generalizes Theorem 3.2 of [29] from the generalized variational inequality to the generalized mixed variational inequality.
From Theorem 4.4 and Lemma 4.9, we can easily establish the following stability result for the generalized variational-hemivariational inequality.
Theorem 4.12
- (i)
for each \(v\in V\), the mapping \(x\mapsto F(x,v)\) is upper hemicontinuous and \((f,J)\)-pseudomonotone on M;
- (ii)
the solution set of \(\operatorname{GVHVI}(F(\cdot,v_{0}),J,L(u_{0}))\) is nonempty and bounded.
Proof
Since F is upper hemicontinuous with nonempty values and \((f,J)\)-pseudomonotone on M, it follows from Lemma 4.9 that the solution set of \(\operatorname{GMVHVI}(F(\cdot,v),J,L(u))\) coincides with that of \(\operatorname{GVHVI}(F(\cdot,v),J,L(u))\), and so the result follows directly from Theorem 4.4. This completes the proof. □
Notes
Declarations
Funding
This research was partially supported by the Grant MOST 106-2923-E-039-001-MY3.
Authors’ contributions
All authors have made the same contribution and finalized the current version of this article. They read and approved the final manuscript.
Competing interests
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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Authors’ Affiliations
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