Open Access

-Convergence analysis of improved Kuhfittig iterative for asymptotically nonexpansive nonself-mappings in W-hyperbolic spaces

Journal of Inequalities and Applications20142014:303

https://doi.org/10.1186/1029-242X-2014-303

Received: 15 February 2014

Accepted: 19 July 2014

Published: 19 August 2014

Abstract

Throughout this paper, we introduce a class of asymptotically nonexpansive nonself-mapping and modify the classical Kuhfittig iteration algorithm in the general setup of hyperbolic space. Also, -convergence results are obtained under a limit condition. The results presented in the paper extend various results in the existing literature.

Keywords

asymptotically nonexpansive nonself-mapping improved Kuhfittig iterative hyperbolic space nonexpansive retraction

1 Introduction

As we know, fixed point theory proposed in the setting of normed linear spaces or Banach spaces mainly depends on the linear structure of the underlying space. However, a nonlinear framework for fixed point theory is a metric space embedded with a ‘convex structure’. The class of hyperbolic spaces, nonlinear in nature, is a general abstract theoretic setting with rich geometrical structures for metric fixed point theory.

In fact, a few important results of the problems in various disciplines of science being nonlinear in nature were studied only in CAT(0) space. In 1976, the concept of -convergence in general metric spaces was coined by Lim [1]. Since then, Kirk and Panyanak [2] specialized this concept to CAT(0) spaces and proved that it is very similar to the weak convergence in the Banach space setting. Dhompongsa and Panyanak [3] and Abbas et al. [4] obtained -convergence theorems for the Mann and Ishikawa iterations in the CAT(0) space setting. Moreover, Yang and Zhao [5] studied the strong and Δ-convergence theorems for total asymptotically nonexpansive nonself-mappings in CAT(0) spaces. As for more details of this work, one can refer to the aforementioned papers and references therein.

In recent years, hyperbolic space has attracted much attention of many authors. The study of hyperbolic spaces has been largely motivated and dominated by questions about hyperbolic groups. It should be noted that one of the main object of study is in geometric group theory. For example, Wan [6] proved some Δ-convergence theorems in a hyperbolic space, in which a mixed Agarwal-O’Regan-Sahu type iterative scheme for approximating a common fixed point of totally asymptotically nonexpansive mappings was constructed.

In this paper, following the work of Yang and Wan, by introducing a class of asymptotically nonexpansive nonself-mapping, we modify a classical Kuhfittig iteration algorithm in the general setup of hyperbolic space. Under a limit condition, we also establish some -convergence results, which extend various results in the existing literature.

2 Preliminaries

In this paper, we work in the setting of hyperbolic spaces introduced by Kohlenbach [7], which is more restrictive than the hyperbolic space introduced in Goebel and Kirk [8] and more general than the hyperbolic space in Reich and Shafrir [9]. Concretely, ( E , d , W ) is called a hyperbolic space if ( E , d ) is a metric space and W : E × E × [ 0 , 1 ] E is a function satisfying
( 1 ) d ( z , W ( x , y , α ) ) α d ( z , x ) + ( 1 α ) d ( z , y ) ;
(2.1)
( 2 ) d ( W ( x , y , α ) , W ( x , y , β ) ) = | α β | d ( x , y ) ;
(2.2)
( 3 ) W ( x , y , α ) = W ( y , x , 1 α ) ;
(2.3)
( 4 ) d ( W ( x , z , α ) , W ( y , w , α ) ) ( 1 α ) d ( x , y ) + α d ( z , w )
(2.4)

for all x , y , z , w E and α , β [ 0 , 1 ] . A nonempty subset C of a hyperbolic space E is convex if W ( x , y , α ) E ( x , y E ) and α [ 0 , 1 ] . The class of hyperbolic spaces contains normed spaces and convex subsets thereof, the Hilbert ball equipped with the hyperbolic metric [10], Hadamard manifolds as well as CAT(0) spaces in the sense of Gromov [11].

A hyperbolic space E is uniformly convex if for u , x , y E , r > 0 and ϵ ( 0 , 2 ] , there exists δ ( 0 , 1 ] such that
d ( W ( x , y , 1 2 ) , u ) ( 1 δ ) r ,

provided that d ( x , u ) r , d ( y , u ) r and d ( x , y ) ϵ r .

A map η : ( 0 , + ) × ( 0 , 2 ] ( 0 , 1 ] is called modulus of uniform convexity if δ = η ( r , ϵ ) for given r > 0 . Besides, η is monotone if it decreases with r, that is,
η ( r 2 , ϵ ) η ( r 1 , ϵ ) , r 2 r 1 .
Let C be a nonempty subset of a metric space ( E , d ) . Recall that a mapping T : C E is said to be nonexpansive if
d ( T x , T y ) d ( x , y ) , x , y C .
(2.5)

Recall that C is said to be a retraction of E if there exists a continuous map P : E C such that P x = x , for all x C . A map P : E C is said to be a retraction if P 2 = P . Consequently, if P is a retraction, then P y = y for all y in the range of P.

Definition 2.1 ([12])

Let C be a nonempty and closed subset of a metric space ( E , d ) , a map P : E C is a retraction, a mapping T : C E is said to be
  1. (1)
    asymptotically nonexpansive nonself-mapping if there exists a sequence { k n } [ 0 , + ) with k n 1 such that
    d ( T ( P T ) n 1 x , T ( P T ) n 1 y ) k n d ( x , y ) , x , y C , n 1 ;
    (2.6)
     
  2. (2)
    totally asymptotically nonexpansive nonself-mapping if there exist nonnegative sequences { μ n } , { ν n } with μ n 0 , ν n 0 and a strictly continuous function ζ : [ 0 , + ) [ 0 , + ) with ζ ( 0 ) = 0 such that
    d ( T ( P T ) n 1 x , T ( P T ) n 1 y ) d ( x , y ) + ν n ζ ( d ( x , y ) ) + μ n , x , y C , n 1 ;
    (2.7)
     
  3. (3)
    uniformly L-Lipschitzian if there exists a constant L > 0 such that
    d ( T ( P T ) n 1 x , T ( P T ) n 1 y ) L d ( x , y ) , x , y C , n 1 .
    (2.8)
     

Remark 2.1 From the definitions above, we know that each nonexpansive mapping is an asymptotically nonexpansive nonself-mapping, and each asymptotically nonexpansive nonself-mapping is a totally asymptotically nonexpansive nonself-mapping.

To study our results in the general setup of hyperbolic spaces, we first collect some basic concepts. Let { x n } be a bounded sequence in hyperbolic space E. For p E , define a continuous functional r ( , { x n } ) : E [ 0 , + ) by
r ( p , { x n } ) = lim sup n d ( p , x n ) .
The asymptotic radius r ( { x n } ) of { x n } is given by
r ( { x n } ) = inf { r ( p , { x n } ) : p E } .
The asymptotic radius r C ( { x n } ) of { x n } with respect to C E is given by
r C ( { x n } ) = inf { r ( p , { x n } ) : p C } .
The asymptotic center A ( { x n } ) of { x n } is the set
A ( { x n } ) = { p E : r ( p , { x n } ) = r ( { x n } ) } .
The asymptotic center A C ( { x n } ) of { x n } with respect to C E is the set
A C ( { x n } ) = { p C : r ( p , { x n } ) = r C ( { x n } ) } .

A sequence { x n } in hyperbolic space E is said to -converge to p E , if p is the unique asymptotic center of { u n } for every subsequence { u n } of { x n } . In this case, we call p the -limit of { x n } .

The following lemmas are important in our paper.

Lemma 2.1 (see [13])

Let ( E , d , W ) be a complete uniformly convex hyperbolic space with monotone modulus of uniform convexity, and let C be a nonempty, closed, convex subset of E. Then every bounded sequence { x n } in E has a unique asymptotic center with respect to C.

Lemma 2.2 (see [13, 14])

Let ( E , d , W ) be a uniformly convex hyperbolic space with monotone modulus of uniform convexity η. Let q E and { α n } be a sequence in [ a , b ] for some a , b ( 0 , 1 ) . If { x n } and { y n } are sequences in E such that lim sup n d ( x n , q ) c , lim sup n d ( y n , q ) c , and lim n d ( W ( x n , y n , α n ) , q ) = c for some c 0 , then lim n d ( x n , y n ) = 0 .

Lemma 2.3 (see [12])

Let C be a nonempty, closed, convex subset of a uniformly convex hyperbolic space, and let { x n } be a bounded sequence in C such that A ( { x n } ) = { p } and r ( { x n } ) = ρ . If { y k } is another sequence in C such that lim k r ( y k , { x n } ) = ρ , then lim k y k = p .

Lemma 2.4 Let { α n } , { β n } , and { γ n } be sequences of nonnegative numbers such that
α n + 1 ( 1 + β n ) α n + γ n , n 1 .

If n = 1 + β n < + and n = 1 + γ n < + n , then lim n + α n exists. If there exists a subsequence { α n k } { α n } such that lim k + α n k , then lim n + α n = 0 .

3 Main results

Now we modify a classical Kuhfittig iteration algorithm in the general setup of hyperbolic space, and prove a -convergence theorem for the following implicit iterative scheme:
x n = P W ( x n 1 , T ( P T ) n 1 x n , α n ) , x C , n 1 ,

where C is a nonempty closed and convex subset of a complete uniformly hyperbolic space E, T : C E is a uniformly L-Lipschitzian and ( { k n } ) -asymptotically nonexpansive nonself-mapping with k n [ 1 , + ) and lim n + k n = 1 , and α n ( 0 , 1 ) such that α n k n < 1 . P is nonexpansive retraction of E onto C.

Remark 3.1 For α n ( 0 , 1 ) and a fixed u C , define the mapping K n : C E by
K n ( x ) = P W ( u , T ( P T ) n 1 x , α n ) , x C .
It can be seen obviously that K n is contraction on C. Indeed, for x , y C , we have
d ( K n ( x ) , K n ( y ) ) = d ( P W ( u , T ( P T ) n 1 x , α n ) , P W ( u , T ( P T ) n 1 y , α n ) ) d ( W ( u , α n , α n ) , W ( u , T ( P T ) n 1 y , α n ) ) α n d ( T ( P T ) n 1 x , T ( P T ) n 1 y ) α n k n d ( x , y ) .
Therefore, K n is a contraction mapping, that is,
x n = P W ( x n 1 , T ( P T ) n 1 x n , α n ) , n 1 ,

is valid under the condition α n k n < 1 .

Theorem 3.1 Let E be a complete hyperbolic space, C be a nonempty, bounded, closed, convex subset of E and P : E C be the nonexpansive retraction. Let T : C E be { k n } -asymptotically nonexpansive nonself-mapping with sequence { k n } [ 1 , + ) and lim n + k n = 1 such that T is uniformly L-Lipschitz continuous, satisfying the following conditions:
  1. (i)

    n = 1 + ( k n 1 ) < + ;

     
  2. (ii)

    α n k n < 1 for all n 1 ;

     
  3. (iii)

    there exist constants a , b ( 0 , 1 ) with 0 < b ( 1 a ) < 1 2 such that { α n } [ a , b ] .

     
Define { x n } as follows: x 0 C ,
x n = P W ( x n 1 , T ( P T ) n 1 x n , α n ) , n 1 ,
(3.1)

and F ( T ) . Then the sequence { x n } -converges to a point p F ( T ) .

Proof (I) First, we prove that lim n d ( x n , p ) ( p F ( T ) ) and lim n d ( x n , F ( T ) ) exist, respectively.

Since T : C E is { k n } -asymptotically nonexpansive nonself-mapping with sequence { k n } [ 1 , + ) and lim n + k n = 1 , from Definition 2.1(1), for any x , y C , we have
d ( T ( P T ) n 1 x , T ( P T ) n 1 x ) k n d ( x , y ) , n 1 .
(3.2)
For each p F ( T ) , it follows from (3.1) and (2.1) that
d ( x n , p ) = d ( P W ( x n 1 , T ( P T ) n 1 x n , α n ) , p ) d ( W ( x n 1 , T ( P T ) n 1 x n , α n ) , p ) ( 1 α n ) d ( x n 1 , p ) + α n d ( T ( P T ) n 1 x n , p ) ( 1 α n ) d ( x n 1 , p ) + α n k n d ( x n , p ) ,
(3.3)
which indicates
d ( x n , p ) ( 1 + α n ( k n 1 ) 1 α n k n ) d ( x n 1 , p ) .
From condition (iii), we have
d ( x n , p ) ( 1 + b ( k n 1 ) 1 b k n ) d ( x n 1 , p ) .
Since lim n ( 1 b k n ) = 1 b , there exists an integer n 0 such that 1 b k n 1 b 2 for all n > n 0 . Hence we have
d ( x n , p ) ( 1 + δ n ) d ( x n 1 , p ) , n > n 0 ,
(3.4)
and so
d ( x n , F ( T ) ) ( 1 + δ n ) d ( x n 1 , F ( T ) ) , n > n 0 ,
(3.5)

where δ n : = 2 b ( k n 1 ) 1 b . By condition (i), we get n = 1 + δ n < + . Therefore, from Lemma 2.4, lim n d ( x n , p ) ( p F ( T ) ) and lim n d ( x n , F ( T ) ) exist.

(II) Next, we prove that d ( x n , T x n ) 0 (as n ).

For p F ( T ) , according to the proof of (I), we know that lim n d ( x n , p ) exists. Assume that
lim n d ( x n , p ) = r 0 .
(3.6)
From (3.4) and (3.6), we get
r = lim n d ( x n , p ) lim n d ( W ( x n 1 , T ( P T ) n 1 x n , α n ) , p ) lim n ( ( 1 + δ n ) d ( x n 1 , p ) ) = r ,
which implies that
lim n d ( W ( x n 1 , T ( P T ) n 1 x n , α n ) , p ) = r .
(3.7)
In addition, since
d ( T ( P T ) n 1 x n , p ) k n d ( x n , p ) , n 1 ,
from (3.6), we have
lim sup n d ( T ( P T ) n 1 x n , p ) r .
(3.8)
It follows from (3.6)-(3.8) and Lemma 2.2 that
lim n d ( x n 1 , T ( P T ) n 1 x n ) = 0 .
(3.9)
We obtain
d ( x n , x n 1 ) = d ( P W ( x n 1 , T ( P T ) n 1 x n , α n ) , x n 1 ) α n d ( T ( P T ) n 1 x n , x n 1 ) 0 ( as  n ) .
(3.10)
Hence, from (3.9) and (3.10), we get
lim n d ( x n , T ( P T ) n 1 x n ) = 0 .
(3.11)
Since T is uniformly L-Lipschitzian, we have
d ( x n , T x n ) d ( x n , x n + 1 ) + d ( x n + 1 , T ( P T ) n x n + 1 ) + d ( T ( P T ) n x n + 1 , T ( P T ) n x n ) + d ( T ( P T ) n x n , T x n ) ( 1 + L ) d ( x n , x n + 1 ) + d ( x n + 1 , T ( P T ) n x n + 1 ) + d ( T ( P T ) n x n , T x n ) ( 1 + L ) d ( x n , x n + 1 ) + d ( x n + 1 , T ( P T ) n x n + 1 ) + L d ( ( P T ) n x n , x n ) ( 1 + L ) d ( x n , x n + 1 ) + d ( x n + 1 , T ( P T ) n x n + 1 ) + L d ( T ( P T ) n 1 x n , x n ) .
(3.12)
It follows from (3.11) and (3.12) that
lim n d ( x n , T x n ) = 0 .

(III) Now we prove that { x n } -converges to a point p F ( T ) .

Since { x n } is bounded, by Lemma 2.1, it has a unique asymptotic center A C ( { x n } ) = { p } . If { u n } is any subsequence of { x n } with A C ( { u n } ) = { q } , then, from (3.12), we have
lim n d ( u n , T u n ) = 0 .
(3.13)
We claim that q F ( T ) . In fact, for any m , n 1 ,
d ( T ( P T ) m 1 q , u n ) d ( T ( P T ) m 1 q , T ( P T ) m 1 u n ) + d ( T ( P T ) m 1 u n , T ( P T ) m 2 u n ) + + d ( T u n , u n ) k m d ( q , u n ) + L d ( T u n , u n ) + + d ( T u n , u n ) .
From (3.13), we get
lim sup n d ( T ( P T ) m 1 q , u n ) lim sup n k m d ( q , u n ) = k m r ( q , { u n } ) ,
and so
lim sup m d ( T ( P T ) m 1 q , u n ) r ( q , { u n } ) .
By the definition of the asymptotic center A c { u n } of a bounded sequence { u n } with respect C, we have
r ( q , { u n } ) r ( x , { u n } ) , x C .
This implies that
lim inf m r ( T ( P T ) m 1 q , { u n } ) r ( q , { u n } ) .
Therefore, we have
lim m r ( T ( P T ) m 1 q , { u n } ) = r ( q , { u n } ) .
By Lemma 2.3, one shows that lim m T ( P T ) m 1 q = q . Because T is uniformly continuous, we have
T q = T lim m T ( P T ) m 1 q = T lim m P T ( P T ) m 1 q = lim m T ( P T ) m q = q .

Consequently, q F ( T ) . By the uniqueness of asymptotic centers, we get p = q . It implies that p is the unique asymptotic of { u n } for each subsequence { u n } { x n } , that is, { x n } -converges to a point p F ( T ) . The proof of Theorem 3.1 is completed. □

From Remark 2.1, we have the following result.

Corollary 3.1 Let E be a complete hyperbolic space, C be a nonempty, bounded, closed, convex subset of E, and P : E D be the nonexpansive retraction. Let T : C E be nonexpansive nonself-mapping such that T be uniformly L-Lipschitz continuous. Define { x n } as follows: x 0 C ,
x n = P W ( x n 1 , T ( T P ) n 1 x n , α n ) , n 1 .
(3.14)

If there exist constants a , b ( 0 , 1 ) with 0 < b ( 1 a ) < 1 2 such that { α n } [ a , b ] , and F ( T ) , then the sequence { x n } -converges to a point p F ( T ) .

Declarations

Acknowledgements

The authors are very grateful to both reviewers for carefully reading this paper and their comments.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
School of Science, Southwest University of Science and Technology

References

  1. Lim TC: Remarks on some fixed point theorems. Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 1976, 60: 179–182. 10.1090/S0002-9939-1976-0423139-XView ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. Kirk WA, Panyanak B: A concept of convergence in geodesic spaces. Nonlinear Anal. 2008, 68: 3689–3696. 10.1016/j.na.2007.04.011MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. Dhompongsa S, Panyanak B: On -convergence theorem in CAT(0) spaces. Comput. Math. Appl. 2008,56(10):2572–2579. 10.1016/j.camwa.2008.05.036MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. Abbas M, Thakur BS, Thakur D: Fixed points of asymptotically nonexpansive mapping in the intermediate sense in CAT(0) spaces. Commun. Korean Math. Soc. 2013,28(1):107–121. 10.4134/CKMS.2013.28.1.107MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. Yang L, Zhao FH: Srong and Δ-convergence theorems for total asymptotically nonexpansive nonself mappings in CAT(0) spaces. J. Inequal. Appl. 2013., 2013: Article ID 557Google Scholar
  6. Wan L: Δ-Convergence for mixed-type total asymptotically nonexpansive mappings in hyperbolic spaces. J. Inequal. Appl. 2013., 2013: Article ID 553Google Scholar
  7. Kohlenbach U: Some logical metatheorems with applications in functional analysis. Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 2005, 357: 89–128. 10.1090/S0002-9947-04-03515-9MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. Goebel K, Kirk WA: Iteration processes for nonexpansive mappings. Contemp. Math. 21. In Topological Methods in Nonlinear Functional Analysis. Edited by: Singh SP, Thomeier S, Watson B. Am. Math. Soc., Providence; 1983:115–123.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  9. Reich S, Shafrir I: Nonexpansive iterations in hyperbolic spaces. Nonlinear Anal. 1990, 15: 537–558. 10.1016/0362-546X(90)90058-OMathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. Goebel K, Reich S: Uniform Convexity, Hyperbolic Geometry, and Nonexpansive Mappings. Dekker, New York; 1984.MATHGoogle Scholar
  11. Bridson M, Haefliger A: Metric Spaces of Non-Positive Curvature. Springer, Berlin; 1999.View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. Wang L, Chang SS, Ma Z: Convergence theorem for total asymptotically nonexpansive nonself mappings in CAT(0) space. J. Inequal. Appl. 2013., 2013: Article ID 135Google Scholar
  13. Khan AR, Fukharuddin H, Khan MAA: An implicit algorithm for two finite families of nonexpansive maps in hyperbolic space. Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2012., 2012: Article ID 54Google Scholar
  14. Leustean L: Nonexpansive iterations uniformly covex W -hyperbolic spaces. Contemporary Math. 513. In Nonlinear Analysis and Optimization I. Nonlinear Analysis. Edited by: Leizarowitz A, Mordukhovich BS, Shafrir I, Zaslavski A. Am. Math. Soc, Providence; 2010:193–209.Google Scholar

Copyright

© Yi and Bo; licensee Springer. 2014

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.