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The ergodic shadowing property and homoclinic classes

Abstract

In this paper, we show that if a diffeomorphism satisfies a local star condition and it has the ergodic shadowing property then it is hyperbolic.

MSC:37C29, 37C50.

1 Introduction

The notion of structural stability was introduced be Andronov and Pontrjagin [1]. This means that under small perturbations the dynamics are topologically equivalent. The system is Ω-stable; then it is called Axiom A, that is, the non-wandering set is the closure of the set of periodic points and it is hyperbolic. It turned out to be one of the most problems in the differentiable dynamical systems to find if a structurally stable system satisfies the Axiom A property. Let M be a closed C manifold. Mañé defined a set F(M) of diffeomorphisms having a C 1 -neighborhood U such that every diffeomorphism inside of U has all periodic orbits of hyperbolic. In [2], Mañé proved that every surface diffeomorphism of F(M) satisfies Axiom A. Hayashi has shown in [3] that every diffeomorphism of F(M) satisfies Axiom A. Robinson has proven in [4] that a dynamical system is structurally stable when the system has the shadowing property. Also, in [5] Sakai showed that if a dynamical system belongs to the C 1 -interior of the set of all systems having the shadowing property then it is a structurally stable diffeomorphism. Lee has shown in [6] that if a dynamical system belongs to the C 1 -interior of the set of all systems having the ergodic shadowing property then it is a structurally stable diffeomorphism. Carvalho proved in [7] that the C 1 -interior of the set of all systems having the two-side limit shadowing property is equal to the set of transitive Anosov diffeomorphisms, Pilyugin has shown in [8] that the C 1 -interior of the set of all systems having the limit shadowing property is equal to the set Ω-stable diffeomorphisms. Recently, in [9] Sakai proved that for C 1 -generically if a diffeomorphism has the s-limit shadowing property on the chain recurrent set then it is a Ω-stable diffeomorphism. From that, we know that the shadowing property is very close to the stability theory (see [10]). In [2], Mañé introduced the family of periodic sequences of linear isomorphisms of R dim M , and from that we can define the local star condition (see [[2], Proposition II.1]).

In this paper, we introduce the notion of the local star condition, and study under the local star condition the some shadowing property.

Let M be a closed C manifold, and denote by d the distance on M induced by a Riemannian metric on the tangent bundle TM. Denote by Diff(M) the space of diffeomorphisms of M endowed with the C 1 -topology. Let fDiff(M). We say that f has the shadowing property if for every ϵ>0 there is δ>0 such that for any δ-pseudo orbit { x i } i = a b of f (a<b), there is a point yM such that d( f i (y), x i )<ϵ for all aib1. The notion of the ergodic shadowing property was introduced by Fakhari and Ghane in [11]. For any δ>0, a sequence ξ= { x i } i Z is δ-ergodic pseudo orbit of f if for N p n + (ξ,f,δ)={i:d(f( x i ), x i + 1 )δ}{0,1,,n1}, and N p n (ξ,f,δ)={i:d( f 1 ( x i ), x i 1 )δ}{n+1,,1,0}

lim n # N p n + ( ξ , f , δ ) n =0and lim n # N p n ( ξ , f , δ ) n =0.

We say that f has the ergodic shadowing property if for any ϵ>0, there is a δ>0 such that every δ-ergodic pseudo orbit ξ= { x i } i Z of f is ϵ-shadowed in ergodic sense for some point zM, that is, for N s n + (ξ,f,z,ϵ)={i:d( f i (z), x i )ϵ}{0,1,,n1}, and N s n (ξ,f,z,ϵ)={i:d( f i (z), x i )ϵ}{n+1,,1,0},

lim n # N s n + ( ξ , f , z , ϵ ) N =0and lim n # N s n ( ξ , f , z , ϵ ) N =0.

Let Λ be a closed f-invariant set. We say that f has the ergodic shadowing property in Λ if for any ϵ there is δ>0 such that for any δ-ergodic pseudo orbit { x i } i Z Λ of f is ϵ-shadowed in ergodic sense for some point zΛ.

By the result of [11], if a diffeomorphism has the ergodic shadowing property then it is chain transitive, moreover, it is topologically mixing. Thus the diffeomorphism does not contain a sink and sources. We know that a Morse-Smale diffeomorphism has the shadowing property. But the diffeomorphism contains sinks and sources. Thus it does not have the ergodic shadowing property. We say that f is topologically mixing if for any nonempty open sets U and V, there is N>0 such that f n (U)V for nN. In [[11], Theorem A], Fakhari and Ghane proved that f has the ergodic shadowing property if and only if f has the shadowing property and it is topologically mixing. Let P(f) be the set of periodic points of f. Denote by Orb(p) the periodic f-orbit of pP(f). Let pP(f) be a hyperbolic saddle with period π(p)>0, then there are a local stable manifold W ϵ s (p) and a local unstable manifold W ϵ ( p ) u (p) for some ϵ=ϵ(p)>0. Then we see that if x W ϵ s (p), then d( f i (x), f i (p))ϵ, for i0 and if x W ϵ u (p) then d( f i (x), f i (p))ϵ for i0. The stable manifold W s (p) and the unstable manifold W u (p) of p are defined as usual. The dimension of the stable manifold W s (p) is called the index of p, and we denote it by index(p).

A point x W s (p) W u (p) is called a transversal homoclinic point of f if the above intersection is transversal at x; i.e., x W s (p) W u (p). The closure of the set of transversal homoclinic points of f associated to p is called the transversal homoclinic class of f associated to p, and it is denoted by H f (p). It is clear that H f (p) is compact, invariant, and transitive.

Let ΛM be an f-invariant closed set. We say that Λ is a hyperbloc if the tangent bundle T Λ M has a continuous Df-invariant splitting E s E u and there exist constants C>0 and 0<λ<1 such that

D x f n | E s ( x ) C λ n and D x f n | E u ( x ) C λ n

for all xΛ and n0.

For δ>0, a sequence { x i } Z is called a δ-average pseudo orbit of f if there is N=N(δ)>0 such that for all nN and kZ,

1 n i = 0 n 1 d ( f ( x i + k ) , x i + k + 1 ) <δ.

We say that f has the average shadowing property if for any ϵ>0, there is δ>0 such that for any δ-average pseudo orbit { x i } i Z , there is zM such that

lim sup n 1 n i = 0 n 1 d ( f i ( z ) , x i ) <ϵ.

In [12], Lee showed that if fF( H f (p)) and f has the average shadowing property in H f (p) then H f (p) is hyperbolic. For that, we show the following.

Theorem 1.1 Let H f (p) be the homoclinic class associated to the hyperbolic periodic point p. Assume H f (p) satisfies the following properties, (i) and (ii):

  1. (i)

    f satisfies the local star condition, and

  2. (ii)

    f has the ergodic shadowing property in H f (p).

Then H f (p) is hyperbolic.

The average shadowing property is not the ergodic shadowing property. Indeed, the map f:[0,1][0,1] is defined by f(x)=2x if 0x<1/2, and f(x)=2x+2 if 1/2x1. Then the map has two fixed points. In [[11], Example], the map has the ergodic shadowing property. However, in [[13], Theorem 3.1], Park and Zhang proved that if the number of the fixed points is greater than two, then the map f does not have the average shadowing property.

2 Proof of Theorem 1.1

Let M be as before, and let fDiff(M). We say that a compact f-invariant set ΛM admits a dominated splitting if the tangent bundle T Λ M has a Df-invariant splitting EF and there exist constants C>0 and 0<λ<1 such that

D f n | E ( x ) D f n | F ( f n ( x ) ) C λ n

for all xΛ and n0. Note that the above dominated splitting can be rewritten as

Df | E ( x ) /m(Df | F ( x ) )< λ 2

for every xΛ, where m(A)=inf{Av:v=1} denotes the mininorm of a linear map A. It always extends to a neighborhood which is called an admissible neighborhood of Λ. By Mañé (see [2]), the family of periodic sequences of linear isomorphisms of R dim M generated by Dg (g close to f) along the hyperbolic periodic point q Λ g (U)P(g) is uniformly hyperbolic. This means that there is ϵ>0 such that for any g C 1 -nearby f,q Λ g (U)P(g) and any sequence of linear maps A i : T g i ( q ) M T g i + 1 ( q ) M with A i D g i ( q ) g<ϵ (i=1,2,,π(q)), i = 0 π ( q ) 1 A i , is hyperbolic. Thus if fF( H f (p)) then we have the following.

Proposition 2.1 Suppose that fF( H f (p)). Let U(f) and U be given by the definition of F( H f (p)). Then there are m>0, C>0 and λ(0,1) such that

  1. (a)

    H f (p) admits a dominated splitting T H f ( p ) M=EF with dimE=dim W s (p).

  2. (b)

    For any qU(f) if q Λ g (U)P(g) has minimum period π(q) then

    i = 0 k 1 D g i m ( q ) g m | E s ( g i m ( q ) ) <C λ k and i = 0 k 1 D g i m ( q ) g m | E u ( g i m ( q ) ) <C λ k ,

where k=[π(q)/m].

By Proposition 2.1, we get the following, which was found by [[14], Theorem 3.2].

Proposition 2.2 Suppose that fF( H f (p)). Let U(f) and U be given by the definition of F( H f (p)). Then there are m>0, λ(0,1), and L>0 such that we have the following.

  1. (a)

    H f (p) admits a dominated splitting T H f ( p ) M=EF with dimE=dim W s (p) such that for every x H f (p),

    D f m | E ( x ) /m ( D f m | F ( x ) ) < λ 2 .
  2. (b)

    For any qU(f) if q Λ g (U)P(g) then index(q)=index( p g ), and if π(q)>L then

    i = 0 π ( q ) 1 D g i m ( q ) g m | E s ( g i m ( q ) ) < λ π ( q ) and i = 0 π ( q ) 1 D g i m ( q ) g m | E u ( g i m ( q ) ) < λ π ( q ) .

Theorem 2.3 [[14], Proposition 2.3]

Let λ(0,1) and let Λ be a closed f-invariant set with a continuous Df-invariant splitting T Λ M=EF such that

Df | E ( x ) /m(Df | F ( x ) )< λ 2

for any xΛ. Assume that there is a point xΛ such that

logλ<log λ 1 = lim sup n 1 n i = 0 n 1 log ( D f | E ( f i ( x ) ) ) <0

and

lim inf n 1 n i = 0 n 1 log ( D f | E ( f i ( x ) ) ) <log λ 1 .

Then for any λ 2 and λ 3 with λ< λ 2 < λ 1 < λ 3 <1, and any neighborhood U of Λ, there exists a hyperbolic periodic point q if index(q)=dimE such that its orbit Orb(q) is entirely contained in U and the derivatives along Orb(q) satisfy

i = 0 k 1 Df | E s ( f i ( q ) ) < λ 3 k and i = k 1 π ( q ) 1 Df | E s ( f i ( q ) ) > λ 2 π ( q ) k + 1

for all k=1,2,,π(q). Moreover, q can be chosen such that π(q) is arbitrarily large.

Lemma 2.4 Let { x i } i Z be a δ-ergodic pseudo orbit of f in Λ. If { x i } i Z is ϵ shadowed in ergodic by some point zΛ then

lim n 1 n + 1 i = 0 n d ( f i ( z ) , x i ) <ϵ.

Proof Suppose that f has the ergodic shadowing property in Λ. Since { x i } i Z Λ is a δ-ergodic pseudo orbit of f, there is zΛ such that

lim n # { i { 0 , 1 , , n } : d ( f i ( z ) , x i ) ϵ } n + 1 =0.

Set k=#{i{0,1,,n}:d( f i (z), x i )ϵ}, and diamΛ=l. Then

i = 0 n d ( f i ( z ) , x i ) <kl+(n+1k)ϵ.

Thus

1 n + 1 i = 0 n d ( f i ( z ) , x i ) < 1 n + 1 ( k l + ( n + 1 k ) ϵ ) = k l n + 1 + n ϵ n + 1 k ϵ n + 1 .

Therefore, if n then

1 n + 1 i = 0 n d ( f i ( z ) , x i ) < k l n + 1 + n ϵ n + 1 k ϵ n + 1 ϵ.

Thus

lim n 1 n + 1 i = 0 n d ( f i ( z ) , x i ) <ϵ.

 □

Let Λ be a closed f-invariant set.

Lemma 2.5 [[12], Lemma 2.2]

Let φ(x) be a continuous function defined on Λ. For any ϵ>0 there is a δ>0 such that for any two sequences { x i } i Z , { y i } i Z if

lim sup n 1 n i = 0 n 1 d( x i , y i )<δ,

then

lim sup n 1 n i = 0 n 1 φ ( x i ) φ ( y i ) <ϵ.

Proposition 2.6 Let p be a hyperbolic periodic point and let λ(0,1) and L1 be given. Assume that the homoclinic class H f (p) satisfies the following properties:

  1. (a)

    H f (p) admits a dominated splitting T H f ( p ) M=EF with dimE=dim W s (p) such that for every x H f (p),

    Df | E ( x ) /m(Df | F ( x ) )< λ 2 .
  2. (b)

    For any q H f (p)P(f) if q is hyperbolic and π(q)>L, then index(q)=index(p), and

    i = 0 π ( q ) 1 Df | E s ( f i ( q ) ) < λ π ( q ) and i = 0 π ( q ) 1 Df | E u ( f i ( q ) ) < λ π ( q ) .
  3. (c)

    f has the ergodic shadowing property in H f (p).

Then H f (p) is hyperbolic for f.

Let E T Λ M be a subbundle. We say that E T Λ M is contracting if there exist C>0 and 0<λ<1 such that D f n | E ( x ) <C λ n for every xΛ and every nN. We will say that E is expanding if E is contracting respecting f 1 .

Lemma 2.7 Let H f (p) satisfy (a)-(c) of Proposition  2.6. Suppose that E is not contracting. Then for any λ< γ 1 < γ 2 <1, there is z H f (p) such that

lim inf n 1 n i = 0 n 1 log ( D f | E ( f i ( z ) ) ) <log γ 1 < lim sup n 1 n i = 0 n 1 log ( D f | E ( f i ( z ) ) ) <log γ 2 .

Proof Suppose that E is not contracting. Then there is y H f (p) such that

i = 0 n 1 Df | E ( f i ( y ) ) 1

for all nN. For any x H f (p) and iN, we define φ(x)=logDf | E ( f i ( x ) ) . By Lemma 2.5, for any ξ>0 there is ϵ>0 such that for any sequences { x i } i Z , { y i } i Z H f (p) if

lim sup n 1 n i = 0 n 1 d( x i , y i )<ϵ,

then

lim sup 1 n i = 0 n 1 φ ( x i ) φ ( y i ) <ξ.

Fix 0<ξ<min{(log γ 2 log γ 1 )/2,(log γ 1 logλ)/2}. Since f has the ergodic shadowing property in H f (p), there is δ>0 such that any δ-ergodic pseudo orbit in H f (p) can be ergodic shadowed by some point in H f (p). Since H f (p)= { q P ( f ) : q p } ¯ , there is a hyperbolic periodic orbit Orb(q) H f (p) with π(q)>L such that for any y H f (p), there is qOrb(q) such that d(y,q)<δ. Then we can construct a δ-ergodic pseudo orbit { x i } i Z H f (p) as in the proof of [[12], Lemma 2.3]. We obtain the sequence

{ x i } i Z = { , f ( q ) , q , y , f ( y ) , , f l 1 ( y ) , q , , q , f l 1 + 1 ( y ) , , f l 1 + l 2 ( y ) , q , } .

It is a δ-pseudo orbit of f. Thus we know #{i{0,1,2,,n}:d(f( x i ), x i + 1 )δ}=0 and so, it is a δ-ergodic pseudo orbit of f. As in the proof of [[12], Lemma 2.3], we have

lim sup n 1 n i = 0 n 1 log ( D f | E ( x i ) ) = 1 2 ( log γ 1 + log γ 2 ) and lim inf n 1 n i = 0 n 1 log ( D f | E ( x i ) ) 1 2 ( log γ 1 + log λ ) .

Since f has the ergodic shadowing property in H f (p), we can take z H f (p) such that z is the ergodic shadowing point of { x i } i Z . Then we show that

  1. (i)
    lim inf n 1 n i = 0 n 1 log ( D f | E ( f ( z ) ) ) <log γ 1 ,
  2. (ii)
    log γ 1 < lim sup n 1 n i = 0 n 1 log ( D f | E ( f i ( z ) ) ) ,and
  3. (iii)
    lim sup n 1 n i = 0 n 1 log ( D f | E ( f i ( z ) ) ) <log γ 2 .

Proof of (i) Since ξ<(log γ 1 logλ)/2, by Lemma 2.5

lim inf n 1 n i = 0 n 1 φ ( f i ( z ) ) < lim inf n 1 n i = 0 n 1 φ ( x i ) + lim sup n 1 n i = 0 n 1 φ ( f i ( z ) ) φ ( x i ) < 1 2 ( log γ 1 + log λ ) + ξ < log γ 1 .

Proof of (ii) Since ξ<(log γ 2 log γ 1 )/2, by Lemma 2.5

lim sup n 1 n i = 0 n 1 φ ( f i ( z ) ) > lim sup n 1 n i = 0 n 1 φ ( x i ) lim sup n 1 n i = 0 n 1 φ ( f i ( z ) ) φ ( x i ) > 1 2 ( log γ 1 + log γ 2 ) ξ > log γ 1 .

Proof of (iii) Since ξ<(log γ 2 log γ 1 )/2, by Lemma 2.5

lim sup n 1 n i = 0 n 1 φ ( f i ( z ) ) < lim sup n 1 n i = 0 n 1 φ ( x i ) + lim sup n 1 n i = 0 n 1 φ ( f i ( z ) ) φ ( x i ) < 1 2 ( log γ 1 + log γ 2 ) + ξ < log γ 2 .

 □

Proof of Theorem 1.1 Since fF( H f (p)), H f (p) admits a dominated splitting. Then we have T H f ( p ) M=EF. To derive a contradiction, we may assume that E is not contracting. Then by Lemma 2.7, for any λ< γ 1 < γ 2 <1 there is z H f (p) such that

lim inf n 1 n i = 0 n 1 log ( D f | E ( f i ( z ) ) ) <log γ 1 < lim sup n 1 n i = 0 n 1 log ( D f | E ( f i ( z ) ) ) <log γ 2 .

By Theorem 2.3, for any λ< λ 2 < λ 3 <1, there is a periodic point q close to H f (p) such that

i = 0 k 1 D f | E s ( f i ( q ) ) < λ 3 k and i = k π ( q ) 1 D f | E s ( f i ( q ) ) > λ 2 π ( q ) k + 1 .
(1)

Since H f (p) is locally maximal, Orb(q) H f (p). Since fF( H f (p)), (1) is a contradiction by Proposition 2.6(b). This is the proof of Theorem 1.1. □

3 Stably ergodic shadowing property in H f (p)

Let M be as before, and let fDiff(M). We introduce the notion of the C 1 -stably ergodic shadowing property.

Definition 3.1 We say that f has the C 1 -stably ergodic shadowing property in Λ if there are a compact neighborhood U of f and a C 1 -neighborhood U(f) of f such that Λ= Λ f (U)= n Z f n (U) (locally maximal), and for any gU(f), g has the ergodic shadowing property in Λ g (U), where Λ g (U)= n Z g n (U) is the continuation of Λ.

For given x,yM, we write xy if for any δ>0, there is a δ-pseudo orbit { x i } i = a b (a<b) of f such that x a =x and x b =y. We write xy if xy and yx. The set of points {xM:xx} is called the chain recurrent set of f and is denoted by R(f). It is well known that R(f) is a closed and f-invariant set. If we denote the set of periodic points of f by P(f), then P(f)Ω(f)R(f). Here Ω(f) is the non-wandering set of f. We write xy if xy and yx. The relation induces an equivalence relation on R(f), whose classes are called chain components of f. Denote by C f (p)={xM:xp and px}. Then we know that H f (p) C f (p) (see [15]). In [15], Lee et al. proved that if f has the C 1 -stably shadowing property on C f (p) then C f (p) is a hyperbolic homoclinic class. They used Mañé’s ergodic closing lemma. In this section we use Theorem 1.1. We say that Λ is topologically transitive if for any neighborhoods U, V in Λ there is n>0 such that f n (U)V. Note that it can be rewritten as follows: there is xΛ such that ω(x)=Λ, where ω(x) is the omega limit set. Note that if Λ is topologically mixing then Λ is topologically transitive. In [16], Lee showed that if f has the C 1 -stably ergodic shadowing property on a transitive set Λ then it admits a dominated splitting. In this section, we will show that if f has the C 1 -stably ergodic shadowing property in H f (p) then it is hyperbolic. The following is the main theorem in this section.

Theorem 3.2 Let Λ be a closed f-invariant set. Suppose that f has the C 1 -stably ergodic shadowing property in Λ. Then fF(Λ).

To prove Theorem 3.2, we need the following lemmas.

Lemma 3.3 [[11], Theorem A]

f has the ergodic shadowing property if and only if f has the shadowing property and it is topologically mixing.

Lemma 3.4 Let p,qΛ be hyperbolic periodic points. If f has the ergodic shadowing property in Λ then W s (p) W u (q) and W u (p) W s (q).

Proof Since p,qΛ are hyperbolic periodic points, there are ϵ(p)>0 and ϵ(q)>0 such that W ϵ ( p ) σ (p) and W ϵ ( q ) σ (q) are defined, where σ=s,u. Suppose that f has the ergodic shadowing property in Λ. By Lemma 3.3, f has the shadowing property in Λ and Λ is topologically mixing. Since f has the shadowing property in Λ, we can take ϵ=min{ϵ(p),ϵ(q)}. For that ϵ>0, take δ>0 be as in the definition of the shadowing property. Since Λ is topologically mixing, Λ is topologically transitive. Then there is a point xΛ such that ω(x)=Λ. For simplicity, we may assume that f(p)=p and f(q)=q. Then there exist l 1 >0 and l 2 >0 such that d( f l 1 (x),p)<δ and d( f l 2 (x),q)<δ. To construct a δ-pseudo orbit of f, we assume that l 2 = l 1 +k for some k>0. Put (i) x i = f i (p) for i0 (ii) x i = f l 1 + i (x) for 0<i<k and (iii) x k + i = f l 2 + i (x) for all i0. Then as in the proof of [[17], Lemma 2.3], we get W u (p) W s (q). The other case is similar. □

We say that f is a Kupka Smale diffeomorphism if every periodic points are hyperbolic and if p,qP(f), then W s (p) is transversal to W u (q). It is well known that if f is a Kupka Smale then f is residual in Diff(M). Denote by KS the set of all Kupka Smale diffeomorphisms.

Proof of Theorem 3.2 Since f has the C 1 -stably ergodic shadowing property in Λ, there exist a C 1 -neighborhood U(f) of f and a neighborhood U of Λ such that for any gU(f), g has the ergodic shadowing property in Λ g (U). To derive a contradiction, we may assume that fF( H f (p)). Then there are gU(f) and q Λ g (U)P(g) such that q is not hyperbolic. Then there is g 1 U(f) close to g such that g 1 has two hyperbolic periodic points γ 1 , γ 2 Λ g 1 (U)P( g 1 ) with different indices. Then we know dim W s ( γ 1 )+dim W u ( γ 2 )<dimM or dim W u ( γ 1 )+dim W s ( γ 2 )<dimM. Without loss of generality, we assume that dim W s ( γ 1 )+dim W u ( γ 2 )<dimM. Take hU(f)KS. Since h is Kupka Smale, W s ( γ 1 , h ) W u ( γ 2 , h )=, where γ 1 , h and γ 2 , h are continuations of γ 1 and γ 2 , respectively. Since h has the ergodic shadowing property in Λ h (U), h has the shadowing property in Λ h (U) and Λ h (U) is topologically mixing. Since γ 1 , h , γ 2 , h Λ h (U)P(h), by Lemma 3.4 we get a contradiction. □

We say that Λ is a basic set if Λ is transitive, and locally maximal. If the basic set Λ is hyperbolic then we can easily show that there is a periodic point such that the orbit of the periodic point is dense in Λ. We say that Λ is an elementary set if Λ is mixing, and locally maximal. Note that every elementary set is a basic set.

Theorem 3.5 Let H f (p) be the homoclinic class. If f has the C 1 -stably ergodic shadowing property in H f (p) then H f (p) is a hyperbolic elementary set.

Proof of Theorem 3.5 Suppose that f has the C 1 -stably ergodic shadowing property in  H f (p). By Theorem 3.2, fF( H f (p)). Since f has the ergodic shadowing property in H f (p), by Lemma 3.3 H f (p) is topologically mixing. Thus by Theorem 1.1, H f (p) is a hyperbolic elementary set. □

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Acknowledgements

We wish to thank the referee for carefully reading the manuscript and providing us with many good suggestions. This work is supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Korea (No. 2011-0007649).

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Correspondence to Manseob Lee.

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Lee, M. The ergodic shadowing property and homoclinic classes. J Inequal Appl 2014, 90 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1186/1029-242X-2014-90

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Keywords

  • shadowing
  • ergodic shadowing
  • local star condition
  • homoclinic class