Skip to main content

Estimating the polygamma functions for negative integers

Abstract

The polygamma functions ψ ( r ) (x) are defined for all x>0 and rN. In this paper, the concepts of neutrix and neutrix limit are applied to generalize and redefine the polygamma functions ψ ( r ) (x) for all xR and rN. Also, further results are given.

MSC:33B15, 46F10.

1 Introduction

Neutrices are additive groups of negligible functions that do not contain any constants except zero. Their calculus was developed by van der Corput [1] and Hadamard in connection with asymptotic series and divergent integrals. Recently, the concepts of neutrix and neutrix limit have been used widely in many applications in mathematics, physics and statistics.

For example, Jack Ng and van Dam applied the neutrix calculus, in conjunction with the Hadamard integral developed by van der Corput, to the quantum field theories, in particular, to obtain finite results for the coefficients in the perturbation series. They also applied the neutrix calculus to quantum field theory and obtained finite renormalization in the loop calculations, see [2] and [3].

Further, many special functions have been generalized and redefined by using the neutrices. Fisher used the neutrices and the neutrix limit to define gamma, beta and incomplete gamma functions [48].

Ozcag et al. [9, 10] applied the neutrix limit to extend the definition of incomplete beta function and its partial derivatives for negative integers. Also, the digamma function was generalized for negative integers by Jolevska-Tuneska et al. [11]. Salem [12, 13] applied the neutrix limit to redefine the q-gamma and the incomplete q-gamma functions and their derivatives. In continuation, in this paper, we apply the concepts of neutrix and neutrix limit to generalize and redefine the polygamma functions.

A neutrix N is defined as a commutative additive group of functions f(ξ) defined on a domain N with values in an additive group N , where further if for some f in N, f(ξ)=γ for all ξ N , then γ=0. The functions in N are called negligible functions.

Let N be a set contained in a topological space with a limit point a which does not belong to N. If f(ξ) is a function defined on N with values in N and it is possible to find a constant c such that f(ξ)cN, then c is called the neutrix limit of f as ξ tends to a, and we write N- lim ξ a f(ξ)=c.

Note that if a neutrix limit c exists, then it is unique, since if f(x)c and f(x) c are in N, then the constant function c c is also in N and so c= c .

Also note that if N is a neutrix containing the set of all functions which converge to zero in the normal sense as x tends to y, then

lim x y f(x)=cN- lim x y f(x)=c.

In this paper, we let N be the neutrix having the domain N ={ϵ:0<ϵ<} and the range N of real numbers, with negligible functions being finite linear sums of the functions

ϵ λ ln r 1 ϵ, ln r ϵ(λ<0,rN)

and all functions o(ϵ) which converge to zero in the normal sense as ϵ tends to zero [1].

2 Gamma and digamma functions

The gamma function is defined as a locally summable function on the real line by [14]

Γ(x)= 0 t x 1 e x dx,x>0.
(2.1)

In the classical sense, Γ(x) function is not defined for the negative integer thus still is an open problem to give satisfactory definition. However, by using the neutrix limit, it was shown in [6] that gamma function (2.1) is defined as follows:

Γ(x)=N- lim ϵ 0 ϵ t x 1 e t dt
(2.2)

for x0,1,2, , and this function is also defined by the neutrix limit

Γ ( m ) = N - lim ϵ 0 ϵ t m 1 e t d t = 1 t m 1 e t d t + 0 1 t m 1 [ e t i = 0 m ( 1 ) i i ! t i ] d t i = 0 m 1 ( 1 ) i i ! ( m i )
(2.3)

for mN. The existence of the r th derivative of the gamma function was also proven in [6] and defined by the equation

Γ ( r ) ( 0 ) = N - lim ϵ 0 ϵ t 1 ln r t e t d t = 1 t 1 ln r t e t d t + 0 1 t 1 ln r t [ e t 1 ] d t ,
(2.4)
Γ ( r ) ( m ) = N - lim ϵ 0 ϵ t m 1 ln r t e t d t = 1 t m 1 ln r t e t d t + 0 1 t m 1 ln r t [ e t i = 0 m ( 1 ) i i ! t i ] d t i = 0 m 1 ( 1 ) i i ! r ! ( m i ) r 1
(2.5)

for r N 0 and mN, see also [15]. Further, it was proven that

Γ(r)= ( 1 ) r r ! ϕ(r) ( 1 ) r r ! γ
(2.6)

for r=1,2, , where

ϕ(r)= i = 1 r 1 i ,

thus we can extend the definition to the whole real line where

Γ(0)= Γ (1)=γ,

where γ denotes Euler’s constant, see [16].

The logarithmic derivative of the gamma function is known as the psi or digamma function ψ(x), that is, it is given by

ψ(x)= d d x ( ln Γ ( x ) ) = Γ ( x ) Γ ( x ) .
(2.7)

The digamma function is also defined as a locally summable function on the real line by

ψ(x)=γ+ 0 e t e x t 1 e t dt,x>0,
(2.8)

and this can be read as

ψ(x)=γ+ 0 1 1 t x 1 1 t dt,x>0,
(2.9)

where γ is also Euler’s constant.

We note that the digamma function ψ(x) is redefined by [11] to be

ψ(x)=γ+N- lim ϵ 0 ϵ 1 1 t x 1 1 t dt,xR,
(2.10)

and it has values for negative integers as

ψ(x)=γ+ H n ,n N 0 ,
(2.11)

where H n denotes the Harmonic number defined as

H n = k = 1 n 1 k ,nN with  H 0 =0.

It was also proven in [11] that

ψ (n)= k = 1 1 ( n k ) 2 ,nN,
(2.12)

which is correct for all nk; however, if n=k, then ψ (n) is undefined, and we will give the exact formula for (2.12) in the following section.

3 Polygamma functions

The polygamma functions ψ ( r ) (x) are defined as the r th derivative of the digamma function, that is,

ψ ( r ) (x)= 0 1 t x 1 ln r t 1 t dt,x>0,rN.
(3.1)

In the present section, we seek to redefine the polygamma functions ψ ( r ) (x) for all xR and rN.

Lemma 3.1 The neutrix limit, as ϵ tends to zero of the integral

ϵ 1 t α 1 ln r tdt,
(3.2)

exists for all values of αR and rN and

N- lim ϵ 0 ϵ 1 t α 1 ln r tdt={ ( 1 ) r r ! α r + 1 , α 0 , 0 , α = 0 .
(3.3)

Proof Let

I r (a,b)= a b t α 1 ln r tdt,rN.

It is easy to see by integration by parts that

I r (a,b)= b α ln r b a α ln r a α r α I r 1 (a,b)and I 0 (a,b)= b α a α α .

The induction yields

I r (a,b)= ( 1 ) r r ! α r + 1 ( b α a α ) k = 1 r ( 1 ) r r ! ( r k + 1 ) ! α k ( b α ln r k + 1 b a α ln r k + 1 a ) .

Hence, we get

I r (ϵ,1)= ( 1 ) r r ! α r + 1 ( 1 ϵ α ) + k = 1 r ( 1 ) r r ! ( r k + 1 ) ! α k ϵ α ln r k + 1 ϵ.

Notice that the sum consists of (linear sum of ϵ λ ln k ϵ) negligible functions which can be neglected when taking the neutrix limit as ϵ0. Taking the neutrix limit as ϵ0 yields the desired results. □

Theorem 3.2 Let n,rN and xR. Then the neutrix limit, as ϵ tends to zero of the integral

ϵ 1 t x 1 ln r t 1 t dt,
(3.4)

exists for all values of n<x<n+1.

Proof Using the geometric sequence sum rule gives

ϵ 1 t x 1 ln r t 1 t d t = ϵ 1 t x 1 ln r t ( 1 t n ) 1 t d t + ϵ 1 t x + n 1 ln r t 1 t d t = k = 0 n 1 ϵ 1 t x + k 1 ln r t d t + ϵ 1 t x + n 1 ln r t 1 t d t .

Taking the neutrix limit as ϵ0 yields

N- lim ϵ 0 ϵ 1 t x 1 ln r t 1 t dt= k = 0 n 1 ( N - lim ϵ 0 ϵ 1 t x + k 1 ln r t d t ) + 0 1 t x + n 1 ln r t 1 t dt.

Lemma 3.1 indicates that the neutrix limit of the integrals

N- lim ϵ 0 ϵ 1 t x + k 1 ln r tdt

exist for all n<x<n+1 and thus integral (3.4) also exists. □

Theorem 3.3 The neutrix limit, as ϵ tends to zero of the integral

ϵ 1 t 1 ln r t 1 t dt,
(3.5)

exists for all rN and

N- lim ϵ 0 ϵ 1 t 1 ln r t 1 t dt= ψ ( r ) (1).
(3.6)

Proof We have

ϵ 1 t 1 ln r t 1 t dt= ϵ 1 t 1 ln r tdt+ ϵ 1 ln r t 1 t dt.

In view of Lemma 3.1, the neutrix limit of the first integral exists and equals zero, and so we get

N- lim ϵ 0 ϵ 1 t 1 ln r t 1 t dt= 0 1 ln r t 1 t dt= ψ ( r ) (1).

 □

Theorem 3.4 The neutrix limit, as ϵ tends to zero of the integral

ϵ 1 t n 1 ln r t 1 t dt,
(3.7)

exists for all n,rN and

N- lim ϵ 0 ϵ 1 t n 1 ln r t 1 t dt= ψ ( r ) (1) k = 1 n r ! k r + 1 .
(3.8)

Proof Using the geometric sequence sum rule gives

ϵ 1 t n 1 ln r t 1 t d t = ϵ 1 t n 1 ( 1 t n + 1 ) ln r t 1 t d t + ϵ 1 ln r t 1 t d t = k = 0 n ϵ 1 t k n 1 ln r t d t + ϵ 1 ln r t 1 t d t = k = 0 n 1 ϵ 1 t k n 1 ln r t d t + ϵ 1 t 1 ln r t d t + ϵ 1 ln r t 1 t d t = k = 1 n ϵ 1 t k 1 ln r t d t + ϵ 1 t 1 ln r t d t + ϵ 1 ln r t 1 t d t .

Taking the neutrix limit as ϵ0 yields

N - lim ϵ 0 ϵ 1 t n 1 ln r t 1 t d t = k = 1 n ( N - lim ϵ 0 ϵ 1 t k 1 ln r t d t ) + N - lim ϵ 0 ϵ 1 t 1 ln r t d t + 0 1 ln r t 1 t d t .

The results obtained in Lemma 3.1 and definition (3.1) complete the proof. □

The above theorems lead us to introducing the following.

Definition 3.5 The polygamma function ψ ( r ) (x) can be redefined by

ψ ( r ) (x)= ( N - lim ϵ 0 ϵ 1 t x 1 ln r t 1 t d t )
(3.9)

for all xR and rN.

Corollary 3.6 The polygamma function ψ ( r ) (x) has value at x=0 as

ψ ( r ) (0)= ψ ( r ) (1)
(3.10)

and for negative integers x=n as

ψ ( r ) (n)= ψ ( r ) (1)+ k = 1 n r ! k r + 1 ,nN.
(3.11)

In particular, when r=1, we have

ψ (0)= ψ (1)= π 2 6 1.64493
(3.12)

and

ψ (n)= ψ (1)+ k = 1 n 1 k 2 = π 2 6 + k = 1 n 1 k 2 1.64493+ k = 1 n 1 k 2 ,nN.
(3.13)

Corollary 3.7 If we let n to (3.11), then we get

ψ ( r ) ()= ψ ( r ) (1)+r!ζ(r+1),rN,
(3.14)

where ζ(s) is the Riemann zeta function defined as [14]

ζ(s)= k = 1 1 k s ,(s)>1.

Since ψ ( r ) (1)= ( 1 ) r + 1 r!ζ(r+1), then we get

ψ ( r ) ()=r!ζ(r+1) ( 1 + ( 1 ) r + 1 ) ={ 2 r ! ζ ( r + 1 ) if  n  is odd , 0 if  n  is even ,
(3.15)

and if r=1, we get

ψ ()=2ζ(2)= π 2 3 3.28987.
(3.16)

Remark 3.8 Formula (3.13) is the correct formula of (2.12).

References

  1. van der Corput JG: Introduction to the neutrix calculus. J. Anal. Math. 1960, 7: 291–398.

    MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  2. Ng YJ, van Dam H: Neutrix calculus and finite quantum field theory. J. Phys. A 2005, 38(18):L317-L323. 10.1088/0305-4470/38/18/L03

    MATH  MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Ng YJ, van Dam H: An application of neutrix calculus to quantum theory. Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 2006, 21(2):297–312. 10.1142/S0217751X06025225

    MATH  MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Fisher B:On defining the incomplete gamma function γ(m,x). Integral Transforms Spec. Funct. 2004, 15(6):467–476. 10.1080/10652460412331270698

    MATH  MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Fisher B, Jolevska-Tuneska B, Kılıçman A: On defining the incomplete gamma function. Integral Transforms Spec. Funct. 2003, 14(4):293–299. 10.1080/1065246031000081667

    MATH  MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Fisher B, Kılıçman A, Nicholas D: On the beta function and the neutrix product of distributions. Integral Transforms Spec. Funct. 1998, 7(1–2):35–42. 10.1080/10652469808819184

    MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Fisher B, Kuribayashi Y: Neutrices and the beta function. Rostock. Math. Kolloqu. 1987, 32: 56–66.

    MATH  MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  8. Fisher B, Kuribayashi Y: Neutrices and the gamma function. J. Fac. Ed. Tottori Univ. Math. Sci. 1987, 36(1–2):1–7.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Ozcag E, Ege I, Gurcay H: On partial derivative of the incomplete beta function. Appl. Math. Lett. 2008, 21: 675–681. 10.1016/j.aml.2007.07.020

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Ozcag E, Ege I, Gurcay H: An extension of the incomplete beta function for negative integers. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 2008, 338: 984–992. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2007.05.075

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Jolevska-Tuneska B, Jolevski I: Some results on the digamma function. Appl. Math. Inform. Sci. 2013, 7(1):167–170. 10.12785/amis/070120

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Salem A: The neutrix limit of the q -gamma function and its derivatives. Appl. Math. Lett. 2010, 23: 1262–1268. 10.1016/j.aml.2010.06.010

    MATH  MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Salem A: Existence of the neutrix limit of the q -analogue of the incomplete gamma function and its derivatives. Appl. Math. Lett. 2012, 25: 363–368. 10.1016/j.aml.2011.09.015

    MATH  MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Abramowitz M, Stegun CA National Bureau of Standards Applied Mathematics Series 55. In Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, Mathematical Tables. National Bureau of Standards, Washington; 1964. 7th printing

    Google Scholar 

  15. Ozcag E, Ege I, Gurcay H, Jolevska-Tuneska B: Some remarks on the incomplete gamma function. In Mathematical Methods in Engineering. Springer, Dordrecht; 2007:97–108.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  16. Fisher B, Kılıçman A: Some results on the gamma function for negative integers. Appl. Math. Inform. Sci. 2012, 6(2):173–176.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the referee(s) for valuable remarks and suggestions on the previous version of the manuscript.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Adem Kılıçman.

Additional information

Competing interests

The authors declare that they do not have competing interests in publishing this article.

Authors’ contributions

Both authors contributed equally. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Salem, A., Kılıçman, A. Estimating the polygamma functions for negative integers. J Inequal Appl 2013, 523 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1186/1029-242X-2013-523

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1029-242X-2013-523

Keywords

  • gamma function
  • polygamma functions
  • neutrices
  • neutrix limits