- Open Access
Almost convergence and generalized weighted mean II
© Kirişci; licensee Springer. 2014
- Received: 8 January 2013
- Accepted: 28 January 2014
- Published: 25 February 2014
In this paper, we investigate some new sequence spaces, which naturally emerge from the concepts of almost convergence and generalized weighted mean. The object of this paper is to introduce the new sequence spaces obtained as the matrix domain of generalized weighted mean in the spaces of almost null and almost convergent sequences. Furthermore, the beta and gamma dual spaces of the new spaces are determined and some classes of matrix transformations are characterized.
MSC:47A15, 46A32, 47D20.
- almost convergence
- matrix domain
- sequence spaces
- generalized weighted mean
- β- and γ-duals
- matrix transformations
By a sequence space, we understand a linear subspace of the space of all complex sequences which contains ϕ, the set of all finitely non-zero sequences, where ℂ denotes the complex field and . We write , c, and for the classical spaces of all bounded, convergent and null sequences, respectively. Also by bs, cs, , and , we denote the spaces of all bounded, convergent, absolutely, and p-absolutely convergent series, respectively.
A sequence spaces μ with a linear topology is called a K-space if each of the maps defined by is continuous for all . A K-space is called an FK-space if μ is a complete linear metric space; a BK-space is a normed FK-space.
The sequence is the Schauder basis for and , and is the Schauder basis for the space c, while the space has no Schauder basis, where and e denote the sequences whose only non-zero entry is a 1 in the n th place for each and .
A subset M of a metric space is said to be dense in X if . A metric space is said to be separable if it contains a countable subset which is dense in X. Note that a nonseparable space has no Schauder basis.
for all ; here depends only on n and only on k.
for all .
The main purpose of present paper is to introduce the sequence spaces and derived as the domain of the generalized weighted mean in the spaces and f of almost null and almost convergent sequences, and to determine the β- and γ-duals of these spaces. Furthermore, some classes of matrix mappings on/in the space are characterized.
Lorentz  proved that if and only if uniformly in m. It is well known that a convergent sequence is almost convergent such that its ordinary and generalized limits are equal.
where is defined by (2.1). Also, by fs, we denote the space of all almost convergent series.
In this section, we introduce the sequence spaces and and give some results concerning them, and we determine their beta and gamma duals.
Şimşek et al.  have introduced a modular structure of the sequence spaces defined by Altay and Başar  and studied Kadec-Klee and uniform Opial properties of this sequence space on Köthe sequence spaces.
Theorem 3.2 The sequence spaces and strictly include the spaces and f, respectively.
Proof By the definition on the sequence spaces and f, it is immediate that and .
The sequence is not almost convergent but Gt is almost convergent to . This step completes the proof. □
Theorem 3.3 The inclusions and strictly hold.
Proof It is clear that and because of Theorem 3.2 and . Further, we show that these inclusions are strict.
Consider the sequence with the sequence y in the set given by Miller and Orhan  as , where the blocks of 0’s are increasing by factors of 100 and blocks of 1’s are increasing by factors of 10. Then the sequence x is not in but in the space . This shows that the inclusion is strict.
Since the inclusion strictly holds by Theorem 3.2, by combining this fact with the well-known strict inclusion , one can easily see that the inclusion also strictly holds, as was desired. □
It is known from Corollary 3.3 of Başar and Kirişçi  that the Banach space f has no Schauder basis. It is also known from Theorem 2.3 of Jarrah and Malkowsky  that the domain of a matrix A in a normed sequence space μ has a basis if and only if μ has a basis whenever is a triangle. Combining these two facts one can immediately conclude that neither the space nor the space have a Schauder basis.
Lemma 3.4 [, Theorem 2.1]
for all . Then the inclusion holds if and only if the matrix is in the classes , where is the diagonal matrix defined by for all .
Lemma 3.5 [, Theorem 3.1]
From Lemma 3.4 and Lemma 3.5, we may give the theorem determining the β- and γ-duals of the sequence space .
where is defined by (3.4). We therefore observe by (3.5) that or bs whenever if and only if or whenever . We obtain from Lemma 3.4 and Lemma 3.5 the result that or if and only if or , which is what we wished to prove. □
As a direct consequence of Theorem 3.6, we have the following.
As an essential work on the algebraic and topological properties of the spaces and f, Başar and Kirişçi  have recently introduced the sequence spaces and derived by the domain of the generalized difference matrix in the sequence spaces and f, respectively. Following Başar and Kirişçi , Kayaduman and Şengönül have studied the domain and of the Cesàro mean of order one in the spaces and f, in . They have determined the β- and γ-duals of the new spaces and , and they characterize some classes of matrix transformations on/in the new sequence spaces. They complete the paper by a nice section including some core theorems related to the matrix classes on/in the new sequence space . Quite recently, in , Sönmez has introduced the domain of the triple band matrix in the sequence space f. In this paper, the β- and γ-duals of the space are determined. Furthermore, the classes and of infinite matrices are characterized together with some other classes, where μ is any given sequence space. Finally, in  Candan has studied the sequence spaces and as the domain of the double sequential band matrix in the sequence spaces and f.
Since Kirişçi and Başar , Başar and Kirişçi , Kayaduman and Şengönül , Sönmez [26, 29], and Candan [27, 30] are recent works on the domain of certain triangle matrices in the spaces , f, and in the classical sequence spaces, the present paper is their natural continuation. Also these spaces are special cases of the notion of A-almost convergence and -convergence ([31, 32]) as well as analogous to the definition introduced in .
Finally, we should note that the investigation of the domain of some particular limitation matrices, namely Cesàro means of order m, Nörlund means, etc., in the spaces and f will lead to new results which are not comparable with the present results.
MK defined the new almost sequence spaces derived by generalized weighted mean and studied some properties. MK computed the duals of new spaces and characterized the matrix classes. In last section, it was summarized to studies in manuscripts and given some open problems by MK. The author read and approved the final manuscript.
Some of the results of this study presented in First International Conference on Analysis and Applied Mathematics (ICAAM 2012, Gumushane University, Turkey) .
I would like to express thanks to Professor Feyzi Başar, Department of Mathematics, Fatih University, Buyukcekmece, Istanbul-34500, Turkey, for his valuable help on some results and the useful comments which improved the presentation paper. I have benefited much from the constructive reports of the anonymous referees, and I am grateful for their valuable comments on the first draft on this paper, which improved the presentation and readability. This work was supported by Scientific Projects Coordination Unit of Istanbul University. Project number 27008.
- Başar F: Summability Theory and Its Applications. Bentham Science Publishers, Sharjah; 2011.Google Scholar
- Lorentz GG: A contribution to the theory of divergent sequences. Acta Math. 1948, 80: 167-190. 10.1007/BF02393648MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Malkowsky E, Savaş E: Matrix transformations between sequence spaces of generalized weighted means. Appl. Math. Comput. 2004, 147: 333-345. 10.1016/S0096-3003(02)00670-7MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Altay B, Başar F: Some paranormed sequence spaces of non-absolute type derived by weighted mean. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 2006,319(2):494-508. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2005.06.055MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Altay B, Başar F:Generalization of the sequence space derived by weighted mean. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 2007, 330: 174-185. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2006.07.050MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Şimsek N, Karakaya V, Polat H: On some geometrical properties of generalized modular spaces of Cesaro type defined by weighted means. J. Inequal. Appl. 2009., 2009: Article ID 932734Google Scholar
- Boos J: Classical and Modern Methods in Summability. Oxford University Press, New York; 2000.Google Scholar
- Wilansky A: Summability through functional analysis. In Mathematics Studies. North-Holland, Amsterdam; 1984.Google Scholar
- Miller HI, Orhan C: On almost convergent and statistically convergent subsequences. Acta Math. Hung. 2001, 93: 135-151. 10.1023/A:1013877718406MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Başar F, Kirişçi M: Almost convergence and generalized difference matrix. Comput. Math. Appl. 2011,61(3):602-611. 10.1016/j.camwa.2010.12.006MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jarrah AM, Malkowsky E: BK spaces, bases and linear operators. Rend. Circ. Mat. Palermo II 1990, 52: 177-191.Google Scholar
- Altay B, Başar F: Certain topological properties and duals of the domain of a triangle matrix in a sequence space. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 2007, 336: 632-645. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2007.03.007MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Siddiqi JA: Infinite matrices summing every almost periodic sequences. Pac. J. Math. 1971,39(1):235-251. 10.2140/pjm.1971.39.235MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Duran JP: Infinite matrices and almost convergence. Math. Z. 1972, 128: 75-83. 10.1007/BF01111514MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Altay B, Başar F, Mursaleen M:On the Euler sequence spaces which include the spaces and I. Inform. Sci. 2006,176(10):1450-1462. 10.1016/j.ins.2005.05.008MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Altay B, Başar F: Some Euler sequence spaces of non-absolute type. Ukr. Math. J. 2005,57(1):1-17. 10.1007/s11253-005-0168-9View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Malkowsky E: Recent results in the theory of matrix transformations in sequence spaces. Mat. Vesn. 1997, 49: 187-196.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Ng P-N, Lee P-Y: Cesàro sequence spaces of non-absolute type. Comment. Math. Prace Mat. 1978,20(2):429-433.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Kirişçi M: On the space of Euler almost null and Euler almost convergent sequences. Commun. Fac. Sci. Univ. Ank. Ser. A1 Math. Stat. 2013,62(1):1-16.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Kayaduman K, Şengönül M: The spaces of Cesàro almost convergent sequences and core theorems. Acta Math. Sci., Ser. B, Engl. Ed. 2012,32(6):2265-2278.MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Öztürk E: On strongly regular dual summability methods. Commun. Fac. Sci. Univ. Ank. Ser. A1 Math. Stat. 1983, 32: 1-5.Google Scholar
- King JP: Almost summable sequences. Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 1966, 17: 1219-1225. 10.1090/S0002-9939-1966-0201872-6View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Başar F, Solak I: Almost-coercive matrix transformations. Rend. Mat. Appl. 1991,11(2):249-256.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Başar F: f-conservative matrix sequences. Tamkang J. Math. 1991,22(2):205-212.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Başar F, Çolak R: Almost-conservative matrix transformations. Turk. J. Math. 1989,13(3):91-100.Google Scholar
- Sönmez A: Almost convergence and triple band matrix. Math. Comput. Model. 2013,57(9-10):2393-2402. 10.1016/j.mcm.2011.11.079View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Candan M: Almost convergence and double sequential band matrix. Acta Math. Sci. 2014,34B(2):354-366.MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kirişçi M, Başar F: Some new sequence spaces derived by the domain of generalized difference matrix. Comput. Math. Appl. 2010,60(5):1299-1309. 10.1016/j.camwa.2010.06.010MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sönmez A: Some new sequence spaces derived by the domain of the triple band matrix. Comput. Math. Appl. 2011,62(2):641-650. 10.1016/j.camwa.2011.05.045MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Candan M: Domain of the double sequential bandmatrix in the classical sequence spaces. J. Inequal. Appl. 2012., 2012: Article ID 281Google Scholar
- Mursaleen M:A note on -convergence. Anal. Math. 1987, 13: 45-47. 10.1007/BF01905931MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mursaleen M: On A -invariant mean and A -almost convergence. Anal. Math. 2011,37(3):173-180. 10.1007/s10476-011-0302-xMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mursaleen M, Jarrah AM, Mohiuddine SA: Almost convergence through the generalized de la Vallee-Pousin mean. Iran. J. Sci. Technol., Trans. A, Sci. 2009,33(A2):169-177.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Kirişçi M: Almost convergence and generalized weighted mean. AIP Conf. Proc. 1470. First International Conference on Analysis and Applied Mathematics 2012, 191-194.Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.