# Common fixed point theorems for generalized expansive mappings in partial *b*-metric spaces and an application

- Chuanxi Zhu
^{1}, - Wenqing Xu
^{1}Email author, - Chunfang Chen
^{1}and - Xiaozhi Zhang
^{1}

**2014**:475

https://doi.org/10.1186/1029-242X-2014-475

© Zhu et al.; licensee Springer. 2014

**Received: **5 March 2014

**Accepted: **12 November 2014

**Published: **27 November 2014

## Abstract

In this paper, we first introduce the concepts of generalized ${(\psi ,f)}_{\lambda}$-expansive mappings and generalized ${(\varphi ,g,h)}_{\lambda}$-weakly expansive mappings designed for three mappings. Then we establish some common fixed point results for such two new types of mappings in partial *b*-metric spaces. These results generalize and extend the main results of Karapınar *et al.* (J. Inequal. Appl. 2014:22, 2014), Nashine *et al.* (Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2013:203, 2013) and many comparable results from the current literature. Moreover, some examples and an application to a system of integral equations are given here to illustrate the usability of the obtained results.

**MSC:**47H10, 54H25.

## Keywords

*b*-metric spaceexpansive mappingsweakly expansive mappingscommon fixed point

## 1 Introduction and preliminaries

Fixed point theory in metric spaces is an important branch of nonlinear analysis, which is closely related to the existence and uniqueness of solutions of differential equations and integral equations.

There are many generalizations of the concept of metric spaces in the literature. In particular, Matthews [1] introduced the concept of a partial metric space as a part of the study of denotational data for networks and proved that the Banach contraction mapping theorem can be generalized to the partial metric context for applications in program verification. After that, fixed point results in partial metric spaces have been studied by many authors (see [2–7]). On the other hand, the concept of a *b*-metric space was introduced and studied by Bakhtin [8] and Czerwik [9]. Since then, several papers have been published on the fixed point theory of the variational principle for single-valued and multi-valued operators in *b*-metric spaces (see [8–15] and the references therein). We begin with the definition of *b*-metric spaces.

**Definition 1.1** ([8])

Let *X* be a nonempty set and $\lambda \ge 1$ be a given real number. A function $d:X\times X\to {R}^{+}$ is said to be a *b*-metric on *X* if, for all $x,y,z\in X$, the following conditions are satisfied:

(b_{1}) $d(x,y)=0$ if and only if $x=y$,

(b_{2}) $d(y,x)=d(x,y)$,

(b_{3}) $d(x,z)\le \lambda [d(x,y)+d(y,z)]$.

In this case, the pair $(X,d)$ is called a *b*-metric space.

Recently, Shukla [16] introduced the notion of a partial *b*-metric space as a generalization of partial metric spaces and *b*-metric spaces.

**Definition 1.2** ([16])

Let *X* be a nonempty set and $\lambda \ge 1$ be a given real number. A mapping ${p}_{b}:X\times X\to {R}^{+}$ is said to be a partial *b*-metric on *X* if for all $x,y,z\in X$, the following conditions are satisfied:

(${\mathrm{p}}_{b1}$) ${p}_{b}(x,x)={p}_{b}(y,y)={p}_{b}(x,y)$ if and only if $x=y$,

(${\mathrm{p}}_{b2}$) ${p}_{b}(x,x)\le {p}_{b}(x,y)$,

(${\mathrm{p}}_{b3}$) ${p}_{b}(x,y)={p}_{b}(y,x)$,

(${\mathrm{p}}_{b4}$) ${p}_{b}(x,z)\le \lambda [{p}_{b}(x,y)+{p}_{b}(y,z)]-{p}_{b}(y,y)$.

A partial *b*-metric space is a pair $(X,{p}_{b})$ such that *X* is a nonempty set and ${p}_{b}$ is a partial *b*-metric on *X*. The number $\lambda \ge 1$ is called the coefficient of $(X,{p}_{b})$.

In [17], Mustafa *et al.* introduced a new concept of partial *b*-metric by modifying Definition 1.2 in order to guarantee that each partial *b*-metric ${p}_{b}$ can induce a *b*-metric. The advantage of the new definition of partial *b*-metric is that by using it one can define a dependent *b*-metric which is called the *b*-metric associated with partial *b*-metric ${p}_{b}$. The new concept of partial *b*-metric is as follows.

**Definition 1.3** ([17])

Let *X* be a nonempty set and $\lambda \ge 1$ be a given real number. A mapping ${p}_{b}:X\times X\to {R}^{+}$ is said to be a partial *b*-metric on *X* if for all $x,y,z\in X$, the following conditions are satisfied:

(${\mathrm{p}}_{b1}$) ${p}_{b}(x,x)={p}_{b}(y,y)={p}_{b}(x,y)$ if and only if $x=y$,

(${\mathrm{p}}_{b2}$) ${p}_{b}(x,x)\le {p}_{b}(x,y)$,

(${\mathrm{p}}_{b3}$) ${p}_{b}(x,y)={p}_{b}(y,x)$,

(${\mathrm{p}}_{b4}^{\prime}$) ${p}_{b}(x,z)\le \lambda [{p}_{b}(x,y)+{p}_{b}(y,z)-{p}_{b}(y,y)]+\frac{(1-\lambda )}{2}[{p}_{b}(x,x)+{p}_{b}(z,z)]$.

The pair $(X,b)$ is called a partial *b*-metric space with coefficient $\lambda \ge 1$.

Hence, a partial *b*-metric in the sense of Definition 1.3 is also a partial *b*-metric in the sense of Definition 1.2.

In a partial *b*-metric space $(X,{p}_{b})$, if ${p}_{b}(x,y)=0$, then (${\mathrm{p}}_{b1}$) and (${\mathrm{p}}_{b2}$) imply that $x=y$. But the converse does not hold always. It is clear that every partial metric space is a partial *b*-metric space with coefficient $\lambda =1$ and every *b*-metric is a partial *b*-metric space with same coefficient and zero distance. However, the converse of these facts need not hold. The following example shows that a partial *b*-metric on *X* might be neither a partial metric, nor a *b*-metric on *X*.

**Example 1.1** ([17])

for all $x,y\in X$. Then $(X,{p}_{b})$ is a partial *b*-metric space with the coefficient $\lambda ={2}^{q-1}>1$, but it is neither a *b*-metric nor a partial metric space.

Each partial *b*-metric ${p}_{b}$ on *X* generates a topology ${\tau}_{{p}_{b}}$ on *X*, which has a subbase of the family of open ${p}_{b}$-balls $\{{B}_{{p}_{b}}(x,\epsilon ):x\in X,\epsilon >0\}$, where ${B}_{{p}_{b}}(x,\epsilon )=\{y\in X:{p}_{b}(x,y)<{p}_{b}(x,x)+\epsilon \}$, for all $x\in X$ and $\epsilon >0$. The topology space $(X,{p}_{b})$ is ${T}_{0}$, but does not need to be ${T}_{1}$. The topology ${\tau}_{{p}_{b}}$ on *X* is called a ${p}_{b}$-metric topology.

**Definition 1.4** ([17])

*b*-metric space is said to be:

- (1)
${p}_{b}$-convergent to a point $x\in X$ if ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{p}_{b}(x,{x}_{n})={p}_{b}(x,x)$.

- (2)
a ${p}_{b}$-Cauchy sequence if ${lim}_{n,m\to \mathrm{\infty}}{p}_{b}({x}_{n},{x}_{m})$ exists and is finite.

- (3)
A partial

*b*-metric space $(X,{p}_{b})$ is said to be ${p}_{b}$-complete if every ${p}_{b}$-Cauchy sequence $\{{x}_{n}\}$ in*X*${p}_{b}$-converges to a point $x\in X$ such that ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{p}_{b}(x,{x}_{n})={p}_{b}(x,x)$.

It should be noted that the limit of a convergent sequence in a partial *b*-metric space may not be unique (see [[16], Example 2]).

In [17], using Definition 1.3, Mustafa *et al.* proved the fact if ${p}_{b}$ is a partial *b*-metric on *X*, then the function ${p}_{b}^{s}:X\times X\to {R}^{+}$ given by ${p}_{b}^{s}(x,y)=2{p}_{b}(x,y)-{p}_{b}(x,x)-{p}_{b}(y,y)$ defines a *b*-metric on *X*. Using Definition 1.3, Mustafa *et al.* also obtained the following lemma which is the key to the proof of our theorems.

**Lemma 1.1** ([17])

*Let*$(X,{p}_{b})$

*be a partial*

*b*-

*metric space*.

*Then*:

- (1)
*A sequence*$\{{x}_{n}\}$*in**X**is a*${p}_{b}$-*Cauchy sequence in*$(X,{p}_{b})$*if and only if it is a**b*-*Cauchy sequence in**b*-*metric space*$(X,{p}_{b}^{s})$. - (2)
*A partial**b*-*metric space*$(X,{p}_{b})$*is*${p}_{b}$-*complete if and only if the**b*-*metric space*$(X,{p}_{b}^{s})$*is**b*-*complete*.*Moreover*, ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{p}_{b}^{s}(x,{x}_{n})=0$*if and only if*${lim}_{n,m\to \mathrm{\infty}}{p}_{b}({x}_{n},{x}_{m})={lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{p}_{b}(x,{x}_{n})={p}_{b}(x,x)$.

It should be noted that in general a partial *b*-metric function ${p}_{b}(x,y)$ for $\lambda >1$ is not jointly continuous for all variables. The following example illustrates this fact.

**Example 1.2**Let $X=N\cup \{\mathrm{\infty}\}$, and let ${p}_{b}:X\times X\to {R}^{+}$ be defined by

Thus, $(X,{p}_{b})$ is a partial *b*-metric space (with $\lambda =2$). Let ${x}_{n}=2n+1$ for each $n\in N$. Then ${p}_{b}(2n+1,\mathrm{\infty})=\frac{1}{2n+1}\to 0$ as $n\to \mathrm{\infty}$, that is, ${x}_{n}\to \mathrm{\infty}$, but ${p}_{b}({x}_{n},2)=3\nrightarrow 6={p}_{b}(\mathrm{\infty},2)$.

Since in general a partial *b*-metric is not continuous, we need the following simple lemma about the ${p}_{b}$-convergent sequences in the proof of our results.

**Lemma 1.2** ([17])

*Let*$(X,{p}_{b})$

*be a partial*

*b*-

*metric space with the coefficient*$\lambda \ge 1$

*and suppose that*$\{{x}_{n}\}$

*and*$\{{y}_{n}\}$

*are*${p}_{b}$-

*convergent to*

*x*

*and*

*y*,

*respectively*.

*Then we have*

*In particular*,

*if*${p}_{b}(x,y)=0$,

*then we have*${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{p}_{b}({x}_{n},{y}_{n})=0$.

*Moreover*,

*for each*$z\in X$,

*we have*

*In particular*,

*if*${p}_{b}(x,x)=0$,

*then we have*

Jungck [18] introduced the concept of weakly compatible mappings as follows.

**Definition 1.5** ([18])

Let *X* be a nonempty set, *A* and $T:X\to X$ be two self-maps. *A* and *T* are said to be weakly compatible (or coincidentally commuting) if they commute at their coincidence points, *i.e.*, if $Az=Tz$ for some $z\in X$, then $ATz=TAz$.

It is worth mentioning that most of the preceding references concerned with fixed point results of contractions in partial metric spaces and *b*-metric spaces, but we rarely see fixed point results of expansions in such two types of spaces. Recently, in [19], Karapınar *et al.* considered a generalized expansive mapping and proved the fixed point theorem in metric spaces. Nashine *et al.* [20] introduced ${\psi}_{S}$-contractive mappings and proved some fixed point theorems in ordered metric spaces. Here, we recall the relevant definition.

**Definition 1.6** ([20])

*S*,

*T*are said to be ${\psi}_{S}$-contractive if

for all $x\ge y$, where $\psi :{{R}^{+}}^{5}\to {R}^{+}$ is a strictly increasing and continuous function in each coordinate, and for all $t\in {R}^{+}\mathrm{\setminus}\{0\}$, $\psi (t,t,t,0,2t)<t$, $\psi (t,t,t,2t,0)<t$, $\psi (0,0,t,t,0)<t$, $\psi (0,t,0,0,t)<t$ and $\psi (t,0,0,t,t)<t$.

Inspired by the notions of ${\psi}_{S}$-contractive mappings of [20], we first introduce the concepts of generalized ${(\psi ,f)}_{\lambda}$-expansive mappings and generalized ${(\varphi ,g,h)}_{\lambda}$-weakly expansive mappings. Then we establish some common fixed point theorems for these classes of mappings in complete partial *b*-metric spaces. The obtained results generalize and extend the main results of [15–23]. We also provide some examples to show the generality of our results. Finally, an application is given to illustrate the usability of the obtained results.

## 2 Main results

The study of expansive mappings is a very interesting research area in fixed point theory (see [19, 21–23]). In this section, inspired by the notion of ${\psi}_{S}$-contractive mappings of [20], we first introduce the notions of generalized ${(\psi ,f)}_{\lambda}$-expansive mappings and generalized ${(\varphi ,g,h)}_{\lambda}$-weakly expansive mappings in partial *b*-metric spaces.

- (i)
*ψ*is a nondecreasing and continuous function in each coordinate; - (ii)
for ${t}_{i}\in {R}^{+}$, $i=1,2,\dots ,5$, $\psi ({t}_{1},{t}_{2},{t}_{3},{t}_{4},{t}_{5})>min\{{t}_{1},\frac{{t}_{2}+{t}_{3}}{2}\}$, where $min\{{t}_{1},\frac{{t}_{2}+{t}_{3}}{2}\}>0$;

- (iii)
$\psi (0,0,0,0,0)=0$ and $\psi ({t}_{1},{t}_{2},{t}_{3},{t}_{4},{t}_{5})>min\{{t}_{1},{t}_{5}\}$, where $min\{{t}_{1},{t}_{5}\}>0$.

The following are some easy examples of functions from class Ψ:

$\psi ({t}_{1},{t}_{2},{t}_{3},{t}_{4},{t}_{5})=a{t}_{1}$, for $a>1$;

$\psi ({t}_{1},{t}_{2},{t}_{3},{t}_{4},{t}_{5})=max\{amin\{{t}_{1},\frac{{t}_{2}+{t}_{3}}{2}\},cmin\{{t}_{1},{t}_{5}\}\}$, for $a,c>1$;

$\psi ({t}_{1},{t}_{2},{t}_{3},{t}_{4},{t}_{5})=max\{a{t}_{1}+b\frac{{t}_{2}+{t}_{3}}{2},cmin\{{t}_{1},{t}_{5}\}\}$, for $a,b\ge 0$, $a+b>1$, and $c>1$;

$\psi ({t}_{1},{t}_{2},{t}_{3},{t}_{4},{t}_{5})=max\{a{t}_{1}+b\frac{{t}_{2}+{t}_{3}}{2},c{t}_{1}+d{t}_{5}\}$, for $a,b,c,d\ge 0$, $a+b>1$, and $c+d>1$;

$\psi ({t}_{1},{t}_{2},{t}_{3},{t}_{4},{t}_{5})=max\{min\{{t}_{1},\frac{{t}_{2}+{t}_{3}}{2}\},min\{{t}_{1},{t}_{5}\}\}+\varphi (max\{min\{{t}_{1},\frac{{t}_{2}+{t}_{3}}{2}\},min\{{t}_{1},{t}_{5}\}\})$, where $\varphi :{R}^{+}\to {R}^{+}$ is a nondecreasing and continuous function, and $\varphi (s)=0$ if and only if $s=0$.

**Definition 2.1**Let $(X,{p}_{b})$ be a partial

*b*-metric space with the coefficient $\lambda \ge 1$,

*A*,

*S*, and $T:X\to X$ be three mappings. Then

*A*,

*S*, and

*T*are said to be generalized ${(\psi ,f)}_{\lambda}$-expansive mappings if

for all $x,y\in X$, where $\psi \in \mathrm{\Psi}$, $f:[0,\mathrm{\infty})\to [0,\mathrm{\infty})$ is a nondecreasing and continuous function, $f(0)=0$, and for all $t>0$, $\psi ({t}_{1},{t}_{2},{t}_{3},{t}_{4},{t}_{5})>f(t)$, where $min\{{t}_{1},\frac{{t}_{2}+{t}_{3}}{2}\}=t$ or $min\{{t}_{1},{t}_{5}\}=t$.

**Definition 2.2**Let $(X,{p}_{b})$ be a partial

*b*-metric space with the coefficient $\lambda \ge 1$,

*A*,

*S*, and $T:X\to X$ be three mappings. Then

*A*,

*S*, and

*T*are said to be generalized ${(\varphi ,g,h)}_{\lambda}$-weakly expansive mappings if

for all $x,y\in X$, where ${M}_{\lambda}(Ax,Ay)=max\{min\{{p}_{b}(Ax,Ay),\frac{{p}_{b}(Ax,Sx)+{p}_{b}(Ay,Ty)}{2}\},min\{{p}_{b}(Ax,Ay),\frac{{p}_{b}(Ay,Sx)}{\lambda}\}\}$, $\varphi ,g,h:{R}^{+}\to {R}^{+}$ are continuous and nondecreasing functions, $g(0)=h(0)=0$, $\varphi (s)=0$ if and only if $s=0$, and for all $t>0$, $h(t)+\varphi (t)>g(t)$.

It is easy to acquire the following example of generalized ${(\psi ,f)}_{\lambda}$-expansive mappings or generalized ${(\varphi ,g,h)}_{\lambda}$-weakly expansive mappings.

**Example 2.1**Let $X={{R}^{+}}^{2}$ be endowed with the partial

*b*-metric ${p}_{b}:X\times X\to {R}^{+}$ given by

*A*,

*S*, and

*T*are generalized ${(\psi ,f)}_{\lambda}$-expansive mappings. In fact, if $\varphi ,g,h:{R}^{+}\to {R}^{+}$ are defined by

for all $t\in {R}^{+}$, where $0<\eta <1$. Then *A*, *S*, and *T* are also generalized ${(\varphi ,g,h)}_{\lambda}$-weakly expansive mappings.

Now, we first prove some fixed point results for generalized ${(\psi ,f)}_{\lambda}$-expansive mappings in ${p}_{b}$-complete partial *b*-metric spaces.

**Theorem 2.1**

*Let*$(X,{p}_{b})$

*be a*${p}_{b}$-

*complete partial*

*b*-

*metric space*,

*A*,

*S*,

*and*$T:X\to X$

*be three mappings satisfying the generalized*${(\psi ,f)}_{\lambda}$-

*expansive condition*(2.1).

*Suppose that the following conditions are satisfied*:

- (i)
$A(X)\subset S(X)$, $A(X)\subset T(X)$,

*and*$A(X)$*is a closed subset of*$(X,{p}_{b}^{s})$; - (ii)
*A is an injective and**A**and**T**are weakly compatible*.

*Then* *A*, *S*, *and* *T* *have a unique common fixed point in* *X*.

*Proof*Let ${x}_{0}\in X$ be an arbitrary point in

*X*. Since $A(X)\subset S(X)$, there exists an ${x}_{1}\in X$ such that $A{x}_{0}=S{x}_{1}$. Since $A(X)\subset T(X)$, there exists an ${x}_{2}\in X$ such that $A{x}_{1}=T{x}_{2}$. Continuing this process, we can construct a sequence $\{A{x}_{n}\}$ in

*X*such that

We will complete the proof in three steps.

which implies that $\frac{{p}_{b}(A{x}_{2k+1},A{x}_{2k+2})}{2}=0$, that is, ${p}_{b}(A{x}_{2k+1},A{x}_{2k+2})=0$. Similarly, if ${n}_{0}=2k+1$, then ${p}_{b}(A{x}_{2k+2},A{x}_{2k+3})=0$. Consequently, ${p}_{b}(A{x}_{n},A{x}_{n+1})\equiv 0$ for $n\ge {n}_{0}$. Hence, ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{p}_{b}(A{x}_{n},A{x}_{n+1})=0$.

*n*. By (2.1), we have

*ψ*and

*f*that

*f*is nondecreasing, we get ${p}_{b}(A{x}_{2n},A{x}_{2n+1})>{p}_{b}(A{x}_{2n+1},A{x}_{2n+2})$, which is a contradiction. Thus,

Hence, we deduce that, for each $n\in N$, ${p}_{b}(A{x}_{2n+1},A{x}_{2n+2})<{p}_{b}(A{x}_{2n},A{x}_{2n+1})$. Similarly, we can prove that ${p}_{b}(A{x}_{2n},A{x}_{2n+1})<{p}_{b}(A{x}_{2n-1},A{x}_{2n})$, for all $n\ge 1$. Therefore, $\{{p}_{b}(A{x}_{n},A{x}_{n+1})\}$ is a decreasing sequence of nonnegative real numbers. So, there exists $r\ge 0$ such that ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{p}_{b}(A{x}_{n},A{x}_{n+1})=r$.

Letting ${n}_{k(i)}\to \mathrm{\infty}$ in the above inequality, by the properties of *ψ* and *f*, we have $f(r)\ge f(\frac{r}{{\lambda}^{2}})\ge \psi (r,r,r,\frac{\beta}{\lambda},\frac{\alpha}{\lambda})$, which implies that $r=0$. Hence, ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}p(A{x}_{n},A{x}_{n+1})=0$.

Step 2. We show that $\{A{x}_{n}\}$ is a ${p}_{b}$-Cauchy sequence.

*ψ*,

*f*, and (2.8)-(2.11) guarantee that

which implies that $f(\frac{\epsilon}{\lambda})\ge \psi (\frac{\epsilon}{\lambda},0,0,\frac{\epsilon}{{\lambda}^{3}},\frac{\epsilon}{\lambda})$. Thus, $\epsilon =0$, a contradiction. Hence, ${lim}_{m,n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{p}_{b}(A{x}_{n},A{x}_{m})=0$, that is, $\{A{x}_{n}\}$ is a ${p}_{b}$-Cauchy sequence.

Step 3. We will show that *A*, *S*, and *T* have a unique common fixed point.

Since $\{A{x}_{n}\}$is a ${p}_{b}$-Cauchy sequence in $(X,{p}_{b})$, and thus it is also *b*-Cauchy sequence in the *b*-metric space $(X,{p}_{b}^{s})$ by Lemma 1.1. Since $(X,{p}_{b})$ is ${p}_{b}$-complete, from Lemma 1.1, $(X,{p}_{b}^{s})$ is also *b*-complete, so the sequence $\{A{x}_{n}\}$ is *b*-convergent in the *b*-metric space $(X,{p}_{b}^{s})$. Therefore, there exists ${x}^{\ast}\in X$ such that ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{p}_{b}^{s}(A{x}_{n},{x}^{\ast})=0$. Then ${lim}_{m,n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{p}_{b}(A{x}_{n},A{x}_{m})={lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{p}_{b}(A{x}_{n},{x}^{\ast})={p}_{b}({x}^{\ast},{x}^{\ast})=0$.

*ψ*and

*f*, (2.13), and (2.14), it is clear that

which implies that ${p}_{b}(A{z}_{1},T{z}_{1})=0$. Hence, $A{z}_{1}=T{z}_{1}={x}^{\ast}$. Similarly, since ${x}^{\ast}\in A(X)\subset S(X)$, there exists ${z}_{2}\in X$ such that $S{z}_{2}={x}^{\ast}$, we have $A{z}_{2}=S{z}_{2}={x}^{\ast}$. Hence, $A{z}_{1}=A{z}_{2}={x}^{\ast}$. Since *A* is an injective, we get ${z}_{1}={z}_{2}$.

*A*and

*T*are weakly compatible, it is obvious that $A{x}^{\ast}=AAz=ATz=TAz=T{x}^{\ast}$. By (2.1), we get

which implies that ${p}_{b}(Az,A{x}^{\ast})=0$. Thus, $Az=A{x}^{\ast}$. Since *A* is an injective, we get $z={x}^{\ast}$. Hence, $Az=Sz=Tz=z$, that is, *z* is a common fixed point of *A*, *S*, and *T*.

*A*,

*S*, and

*T*. Suppose that ${x}^{\ast},{y}^{\ast}\in X$ such that $A{x}^{\ast}=S{x}^{\ast}=T{x}^{\ast}={x}^{\ast}$ and $A{y}^{\ast}=S{y}^{\ast}=T{y}^{\ast}={y}^{\ast}$. By means of (2.1), we have

which implies that ${p}_{b}({x}^{\ast},{y}^{\ast})=0$. Hence, ${x}^{\ast}={y}^{\ast}$. This completes the proof. □

**Remark 2.1** Let *I* be the identity mappings on *X*. Taking $A=I$, $f(t)=t$, for all $t\in {R}^{+}$ in Theorem 2.1, we have the following corollary, which extends and generalizes Theorem 2.1 in [19] and Theorem 2 in [20].

**Corollary 2.1**

*Let*$(X,{p}_{b})$

*be a*${p}_{b}$-

*complete partial*

*b*-

*metric space*,

*S*

*and*$T:X\to X$

*be two bijective mappings*.

*Suppose that*

*for all* $x,y\in X$, *where* $\psi \in \mathrm{\Psi}$. *Then* *S* *and* *T* *have a unique common fixed point in* *X*.

Now, in order to support the usability of our results, we present the following example.

**Example 2.2**Let $C[0,1]$ be the set of all real continuous functions defined on $[0,1]$ and $X=\{x\ge \theta :x\in C[0,1]\}$. Define a partial

*b*-metric ${p}_{b}:X\times X\to {R}^{+}$ by

*b*-metric space with $\lambda =3$. Let $A,S,T:X\to X$ be defined by

Then it is easy to show that all the conditions (i)-(ii) of Theorem 2.1 are satisfied. Define $\psi :{{R}^{+}}^{5}\to {R}^{+}$ and $f:{R}^{+}\to {R}^{+}$ by $\psi ({t}_{1},{t}_{2},{t}_{3},{t}_{4},{t}_{5})=max\{\frac{6}{5}min\{{t}_{1},\frac{{t}_{1}+{t}_{2}}{2}\},\frac{6}{5}min\{{t}_{1},{t}_{5}\}\}$, $f(t)=t$.

Now, we consider following cases:

Case 1. If $x=y=\theta $, then $\frac{{p}_{b}(Sx,Ty)}{9}=0=\frac{6}{5}{p}_{b}(Ax,Ay)$.

for all $x,y\in X$. Thus, all conditions of Theorem 2.1 are satisfied. Hence, *A*, *S*, and *T* have a unique common fixed point $x=\theta $.

Now, we state and prove some fixed point results for generalized ${(\varphi ,g,h)}_{\lambda}$-weakly expansive mappings in partial *b*-metric spaces.

**Theorem 2.2**

*Let*$(X,{p}_{b})$

*be a*${p}_{b}$-

*complete partial*

*b*-

*metric space*,

*A*,

*S*,

*and*$T:X\to X$

*be three mappings satisfying the generalized*${(\varphi ,g,h)}_{\lambda}$-

*weakly expansive condition*(2.2).

*Suppose that the following conditions are satisfied*:

- (i)
$A(X)\subset S(X)$, $A(X)\subset T(X)$,

*and*$A(X)$*is a closed subset of*$(X,{p}_{b}^{s})$; - (ii)
*A**is an injective and**A**and**T**are weakly compatible*.

*Then* *A*, *S*, *and* *T* *have a unique common fixed point in* *X*.

*Proof* Let ${x}_{0}\in X$. Repeating the proof of Theorem 2.1, we know that there exists a sequence $\{A{x}_{n}\}$ in *X* such that $A{x}_{2n}=S{x}_{2n+1}$ and $A{x}_{2n+1}=T{x}_{2n+2}$, for $n=0,1,2,\dots $ .

We will complete the proof in three steps.

Step 1. We prove that ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{p}_{b}(A{x}_{n},A{x}_{n+1})=0$.

Thus, $\varphi ({M}_{\lambda}(A{x}_{2k+1},A{x}_{2k+2}))=0$, implies that ${p}_{b}(A{x}_{2k+1},A{x}_{2k+2})=0$. Similarly, if ${n}_{0}=2k+1$, then ${p}_{b}(A{x}_{2k+2},A{x}_{2k+3})=0$. Consequently, ${p}_{b}(A{x}_{n},A{x}_{n+1})\equiv 0$ for $n\ge {n}_{0}$. Hence, ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{p}_{b}(A{x}_{n},A{x}_{n+1})=0$.

*n*. By (2.2), we have

*ϕ*,

*g*,

*h*that

*g*is nondecreasing, we get ${p}_{b}(A{x}_{2n},A{x}_{2n+1})>{p}_{b}(A{x}_{2n+1},A{x}_{2n+2})$, which is a contradiction. Thus, ${M}_{\lambda}(A{x}_{2n+1},A{x}_{2n+2})\ge {p}_{b}(A{x}_{2n+1},A{x}_{2n+2})$. From (2.15), using the properties of

*ϕ*,

*g*,

*h*, we have

*ϕ*,

*g*,

*h*, we can see that

which implies that $r=0$. Therefore, ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}p(A{x}_{n},A{x}_{n+1})=0$.

Step 2. We now show that $\{A{x}_{n}\}$ is a ${p}_{b}$-Cauchy sequence.

Indeed, we first prove that ${lim}_{m,n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{p}_{b}(A{x}_{n},A{x}_{m})=0$. Since ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{p}_{b}(A{x}_{n},A{x}_{n+1})=0$, it is sufficient to show that ${lim}_{m,n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{p}_{b}(A{x}_{2n},A{x}_{2m})=0$. Suppose on the contrary, then there exists $\epsilon >0$ for which we can find two subsequences $\{A{x}_{2n(k)}\}$ and $\{A{x}_{2m(k)}\}$ of $\{A{x}_{2n}\}$ such that $m(k)$ is the smallest index, for which $m(k)>n(k)>k$, ${p}_{b}(A{x}_{2m(k)},{A}_{2n(k)})\ge \epsilon $, for every *k*. This means that ${p}_{b}(A{x}_{2m(k)-2},{A}_{2n(k)})<\epsilon $.

*ϕ*,

*g*,

*h*, (2.11), and (2.17), we obtain

which implies that $\epsilon =0$, a contradiction. Hence, we obtain ${lim}_{m,n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{p}_{b}(A{x}_{n},A{x}_{m})=0$, that is, $\{A{x}_{n}\}$ is a ${p}_{b}$-Cauchy sequence.

Step 3. We will show that *A*, *S*, and *T* have a unique common fixed point.

Since $\{A{x}_{n}\}$ is a ${p}_{b}$-Cauchy sequence in $(X,{p}_{b})$. Similar to the proof of Theorem 2.1, we know that there exists ${x}^{\ast}\in X$ such that ${lim}_{n\to \mathrm{\infty}}{p}_{b}^{s}(A{x}_{n},{x}^{\ast})=0$.

*ϕ*,

*g*,

*h*, (2.13), and (2.14), we get

which implies that $p(A{z}_{1},T{z}_{1})=0$. Hence, $A{z}_{1}=T{z}_{1}={x}^{\ast}$. Similarly, since ${x}^{\ast}\in A(X)\subset S(X)$, there exists ${z}_{2}\in X$ such that $S{z}_{2}={x}^{\ast}$, we have $A{z}_{2}=S{z}_{2}={x}^{\ast}$. Hence, $A{z}_{1}=A{z}_{2}={x}^{\ast}$. Since *A* is an injective, we get ${z}_{1}={z}_{2}$.

*A*and

*T*are weakly compatible, it is obvious that $A{x}^{\ast}=AAz=ATz=TAz=T{x}^{\ast}$. Then we can find by (2.2) that

which implies that ${p}_{b}(Az,A{x}^{\ast})=0$. Thus, $Az=A{x}^{\ast}$. Since *A* is an injective, we get $z={x}^{\ast}$. Thus, $Az=Sz=Tz=z$ and *z* is a common fixed point of *A*, *S*, and *T*.

*A*,

*S*, and

*T*. Suppose that ${x}^{\ast},{y}^{\ast}\in X$ such that $A{x}^{\ast}=S{x}^{\ast}=T{x}^{\ast}={x}^{\ast}$ and $A{y}^{\ast}=S{y}^{\ast}=T{y}^{\ast}={y}^{\ast}$. By means of (2.2), we have

which implies that ${p}_{b}({x}^{\ast},{y}^{\ast})=0$. Hence, ${x}^{\ast}={y}^{\ast}$. This completes the proof. □

**Remark 2.2** Taking $g\equiv h$ in Theorem 2.2, we have the following corollary, which extends and generalizes Theorem 2.1 in [15] and Theorem 1 in [17].

**Corollary 2.2**

*Let*$(X,{p}_{b})$

*be a*${p}_{b}$-

*complete partial*

*b*-

*metric space*,

*A*,

*S*,

*and*$T:X\to X$

*be three mappings*.

*Suppose that the following conditions are satisfied*:

- (i)
$A(X)\subset S(X)$, $A(X)\subset T(X)$,

*and*$A(X)$*is a closed subset of*$(X,{p}_{b}^{s})$; - (ii)
*A is an injective and**A**and**T**are weakly compatible*; - (iii)
*for all*$x,y\in X$,*we have*$g\left(\frac{{p}_{b}(Sx,Ty)}{{\lambda}^{2}}\right)\ge g({M}_{\lambda}(Ax,Ay))+\varphi ({M}_{\lambda}(Ax,Ay)),$

*where* ${M}_{\lambda}(Ax,Ay)=max\{min\{{p}_{b}(Ax,Ay),\frac{{p}_{b}(Ax,Sx)+{p}_{b}(Ay,Ty)}{2}\},min\{{p}_{b}(Ax,Ay),\frac{{p}_{b}(Ay,Sx)}{\lambda}\}\}$, *ϕ*, *g* *are the same as in Definition * 2.2.

*Then* *A*, *S*, *and* *T* *have a unique common fixed point in* *X*.

In the sequel, we will take an example to support our results of Theorem 2.2.

**Example 2.3**Let $X={R}^{+}$. Define a partial

*b*-metric ${p}_{b}:X\times X\to {R}^{+}$ by

*b*-metric space with $\lambda =2$. Let $A,S,T:X\to X$ be defined by

for all $x,y\in X$, where ${M}_{\lambda}(Ax,Ay)=max\{min\{{p}_{b}(Ax,Ay),\frac{{p}_{b}(Ax,Sx)+{p}_{b}(Ay,Ty)}{2}\},min\{{p}_{b}(Ax,Ay),\frac{{p}_{b}(Ay,Sx)}{\lambda}\}\}$. Thus, all conditions of Theorem 2.2 are satisfied. Hence, *A*, *S*, and *T* have a unique common fixed point $x=0$.

## 3 An application

In this section, we establish the existence theorem for the solutions of a class of system of integral equations.

for $t\in I=[0,T]$, where $T>0$, $K:{I}^{2}\to {R}^{+}$ is a continuous function and ${f}_{1},{f}_{2}:{I}^{2}\times R\to R$ are also continuous functions.

*I*. We endowed

*X*with the partial

*b*-metric

for all $x,y\in X$, where $a\in {R}^{+}$ and $q\ge 1$. It is not difficult to prove that $(X,{p}_{b})$ is a ${p}_{b}$-complete partial *b*-metric space with coefficient $\lambda ={2}^{q-1}$.

*S*and $T:X\to X$ by

for all $x\in X$. Then *x* is a solution of (3.1) if and only if it is a common fixed point of *S* and *T*.

We shall prove the existence of common fixed point of *S* and *T* under certain conditions.

**Theorem 3.1**

*Suppose that the following hypotheses hold*:

- (i)
*there exist a continuous function*$G:{I}^{2}\to {R}^{+}$*and*$\psi \in \mathrm{\Psi}$*such that*$\begin{array}{r}\frac{K(t,s)[{f}_{1}(t,s,x(s))-{f}_{2}(t,s,y(s))]+\frac{a}{T}}{{4}^{q-1}}\\ \phantom{\rule{1em}{0ex}}\ge G(t,s)\psi ({p}_{b}(x,y),{p}_{b}(x,Sx),{p}_{b}(y,Ty),\frac{{p}_{b}(x,Ty)}{{2}^{q-1}},\frac{{p}_{b}(y,Sx)}{{2}^{q-1}}),\end{array}$

*for all*$t,s\in I$,

*where*$K(t,s){f}_{1}(t,s,x(s))+\frac{a}{T}\ge K(t,s){f}_{2}(t,s,y(s))$,

*for all*$t,s\in I$.

- (ii)
${inf}_{t\in I}{\int}_{0}^{T}G(t,s)\phantom{\rule{0.2em}{0ex}}ds\ge 1$.

*Then the system of integral equations* (3.1) *has a solution* ${x}^{\ast}\in X$.

*Proof*Let $\lambda ={2}^{q-1}$. From the conditions (i) and (ii), we have

for all $x,y\in X$. Thus, for any $x,y\in X$, we get the inequality of Corollary 2.1. Hence, all the hypotheses of Corollary 2.1 are satisfied. Then *S* and *T* have a common fixed point ${x}^{\ast}\in X$, that is, ${x}^{\ast}$ is a solution of the system of integral equations (3.1). □

## Declarations

### Acknowledgements

The authors thank the editor and the referees for their valuable comments and suggestions. The research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11071108, 11361042, 11326099) and the Provincial Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi, China (2010GZS0147, 20114BAB201007, 20142BAB211004, 20142BAB201007), and supported partly by the Provincial Graduate Innovation Foundation of Jiangxi, China (YC2012-B004).

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Matthews SG:
**Partial metric topology. Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 728.***Proc. 8th Summer Conference on General Topology and Applications*1994, 183–197.Google Scholar - Altun I, Sola F, Simsek H:
**Generalized contractions on partial metric spaces.***Topol. Appl.*2010,**157:**2778–2785. 10.1016/j.topol.2010.08.017MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Ćirić L, Samet B, Aydi H, Vetro C:
**Common fixed points of generalized contractions on partial metric spaces and an application.***Appl. Math. Comput.*2011,**218:**2398–2406. 10.1016/j.amc.2011.07.005MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Samet B, Rajović M, Lazović R, Stojiljković R:
**Common fixed-point results for nonlinear contractions in ordered partial metric spaces.***Fixed Point Theory Appl.*2011.,**2011:**Article ID 71Google Scholar - Aydi H, Karapınar E, Shatanawi W:
**Coupled fixed point results for**$(\psi ,\phi )$**-weakly contractive condition in ordered partial metric spaces.***Comput. Math. Appl.*2011,**62:**4449–4460. 10.1016/j.camwa.2011.10.021MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Abbas M, Nazir T:
**Fixed point of generalized weakly contractive mappings in ordered partial metric spaces.***Fixed Point Theory Appl.*2012.,**2012:**Article ID 1Google Scholar - Kadelbury Z, Nashine HK, Radenović S:
**Fixed point results under various contractive conditions in partial metric spaces.***Rev. R. Acad. Cienc. Exactas Fís. Nat., Ser. A Mat.*2013,**107:**241–256. 10.1007/s13398-012-0066-6View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Bakhtin IA:
**The contraction principle in quasimetric spaces. 30.***Functional Analysis*1989, 26–37.Google Scholar - Czerwik S:
**Contraction mappings in**b**-metric spaces.***Acta Math. Inform. Univ. Ostrav.*1993,**1:**5–11.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Shi L, Xu SY:
**Common fixed point theorems for two weakly compatible self-mappings in cone**b**-metric spaces.***Fixed Point Theory Appl.*2013.,**2013:**Article ID 120Google Scholar - Hussain N, Parvaneh V, Roshan JR, Kadelburg Z:
**Fixed points of cyclic weakly**$(\psi ,\phi ,L,A,B)$**-contractive mappings in ordered**b**-metric spaces with applications.***Fixed Point Theory Appl.*2013.,**2013:**Article ID 256Google Scholar - Roshan JR, Parvaneh V, Sedghi S, Shobkolaei N, Shatanawi W:
**Common fixed points of almost generalized**${(\psi ,\phi )}_{s}$**-contractive mappings in ordered**b**-metric spaces.***Fixed Point Theory Appl.*2013.,**2013:**Article ID 159Google Scholar - Plebaniak R:
**New generalized pseudodistance and coincidence point theorem in a**b**-metric space.***Fixed Point Theory Appl.*2013.,**2013:**Article ID 270Google Scholar - Azam A, Mehmood N, Ahmad J, Redenović S:
**Multivalued fixed point theorems in cone**b**-metric spaces.***J. Inequal. Appl.*2013.,**2013:**Article ID 582Google Scholar - Roshan JR, Parvaneh V, Altun I:
**Some coincidence point results in ordered**b**-metric spaces and applications in a system of integral equations.***Appl. Math. Comput.*2014,**226:**725–757.MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Shukla S:
**Partial**b**-metric spaces and fixed point theorems.***Mediterr. J. Math.*2014,**11:**703–711. 10.1007/s00009-013-0327-4MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Mustafa Z, Roshan JR, Parvaneh V, Kadelburg Z:
**Some common fixed point results in ordered partial**b**-metric spaces.***J. Inequal. Appl.*2013.,**2013:**Article ID 562Google Scholar - Jungck G:
**Common fixed points for noncontinuous nonself maps on nonmetric spaces.***Far East J. Math. Sci.*1996,**4:**199–215.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Karapınar E, Shahi P, Kaur J, Bhatia SS:
**Generalized**$(\xi ,\alpha )$**-expansive mappings and related fixed-point theorems.***J. Inequal. Appl.*2014.,**2014:**Article ID 22Google Scholar - Nashine HK, Golubović Z, Kadelburg Z:
**Modified**ψ**-contractive mappings in ordered metric spaces and applications.***Fixed Point Theory Appl.*2013.,**2013:**Article ID 203Google Scholar - Aage CT, Salunke JN:
**Some fixed point theorems for expansion onto mappings on cone metric spaces.***Acta Math. Sin. Engl. Ser.*2011,**27**(6):1101–1106. 10.1007/s10114-011-9606-9MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Kumar S, Garg SK:
**Expansion mapping theorems in metric spaces.***Int. J. Contemp. Math. Sci.*2009,**4**(36):1749–1758.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Kumar S:
**Common fixed points theorems for expansion mappings in various spaces.***Acta Math. Hung.*2008,**118:**9–28. 10.1007/s10474-007-6142-2View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar

## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.