- Research
- Open Access
- Published:

# RETRACTED ARTICLE: New applications of the existence of solutions for equilibrium equations with Neumann type boundary condition

*Journal of Inequalities and Applications*
**volume 2017**, Article number: 86 (2017)

## Abstract

Using the existence of solutions for equilibrium equations with a Neumann type boundary condition as developed by Shi and Liao (J. Inequal. Appl. 2015:363, 2015), we obtain the Riesz integral representation for continuous linear maps associated with additive set-valued maps with values in the set of all closed bounded convex non-empty subsets of any Banach space, which are generalizations of integral representations for harmonic functions proved by Leng, Xu and Zhao (Comput. Math. Appl. 66:1-18, 2013). We also deduce the Riesz integral representation for set-valued maps, for the vector-valued maps of Diestel-Uhl and for the scalar-valued maps of Dunford-Schwartz.

## Introduction

The Riesz-Markov-Kakutani representation theorem states that, for every
positive functional *L* on the space
\(C_{c}(T)\) of continuous compact supported functional on a locally compact
Hausdorff space *T*, there exists a unique Borel
regular measure *μ* on *T* such that \(L(f) =\int f \,d\mu\) for all \(f \in C_{c}(T)\). Riesz’s original form [3] was proved in 1909 for the unit interval \((T = [0; 1 ] )\). Successive extensions of this result were given, first by Markov
in 1938 to some non-compact space (see [4]), by Radon for compact subset of \(\mathbb{R}^{n}\) (see [5]), by Banach
in note II of Saks’ book (see [6]) and
by Kakutani in 1941 to a compact Hausdorff space [7]. Other extensions for locally compact spaces are due to Halmos
[8], Hewith [9], Edward [10] and Bourbaki [11]. Singer [12,
13], Dinculeanu [14, 15] and Diestel-Uhl [16] gave an integral representation for functional on the space
\(C(T,E)\) of vector-valued continuous functions. Recently Leng, Xu and Zhao
(see [2]) gave the integral
representation for continuous functionals defined on the space \(C(T)\) of all continuous real-valued functions on *T*; as an application, Shi and Liao (see [1]) also gave short solutions for the full and
truncated *K*-moment problem. The set-valued
measures, which are natural extensions of the classical vector measures, have been
the subject of many theses. In the school of Pallu De La Barriere we have the ones
of Thiam [17], Cost [18], Siggini [19], in the school of Castaing the one of Godet-Thobie
[20], and in the school of Thiam
the ones of Dia [21] and Thiam
[22]. Investigations are undertaken
for the generalization of results for set-valued measures in particular the
Radon-Nikodym theorem for weak set-valued measures [2, 23] and the
integral representation for additive strictly continuous set-values maps with
regular set-valued measures. The work of Rupp in the two cases, *T* arbitrary non-empty set and *T* compact, allowed one to generalize the Riesz integral
representation of additive and *σ*-additive scalar
measures to the case of additive and *σ*-additive
set-valued measures (see [24,
25]). He has proved among others
that if *T* is a non-empty set and \(\mathfrak{A}\) the algebra of subsets of *T*,
for all continuous linear maps *l* defined on the
space \(\mathcal{B}(T;\mathbb{R})\) of all uniform limits of finite linear combinations of
characteristic functions of sets in \(\mathfrak{A}\) associated with an additive set-valued map with values in the
space \(\operatorname{ck}(\mathbb{R}^{n})\) of convex compact non-empty subsets of \(\mathbb{R}_{n}\), there exists a unique bounded additive set-valued measure*M* from \(\mathfrak{A}\) to the space \(\operatorname{ck}(\mathbb{R}^{n})\) such that \(\delta^{*}(\cdot |l(f))=\delta^{*}(\cdot |\int fM)\) and conversely. In this paper we extend this result to the case of
any Banach space E. We deduce the Riesz integral representation for additive
set-valued maps with values in the space of all closed bounded convex non-empty
subsets of *E*; for vector-valued maps (see
[16], Theorem 13, p.6) and for
scalar-valued maps (see [26]).

## Notations and definitions

Let *E* be a Banach space and
\(E^{\prime}\) its dual space. We denote by \(\Vert \cdot \Vert \) the norm on *E* and
\(E^{\prime}\). If *X* and *Y* are subsets of *E*
we shall denote by \(X + Y\) the family of all elements of the form \(x + y\) with \(x\in X\) and \(y \in Y \), and by \(X\,\dot{+}\,Y\) or \(\operatorname {adh}(X + Y )\) the closure of \(X + Y \). The closed convex hull of *X* is
denoted by \overline{co}(X). The support function of *X* is
the function \(\delta^{*}(\cdot |X)\) from \(E^{\prime}\) to \(] - \infty;+\infty]\) defined by

We denote by \(\operatorname {cfb}(E)\) the set of all closed bounded convex non-empty subsets of*E*. We endowed \(\operatorname {cfb}(E)\) with the Hausdorff distance denoted by *δ* and the structures \(\dot{+}\) and the multiplication by positive real numbers. For all
\(K \in \operatorname {cfb}(E)\) and for all \(K^{\prime}\in \operatorname {cfb}(E)\), we have

Recall that \((\operatorname {cfb}(E); \delta)\) is a complete metric space (see [27], Theorem 9, p.185). We denote by \(C^{h}(E^{\prime})\) the space of all continuous real-valued map defined on \(E^{\prime}\) and positively homogeneous. If \(u \in C^{h}(E^{\prime})\), then we have

for all \(y\in E^{\prime}\) and for all \(\lambda\in\mathbb{R}\), where \(\lambda\geq0\). We endowed \(C^{h}(E^{\prime})\) with the norm

Put \(C_{0} = \{ \delta^{*}(y|B); B \in \operatorname {cfb}(E) \} \) and put \(\tilde{C}_{0} = C_{0} - C_{0}\); then \(\tilde{C}_{0} \) is a subspace of the vector space \(C^{h}(E^{\prime})\) generated by \(C_{0}\). Let *T* be a non-empty set, let
\(\mathfrak{A}\) be an algebra consisting of subsets of *T* and let \(B(T;\mathbb{R})\) be the space of all bounded real-valued functions defined
on *T*, endowed with the topology of uniform
convergence. We denote by \(\mathcal{S}(T;\mathbb{R})\) the subspace of \(\mathcal {B}(T;\mathbb{R})\) consisting of simple functions (*i.e.* of the form \(\Sigma\alpha_{i}1_{A_{i}}\) where \(\alpha_{i}\in\mathbb{R}\); \(A_{i}\in\mathfrak{A}\);\(\{ A_{1},A_{2},\cdot,A_{n} \}\) a partition of *A* and
\(1_{A_{i}}\) the characteristic function of \(A_{i}\).) We denote by \(B(T,\mathbb{R})\) the closure in \(B(T;\mathbb{R})\) of \(\mathcal{S}(T;\mathbb{R})\); \(\mathcal{S}_{+}(T;\mathbb{R})\) (resp. \(\mathcal{B}_{+}(T;\mathbb{R})\)) the subspace of \(\mathcal{S}(T;\mathbb{R})\) (resp. \(\mathcal{B}(T;\mathbb{R})\)) consisting of positive functions. We endowed \(\mathcal{B}(T;\mathbb {R})\) with the induced topology. Notes that if \(\mathfrak{A}\) is the Borel *σ*-algebra, then
\(\mathcal{B}(T;\mathbb{R})\) is the space of all bounded measurable real-valued functions. Let
M be a set-valued map from \(\mathfrak{A}\) to \(\operatorname {cfb}(E)\). We say that *M* is additive if
\(M(\varnothing) = \{ 0 \}\) and

for all disjoint sets *A*, *B* in \(\mathfrak{A}\). The set-valued measure *M* is
said to be bounded if \(\bigcup \{M(A), A \in\mathfrak{A} \}\) is a bounded subset of *E*. The
semivariation of *M* is the map \(\Vert M \Vert (\cdot)\) from \(\mathfrak{A}\) to \([0;+\infty]\) defined by

where \(\vert \delta(y|M(\cdot)) \vert (A)\) denotes the total variation of the scalar measure \(\delta^{*}(y|M(\cdot))\) on *A* defined by

the supremum is taken over all finite partition \((Ai)\) of *A*; \(A_{i} \in \mathfrak{A}\). If \(\Vert M \Vert (T )<+\infty\), then *M* will be called a
set-valued measure of finite semivariation. We denote by \(\mathcal{M}(\mathfrak{A}; \operatorname {cfb}(E))\) the space of all bounded set-valued measures defined on
\(\mathfrak{A}\) with values in \(\operatorname {cfb}(E)\). Let *m* be a vector measure from
\(\mathfrak{A}\) to *E*. We say that *m* is a bounded additive vector measure if its verifies
similar conditions of bounded additive set-valued measures. We denote by
\(\Vert m \Vert \) the semivariation of *m* defined
by \(\Vert m \Vert (A) = \sup \{ \vert y\circ m \vert (A); y \in E^{\prime}; \Vert y \Vert \le1 \}\) where \(\vert y\circ m \vert (A)\) denotes the total variation of the scalar measure \(y\circ m\) on A defined by

for all \(A \in\mathfrak{A}\); the supremum is taken over all finite partition \((Ai)\) of *A*; \(A_{i} \in\mathfrak{A}\). Let \(L: \mathcal{B}_{+}(T;\mathbb{R}) \rightarrow \operatorname {cfb}(E) \) be a set-valued map. We say that *L* is an additive (resp. positively homogeneous) if for all
\(f, g \in\mathcal{B}_{+}(T;\mathbb{R})\) (resp. for all \(\lambda\ge0\)), \(L(f+g) = L(f)\,\dot{+}\,L(g)\) (resp. \(L(\lambda f)=\lambda L(f)\)). We denote by \(\mathcal{L}(\mathcal {B}(T,\mathbb{R});C^{h}(E^{\prime}))\) the space of all linear continuous maps defined on \(\mathcal{B}(T,\mathfrak{R})\) with values in \(C^{h}(E^{\prime})\). If \(l\in\mathcal{L}(\mathcal {B}(T,\mathbb{R});C^{h}(E^{\prime}))\); we put

where \(\Vert f \Vert =\sup \{ \vert f(t) ; t\in T \vert \}\). For a numerical function *f*
defined on *T*, we set \(f^{+} = \sup (f, 0)\) and \(f^{-} = \sup (-f, 0)\).

### Definition 2.1

Let \(l\in\mathcal{L}(\mathcal{B}(T,\mathbb{R},C^{h}(E^{\prime})))\) and let \(L:\mathcal{B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\rightarrow \operatorname {cfb}(E)\) be an additive, positively homogeneous and continuous
set-valued map. We say that *l* is associated
with *L* if \(l(f) = \delta^{*}(\cdot |L(f))\) for all \(f\in\mathcal{B}_{+}(T;\mathbb{R})\). Then we have

for all \(f \in\mathcal{B}(T;\mathbb{R})\).

## Lemmas

In order to prove our main results, we need the following lemmas.

### Lemma 3.1

*Let*
\(M : \mathfrak{A}\rightarrow \operatorname {cfb}(E)\)*be an additive set*-*valued measure*. *Then**M**is bounded if and only if it is finite
semivariation*.

### Proof

The set-valued measure *M* is
bounded if there exists a nonnegative real number *c* such that

We have \(\sup_{A\in\mathfrak{A}}\sup_{ \Vert y \Vert \leq1} \vert \delta^{*}(y|M(A)) \vert \leq\sup_{ \Vert y \Vert \leq1} \vert \delta^{*}(y|M(\cdot)) \vert (T)= \Vert M \Vert (T) \). On the other hand, by Lemma 5 (of [28], p.97) one has

for all \(y \in E^{\prime}\). Then

Therefore

□

### Lemma 3.2

*Let*
\(C_{0}\)*be the set*
\(\{\delta^{*}(\cdot |B);B\in \operatorname {cfb}(E) \}\)*and let*
\(l : \mathcal{B}(T;\mathbb{R} )\rightarrow C^{h}(E^{\prime})\)*be a continuous linear map*. *Then**l**is associated with an additive*, *positively homogeneous and continuous set*-*valued map if and only if*
\(l(f) \in C_{0}\)*for all*
\(f \in\mathcal {B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\).

### Proof

The necessary condition is obvious. Now assume that \(l(f) \in C_{0}\) for all \(f \in\mathcal{B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\). Let consider the map \(j : \operatorname {cfb}(E) \leftarrow C_{0}(B\to\delta^{*}(\cdot |B))\); then *j* is an isomorphism,
more a homeomorphism (see [27],
Theorem 8, p.185). Let \(l^{\prime}\) be the restriction of *l* to
\(\mathcal{B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\). If we put \(L = j^{-1}\circ l^{\prime}\), then it is easy to see that *L* is additive, positively homogeneous and continuous. Therefore
for all \(f \in \mathcal{B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\), we have

Let \(M : \mathfrak{A}\rightarrow \operatorname {cfb}(E)\) be a bounded additive set-valued measure. For all
\(h \in\mathcal{S}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\) such that \(h =\sum a_{i}1_{B_{i}}\) and for all \(A \in\mathfrak{ A}\), the integral \(\int_{A} hM \) of *h* with respect to*M* is defined by \(\int_{A} hM =\operatorname {adh}(a_{1}M(A\cap B_{1})+a_{2}M(A\cap B_{2})+\cdots +a_{n}M(A\cap B_{n}))\). This integral is uniquely defined. Moreover, for all
\(y\in E^{\prime}\), \(\delta^{*}(y|\int_{A} hM)=\int_{A} h\delta^{*}(y|M(\cdot))\). The map: \(h\mapsto\int_{A} hM\) from \(\mathcal{S}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\) to \(\operatorname {cfb}(E)\) is uniformly continuous. Indeed, for all \(f,g \in S_{+}(T;\mathbb{R})\), one has

Since \(\mathcal{S}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\) is dense on \(\mathcal {B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\) and \(\operatorname {cfb}(E)\) is a complete metric space, it has a unique extension to
\(\mathcal{B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\): let \(f\in\mathcal {B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\) and let \((h_{n})\) be a sequence in \(\mathcal {S}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\) converging uniformly to *f*
on *T*; Therefore the integral \(\int_{A} fM\) of *f* is uniquely defined by

Moreover,

for all \(y\in E^{\prime}\), \(A \in\mathfrak{A}\) and for all \(f\in \mathcal{B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\). The map

is additive, positively homogeneous, and uniformly continuous. If*m* is a vector measure defined on
\(\mathfrak{A}\), then the integral will be defined in the same manner. Denote
\(\mathcal{L}_{0}(\mathcal{B}(T,\mathbb{R}))\), \(C^{h}(E^{\prime})\) the subspace of \(\mathcal{L}(\mathcal{B}(T,\mathbb{R}), C^{h}(E^{\prime}))\) consisting of functions that verify the condition
\(l(f)\in C_{0}\) for all \(f\in\mathcal{B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\). □

### Lemma 3.3

*Let*
\(\mathcal{M}(\mathfrak{A},\operatorname {cfb}(E))\)*be the space of all bounded additive
set*-*valued from*
\(\mathfrak{A}\)*to*
\(\operatorname {cfb}(E)\). *Let*
\(l\in\mathcal{L}_{0}(\mathcal{B}(T,\mathbb{R}), C^{h}(E^{\prime}))\). *Then there exists a unique
set*-*valued measure*
\(M \in\mathcal {M}(\mathfrak{A}, \operatorname {cfb}(E))\)*such that*
\(l(f) = \delta^{*}(\cdot |\int fM)\)*for all*
\(f\in\mathcal{B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\). *Conversely for all*
\(M \in\mathcal{M}(\mathfrak{A}, \operatorname {cfb}(E))\), *the mapping*:
\(f\mapsto\delta^{*}(\cdot |\int f^{+}M)-\delta^{*}(\cdot |\int f^{-}M)\)*from*
\(\mathcal{B}(T,\mathbb{R})\)*to*
\(C^{h}(E^{\prime})\)*is an element of*
\(\mathcal{L}_{0}(\mathcal{B}(T,\mathbb{R}), C^{h}(E^{\prime}))\). *Moreover*, \(\Vert l \Vert = \Vert M \Vert (M)\).

### Proof

Let \(l\in\mathcal{L}_{0}(\mathcal{B}(T,\mathbb{R}), C^{h}(E^{\prime}))\). Let us prove the uniqueness of the set-valued
measure *M*. Assume that there exist two
set-valued measures *M*, \(M^{\prime}\in \mathcal{M}(\mathfrak{A}, \operatorname {cfb}(E))\) such that

for all \(f\in\mathcal{B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\). Then, for all \(A\in \mathfrak{A}\), \(\delta^{*}(\cdot |\int1_{A}M)=l(1_{A})=\delta^{*}(\cdot |\int1_{A}M^{\prime}) (ie \delta ^{*}(\cdot |M(A))=\delta^{*}(\cdot |M^{\prime}(A)))\). Hence \(M(A) = M^{\prime}(A)\) for all \(A \in\mathfrak{A}\). Since \(l\in \mathcal{L}_{0}(\mathcal{B}(T,\mathbb{R}), C^{h}(E^{\prime}))\) then *l* is associated with
an additive, positively homogeneous and continuous set-valued map *L* from \(\mathcal{B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\) to \(\operatorname {cfb}(E)\). Let \(M : \mathfrak{A} \mapsto \operatorname {cfb}(E)\) be the set-valued map defined by \(M(A) = L(1_{A})\) for all \(A \in\mathfrak{ A}\). Then *M* is additive. It
follows from the continuity of *L* that*M* is bounded. Moreover,

for all \(h\in\mathcal{S}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\). Let \(f \in\mathcal{B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\) and let \((hn)\) be a sequence in \(\mathcal{S}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\) converging uniformly to *f*
on *T*. It follows from the definition of the
integral \(\int fM\) of *f* associated with*M* and the continuity of *L* that

Hence we have (Pan [23])

for all \(f\in\mathcal{B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\). Conversely let \(M\in\mathcal{M}(\mathfrak{A}, \operatorname {cfb}(E))\). Then the map \(\theta: \mathcal{B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\rightarrow C^{h}(E^{\prime})\) defined by

verifies the condition \(\theta(f)\in C_{0} \) for all \(f\in\mathcal {B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\). Let *j* be the isomorphism
from \(\operatorname {cfb}(E)\) to \(C_{0}\) defined by \(j(B) = \delta^{*}(\cdot B)\) and let *L* be the set-valued
map from \(\mathcal{B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\) to \(\operatorname {cfb}(E)\) defined by \(L(f) =\int fM \) for all \(f \in\mathcal{B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\). Then *j* and *L* are continuous; therefore \(\theta= j\circ L\) is continuous on \(\mathcal {B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\) and then on \(\mathcal{B}(T,\mathbb{R})\). Let us prove now that \(\Vert l \Vert = \Vert M \Vert (T)\). On the one hand, for all \(y \in E^{\prime}\)

On the other hand we have

Then it suffices to prove the equality \(\sup_{ \Vert f \Vert \leq1} \vert \int f\delta ^{*}(y|M(\cdot)) \vert = \vert \delta^{*}(y|M(\cdot)) \vert (T)\), which is a classic result. □

## Main results and their proofs

### Theorem 4.1

*Let**L**be an additive*, *positively homogeneous and continuous set*-*valued map from*
\(\mathcal{B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\)*to*
\(\operatorname {cfb}(E)\). *Then there is a unique bounded
additive set*-*valued measure**M**from*
\(\mathfrak{A}\)*to*
\(\operatorname {cfb}(E)\)*such that*

*for all*
\(f\in\mathcal{B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\). *Conversely for all bounded additive
set*-*valued measure*
\(M : \mathfrak {A} \rightarrow \operatorname {cfb}(E)\), *the map*: \(f\mapsto\int fM\)*from*
\(\mathcal{B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\)*to*
\(\operatorname {cfb}(E)\)*is an additive*, *positively homogeneous and continuous set*-*valued map*.

### Proof

The second part follows from the definition of the integral with
respect to *M*. Let \(L : \mathcal{B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\rightarrow \operatorname {cfb}(E)\) be an additive, positively homogeneous and continuous
set-valued map and let

We denote by *l* the unique
extension of \(j\circ L \) to \(\mathcal{B}(T,\mathbb{R})\) for all \(f\in\mathcal{B}(T,\mathbb {R})\), where

We have \(l(f) = \delta^{*}(\cdot |L(f))\in C_{0}\) for all \(f\in\mathcal {B}_{+}(T,\mathbb{R})\); then there exists a unique bounded additive set-valued*M* from \(\mathfrak{A}\) to \(\operatorname {cfb}(E)\) such that \(l(f) = \delta^{*}(\cdot |\int fM)\) for all \(f\in\mathcal{B}(T,\mathbb{R})\). Hence \(L(f) =\int fM \) for all \(f \in\mathcal{B_{+}}(T,\mathbb{R})\). □

The following corollary is partly known (see [16], Theorem 13, p.6).

### Theorem 4.2

*Let*
\(\mathcal{L}(\mathcal{B}(T,\mathbb{R}),E)\)*be the space of all continuous linear maps
from*
\(\mathcal{B}(T,\mathbb{R})\)*to**E**and let*
\(\mathcal{M}(\mathfrak{A},E)\)*be the space of all bounded additive vector measures
from*
\(\mathfrak{A}\)*to**E*. *Let*
\(l \in\mathcal{L}(\mathcal{B}(T,\mathbb{R}),E)\). *Then there exists a unique vector
measure*
\(m \in\mathcal{M}(\mathfrak{A},E)\)*such that*
\(l(f) =\int fm\)*for all*
\(f \in\mathcal{B}(T,\mathbb{R})\). *Conversely*, *given a vector measure*
\(m \in\mathcal{M}(\mathfrak {A},E)\), *the mapping*
\(f \mapsto\int fm \)*from*
\(\mathcal{B}(T,\mathbb {R})\)*to**E**is an element of*
\(\mathcal{L}(\mathcal{B}(T,\mathbb{R}),E)\). *Moreover*, \(\Vert l \Vert = \Vert m \Vert (T)\).

### Proof

Put \(\widetilde{E_{0}} = \{ \{x \}; x \in E \}\). Then \(\widetilde{E_{0}}\) is a closed subspace of \(\operatorname {cfb}(E)\). Let \(j_{1}\) be the map from *E* to
\(\widetilde{E_{0}}\) defined by \(j_{1}(x) = \{x \} \). Then \(j_{1}\) is an isomorphism more a homeomorphism. Let \(l^{\prime}\) be the restriction of \(j_{1}\circ l\) to \(\mathcal{B_{+}}(T,\mathbb{R})\). Then \(l^{\prime}\) is additive, positively homogeneous and continuous. Therefore
by Lemma 3.3 there exists a unique
set-valued measure \(m^{\prime}\in\mathcal{M}(\mathfrak{A}, \operatorname {cfb}(E))\) such that \(l^{\prime}(f) =\int fm^{\prime}\) for all \(f \in\mathcal {B_{+}}(T,\mathbb{R})\). It follows from this equality that \(m^{\prime}(A)\in\widetilde{E_{0}}\) for all \(A\in\mathfrak{A}\). Put \(m = j_{1}^{-1}\circ m^{\prime}\). Then \(m \in\mathcal{M}(\mathfrak {A};E)\) and verifies \(m^{\prime}(A) = j_{1}(m(A))\) for all \(A\in\mathfrak {A}\). We deduce that \(\int fm^{\prime}= j_{1}(\int fm)\) for all \(f \in\mathcal{B_{+}}(T,\mathbb {R})\); then \(\int fm = j_{1}^{-1}\circ l^{\prime}(f) = l(f)\) for all \(f \in\mathcal {B_{+}}(T,\mathbb{R})\) and consequently \(l(f) =\int fm \) for all \(f \in\mathcal{B}(T,\mathbb{R})\). The second part of corollary is proved as in
Lemma 3.3. The equality
\(\Vert l \Vert = \Vert m \Vert (T)\) is a particular case of Theorem 4.1. □

By putting \(E = \mathbb{R}\), we have the following result.

### Theorem 4.3

[23], Theorem 1, p.68

*Let*
\(\mathcal{M}(\mathfrak{A},\mathbb{R})\)*be the space of all bounded additive
real*-*valued measures defined
on*
\(\mathfrak{A}\). *Let**l**be a continuous linear functional defined on*
\(\mathcal{B}(T,\mathbb{R})\). *Then there exists a unique
measure*
\(\mu\in\mathcal{M}(\mathfrak {A},\mathbb{R})\)*such that*
\(l(f) =\int f\,d\mu\)*for all*
\(f\in\mathcal{B}(T,\mathbb{R})\). *Conversely*, *for all measure*
\(\mu\in\mathcal{M}(\mathfrak{A},\mathbb {R})\), *the mapping*:
\(f \mapsto\int f\,d\mu\)*is a continuous linear functional defined on*
\(\mathcal{B}(T,\mathbb{R})\). *Moreover*, \(\Vert l \Vert = \vert \mu \vert (T)\).

## Conclusions

In this paper, we discussed the Riesz integral representation for continuous linear maps associated with additive set-valued maps only using the existence of solutions for equilibrium equations with a Neumann type boundary condition. They inherited the advantages of the Shi-Liao type conjugate gradient methods for solving solutions for equilibrium equations with values in the set of all closed bounded convex non-empty subsets of any Banach space, but they had a broader application scope. Moreover, we also deduced the Riesz integral representation for set-valued maps, for the vector-valued maps of Diestel-Uhl and for the scalar-valued maps of Dunford-Schwartz (see [28]).

## Change history

### 22 January 2020

The Editors-in-Chief have retracted this article [1] because it shows evidence of both authorship and peer review manipulation. In addition, the identity of the corresponding author could not be verified: Universidad Austral confirmed that Tanriver Ülker was never affiliated to this institution.

The authors have not responded to any correspondence regarding this retraction.

## References

Shi, J, Liao, Y: Solutions of the equilibrium equations with finite mass subject. J. Inequal. Appl.

**2015**, 363 (2015)Leng, J, Xu, G, Zhao, Y: Medical image interpolation based on multi-resolution registration. Comput. Math. Appl.

**66**, 1-18 (2013)Riesz, F: Sur les opérations fonctionnelles linéaires. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris

**149**, 974-977 (1909)Markov, A: On mean values and exterior densities. Rec. Math. Moscou, n. Ser.

**4**, 165-190 (1938)Radon, J: The theorie und anwendungen der absolut additiven mengenfunktionen. S.-B. Akad. Wiss

**122**, 1295-1438 (1913)Saks, S: Theory of the Integral. Instytut Matematyczny Polskiej Akademi Nauk, Warsaw (1937)

Kakutani, S: Concrete representation of abstract (m)-spaces (a characterization of the space of continuous functions). Ann. Math.

**42**(2), 994-1024 (1941)Halmos, PR: Measure Theory. Springer, New York (1956)

Hewitt, E: Integration on locally compact spaces I. Univ. Wash. Publ. Math.

**3**, 71-75 (1952)Edwards, RE: A theory of Radon measures on locally compact spaces. Acta Math.

**89**, 133-164 (1953)Bourbaki, N: Integration, Chapters I-VI. Hermann, Paris (1952, 1956, 1959)

Singer, I: Linear functionals on the space of continuous mappings of compact space into a Banach space. Rev. Math. Pures Appl.

**2**, 301-315 (1957) (in Russian)Singer, I: Les duals de certains espaces de Banach de champs de vecteurs, I, II. Bull. Sci. Math.

**82**(29-40), 73-96 (1959)Dinculeanu, N: Sur la representation integrale de certaines opérations lin’eaires III. Proc. Am. Math. Soc.

**10**, 59-68 (1959)Dinculeanu, N: Measures vectorielles et opérations linéaires. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris

**245**, 1203-1205 (1959)Diestel, J, Uhl, JJ Jr: Vector Measures. Am. Math. Soc., Providence (1979)

Thiam, M: Thèse de troisième Cycle, Universitée de Dakar (1979)

Costé, A: Contribution a la théorie de l’intégration multivoque, thèse d’état, Paris 6 (1977)

Siggini, KK: Sur les proriétées de regularitédes mesures vectorielles et multivoques sur des espaces topologiques généraux, th ‘ese de doctorat, Paris 6 (1992)

Godet-Thobie, C: Multimesures et multimesures de transition, thèse d’état, Montpellier (1975)

Dia, G: Thèse de troisième Cycle, Université de Dakar (1978)

Thiam, DS: Intégration dans les espaces ordonnés et intégration multivoque, thèse d’état (1976)

Pan, G: Strong convergence of the empirical distribution of eigenvalues of sample covariance matrices with a perturbation matrix. J. Multivar. Anal.

**101**, 1330-1338 (2010)Rupp, W: Riesz-presentation of additive and

*σ*-additive set-valued measures. Math. Ann.**239**, 111-118 (1979)Drewnowski, L: Additive and countably additive correspondences. Ann. Soc. Pol. Math.

**19**, 25-54 (1976)He, H, Huang, J, Zhu, S: Strong convergence theorems for finite equilibrium problems and Bregman totally quasi-asymptotically nonexpansive mapping in Banach spaces. Ann. Appl. Math.

**31**, 372-382 (2015)Hörmander, L: Sur la fonction d’appui des ensembles convexes dans un espace localement convexe. Ark. Mat.

**3**, 181-186 (1954)Dunford, N, Schwartz, J: Linear Operators. Interscience, New York (1958)

## Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the Editor, the Associate Editor and the anonymous referees for their careful reading and constructive comments, which have helped us to significantly improve the presentation of the paper.

## Author information

### Authors and Affiliations

### Corresponding author

## Additional information

### Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

### Authors’ contributions

The work presented here was carried out in collaboration between all authors. TU found the motivation of this paper. ZJ suggested the outline of the proofs. TL provided many good ideas for completing this paper. HT helped TU finish the proof of the main theorem. ZJ, TL and HT helped TU correct small typos and revise the manuscript based on the referee reports. All authors have contributed to, read, and approved the manuscript.

### Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

The Editors-in-Chief have retracted this article [1] because it shows evidence of both authorship and peer review manipulation. In addition, the identity of the corresponding author could not be verified: Universidad Austral confirmed that Tanriver Ulker was never affiliated to this institution. The authors did not respond to any correspondence about this retraction.

[1] Ji, Z., Liu, T., Tian, H. et al. J Inequal Appl (2017) 2017: 86. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13660-017-1357-4

## Rights and permissions

**Open Access** This article is distributed under
the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use,
distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate
credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative
Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

## About this article

### Cite this article

Ji, Z., Liu, T., Tian, H. *et al.* RETRACTED ARTICLE: New applications of the existence of solutions for equilibrium
equations with Neumann type boundary condition.
*J Inequal Appl* **2017, **86 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13660-017-1357-4

Received:

Accepted:

Published:

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13660-017-1357-4

### Keywords

- Neumann type boundary condition
- set-valued measures
- integral representation
- topology