- Research
- Open Access

# On a new measure on fractals

- Alireza K Golmankhaneh
^{1}and - Dumitru Baleanu
^{2, 3, 4}Email author

**2013**:522

https://doi.org/10.1186/1029-242X-2013-522

© Golmankhaneh and Baleanu; licensee Springer. 2013

**Received:**27 August 2013**Accepted:**13 September 2013**Published:**9 November 2013

## Abstract

Fractals are sets whose Hausdorff dimension strictly exceeds their topological dimension. The algorithmic Riemannian-like method, ${F}^{\alpha}$-calculus, has been suggested very recently. Henstock-Kurzweil integral is the generalized Riemann integral method by using the gauge function. In this paper we generalize the ${F}^{\alpha}$-calculus as a fractional local calculus that is more suitable to describe some physical process. We introduce the new measure using the gauge function on fractal sets that gives a finer dimension in comparison with the Hausdorff and box dimension. Hilbert ${F}^{\alpha}$-spaces are defined. We suggest the self-adjoint ${F}^{\alpha}$-differential operator so that it can be applied in the fractal quantum mechanics and on the fractal curves.

## Keywords

- fractal measure
- fractal calculus
- fractal curve

## 1 Introduction

Fractal geometry is used to describe real objects such as trees, lightning, river meanders and coastlines. We known that the Euclidean geometry is the approximate geometry applied in the real world. In the sense of Mandelbrot, a fractal set is the one whose Hausdorff dimension strictly exceeds the topological dimension [1–4]. Therefore, the calculus on fractals leads to better understanding the description of various real world models from science and engineering. Researchers have constructed analysis on fractals by using different approaches. For example, the fractional calculus has been applied to explain the supper- and sub-diffusion in physics as well as many other non-local phenomena. The fractional derivatives are non-local and they have memory property [5–8]. Recently, the fractional local calculus has been defined and applied in various fields [9–13]. The calculus on fractals which is Riemannian-like was suggested in [14, 15]. Meanwhile, it was generalized and applied in Newtonian, Lagrange and Hamilton mechanics. The Maxwell and the Schrödinger equations were expanded on fractal imbedding in ${R}^{3}$ [16–19]. Moreover, the measure theoretical approaches were used to create a calculus on fractals [20, 21]. In recent years, the calculus on fractals became an interesting and powerful tool for researchers. Taking into account the motivation presented above, in this manuscript we suggest a new measure on fractals. The relative extrema in ${F}^{\alpha}$-calculus are discussed. The Hilbert ${F}^{\alpha}$-spaces and ${F}^{\alpha}$-self-adjoint differential operator are defined.

The plan of the paper is given below.

In Section 2 we review the definitions of measurable sets and Hausdorff measure. In Section 3 a new measure on fractal sets is introduced. We introduce the relative extrema condition of the ${F}^{\alpha}$-calculus in Section 4 . Section 5 presents the Hilbert spaces in an ${F}^{\alpha}$-space. In Section 6 the ${F}^{\alpha}$-self-adjoint differential operator is defined. Section 7 is devoted to conclusions.

## 2 Preliminaries

As it is known, measure theory extends the concept of length for an arbitrary subset of the real line. Thus, a measure is the generalization of the concepts of length, area and volume [23]. Lebesgue introduced a measure that leads to a calculus on ${R}^{n}$. In this section we review the basic tools used in this paper. Firstly, we recall the definition of measurable sets such as Borel sets. Secondly, the Hausdorff measure is reviewed so that it is useful for analysis on fractals [23]. We notice that the Lebesgue measure is zero on the Cantor set as a fractal subset of the real line. More details about this subject can be found in the papers [9–15].

### 2.1 Measurable sets

*R*and $P(R)$ be all subsets or a power set of

*R*. Boolean algebra ℜ of the sets in $P(R)$ has the following conditions [2, 3, 22, 23]:

- (I)
$A,B\in \mathfrak{R}\Rightarrow A\cup B\in \mathfrak{R}$,

- (II)
$A\in \mathfrak{R}\Rightarrow {A}^{c}=R-A\in \mathfrak{R}$,

- (III)
$A,B\in \mathfrak{R}\Rightarrow A\cap B\in \mathfrak{R}$,

where ℜ are subsets of a set $P(R)$. An algebra ℜ is *σ*-algebra if it is closed under countable union of sets.

*μ*is a measure on ℜ if for a number of subsets of ℜ, we have

equality is for the disjoint Borel sets.

### 2.2 Hausdorff measure

*K*is [2, 3, 22, 23]

*Z*to be a subset of

*R*, then we conclude that

*Z*with the condition ${K}_{i}\subset R$ and $diam{K}_{i}<\delta $. The ${H}_{\delta}^{d}(S)$ is decreasing, so ${lim}_{\delta \to 0}{H}_{\delta}^{d}(S)$ exists. Then the following

is called Hausdorff measure on fractal sets [2, 3, 22, 23]. In this definition, the covering sets can be open or closed, and they will yield the same measure.

### 2.3 Generalized Hausdorff measure

We review the fractional measure introduced on fractional sets [9, 10].

*E*, the subset of a fractional set, is given by

*α*-dimensional generalized Hausdorff measure is suggested as follows:

In the following sections, we present the main results of our manuscript.

## 3 A new measure on fractals

*F*be a subset of the real line and a fractal. The flag function for a set

*F*has the form

*R*, and $P=\{{I}_{i},i=1,\dots ,n\}={\{{I}_{i}\}}_{i=1}^{n}$ is a tagged partition [22, 23]. Let $\delta (t)$ be a gauge function on

*I*. So, we say that $\dot{P}$ is $\delta (t)$-fine if

Let us assume that $I=[a,b]$ is a nonempty compact interval.

*F*be a subset of $I=[a,b]$. Let $\dot{P}$ be a

*δ*-fine partition. ${\sigma}_{\ast}^{\alpha}[F,I]$ is defined as

where $a<b$ and $0<\alpha \le 1$.

*δ*-fine partition. The coarse grained mass ${}^{\ast}\gamma _{\delta}^{\alpha}(F,a,b)$ of $F\cap [a,b]$ is given by

where $|\dot{P}|={max}_{1\le i\le n}({x}_{i}-{x}_{i-1})$. We take the infimum over all *δ*-fine partitions of *I*.

*δ*, then we can define [19, 22, 23]

*new measure*arising from the gauge function and denote it by ${\mathbf{G}}^{\alpha}(F,a,b)$. Let ${}^{\ast}\gamma ^{\alpha}(F,a,b)$ be a set of functions over Borel sets $F\subset R$ as

where ${F}_{i}$ are countable closed covers of the set *F*. Here, we are taking infimum over all closed covers of *F*. Now, as a measure ${\mathbf{G}}^{\alpha}(F,a,b)$, we check the properties as follows.

**Properties** *Now*, *we check all the properties for the new measure*, *namely*:

(1) *It is clear that the measure of a null set is zero*. *Since* ${}^{\ast}\gamma _{\delta}^{\alpha}(\mathrm{\varnothing},a,b)=0$, *then* ${\mathbf{G}}^{\alpha}(\mathrm{\varnothing},a,b)=0$.

*If*$A\subseteq B$

*and*$B\subseteq {\bigcup}_{n\in N}{E}_{n}$,

*where*${E}_{n}$

*is a measurable set*,

*then the set*

*A*

*is also*$A\subseteq {\bigcup}_{n\in N}{E}_{n}$.

*Subsequently*,

*we have*

*Therefore we conclude that*

(3) *Now*, *we demonstrate that if* $A={\bigcup}_{i\in N}{A}_{i}$, *where* ${A}_{i}$ *is a sequence of measurable sets*, *then* ${\mathbf{G}}^{\alpha}(A,a,b)\le {\sum}_{i=1}^{\mathrm{\infty}}{\mathbf{G}}^{\alpha}({A}_{i},a,b)$.

*Proof*If ${\sum}_{i=1}{\mathbf{G}}^{\alpha}({A}_{i},a,b)$ diverges, then there is nothing to prove. So, we assume that ${\sum}_{i=1}{\mathbf{G}}^{\alpha}({A}_{i},a,b)<\mathrm{\infty}$. Let $\u03f5>0$, then for each

*i*there exist sets ${E}_{ni}$, $n\in N$, such that ${A}_{i}\subseteq {\bigcup}_{n=1}{E}_{ni}$ and

*Proof*Let ${A}_{1},{A}_{2},\dots ,{A}_{n}$ be disjoint measurable sets. Noticing that the set ${A}_{1}$ is measurable, if one picks out a test set as $T={A}_{1}\cup {A}_{2}\cup \cdots \cup {A}_{n}$, therefore, we have

*n*, we have

In view of (14)-(18), the proof is complete. □

*β-dimension*as it is given below

## 4 Relative extrema in ${F}^{\alpha}$-calculus

In the rest of the paper, we generalize the ${F}^{\alpha}$-calculus on a fractal subset of the real-line [14]. We recall that the extrema of a function are the values that the function is either maximum or minimum. Suppose that $f:I\to R$ and $Sch(f)$ contained in *F*, which is *α*-perfect [14], is said to have a relative maximum / relative minimum at $c\in I$ if there exists a neighborhood $V={V}_{\delta}(c)$ of *c* such that $f(x)\le f(c)$ [respectively $f(c)\le f(x)$] for all *x* in ${V}_{\delta}\cap F$. We say that *f* has a relative extremum at $c\in I$ if it has either a relative maximum or a relative minimum at *c* [19].

**Analogue of Fermat’s theorem in Fα$F^{\alpha }$-calculus** *Let* $f:I\to R$ *be a function such that* $Sch(f)$ *is contained in* *F* *which is an* *α*-*perfect set*. *Suppose that* $c\in I$ *is a relative extrema of* *f*. *If* *f* *is* ${F}^{\alpha}$-*differentiable at* *c*, *then* ${D}_{F}^{\alpha}f(x)=0$ [14].

*Proof* Let *c* be a relative maximum. Then there is $\delta >0$ such that ${V}_{\delta}(c)=(c-\delta ,c+\delta )\subset I$ for all $x\in {V}_{\delta}\cap F$, we have $f(x)\le f(c)$.

However, this contradicts that *f* has a relative maximum at *c*. Therefore, we cannot have ${D}_{F}^{\alpha}f(x)>0$. Similarly, we cannot have ${D}_{F}^{\alpha}f(x)<0$. Hence, we must have ${D}_{F}^{\alpha}f(x)=0$. □

**Remark** A similar proof applies if *c* is a relative minimum.

## 5 Hilbert spaces in ${F}^{\alpha}$-calculus

*α*-perfect set[14]. Thus, we have the following:

Equation (33) means that every Cauchy sequence on a fractal set has limit belonging to the vector space. Finally, we have complied with all the conditions for a Hilbert space in ${F}^{\alpha}$-calculus.

## 6 Self-adjoint ${F}^{\alpha}$-differential operator

It is interesting to note that a second-order differential operator can be written in a Sturm-Liouville form if it is self-adjoint. In quantum mechanics, the eigenvalues and eigenvectors are the energy and the wave function, respectively. So, by extending the ${F}^{\alpha}$-calculus, namely defining an ${F}^{\alpha}$-differential operator, we gain the definition and the condition for the analogous Hilbert operator on a fractal set. In this section we present the self-adjoint operators involving the fractional local derivative on fractals.

**L**is a fractional local differential operator in the form

When $\overline{\mathbf{L}}[f(x)]=\mathbf{L}[f(x)]$, the operator is said to be ${F}^{\alpha}$-self-adjoint operator [19]. It is clear that every ${F}^{\alpha}$-self-adjoint operator can be written as an analogous Sturm-Liouville equation on fractal sets.

## 7 Conclusion

Researchers are trying to create new calculus on fractals by using some different approaches which are algorithmic or not. Since the fractals generated are different, the measures on them also vary from one to another. The gauge function is used to generalize the Riemann integral for a wider class of functions. We defined a new measure on fractals by using this function. This new measure can be used to define an integral on fractals. Meanwhile, the ${F}^{\alpha}$-calculus on fractals was generalized by given the relative extrema condition. Moreover, the Hilbert ${F}^{\alpha}$-space is constructed for potential applications on fractal quantum mechanics and the self-adjoint ${F}^{\alpha}$-differential operator is defined on fractal sets.

## Declarations

### Acknowledgements

One of the authors (AKG) would like to thank Professor AD Gangal for useful discussion on this topic during the period of time he was in Pune University.

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Mandelbrot BB:
*The Fractal Geometry of Nature*. 1983. MacmillanGoogle Scholar - Falconer KJ:
*Fractal Geometry: Mathematical Foundations and Applications*. Wiley, New York; 2007.Google Scholar - Falconer KJ, Falconer KJ:
*Techniques in Fractal Geometry*. Wiley, Chichester; 1997.MATHGoogle Scholar - Edgar GA:
*Integral, Probability, and Fractal Measures*. Springer, Berlin; 1998.MATHView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Samko SG, Kilbas AA, Marichev OI:
*Fractional Integrals and Derivatives and Some of Their Applications*. 1987. Science and TechnicalMATHGoogle Scholar - Hilfer R:
*Applications of Fractional Calculus in Physics*. Word Scientific, Singapore; 2000.MATHView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Miller, KS, Ross, B: An introduction to the fractional calculus and fractional differential equations (1993)Google Scholar
- Golmankhaneh AK:
*Investigations in Dynamics: With Focus on Fractional Dynamics*. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Saarbrucken; 2012.Google Scholar - Yang X-J:
*Advanced Local Fractional Calculus and Its Applications*. World Science, New York; 2012.Google Scholar - Yang X-J:
*Local Fractional Functional Analysis and Its Applications*. Asian Academic Publisher Limited, Hong Kong; 2011.Google Scholar - Kolwankar KM, Gangal AD: Local fractional Fokker-Planck equation.
*Phys. Rev. Lett.*1998, 80: 214. 10.1103/PhysRevLett.80.214MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Kolwankar KM, Gangal AD: Local fractional calculus: a calculus for fractal space-time. In
*Fractals*. Springer, London; 1999:171–181.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Babakhani A, Daftardar-Gejji V: On calculus of local fractional derivatives.
*J. Math. Anal. Appl.*2002, 270: 66. 10.1016/S0022-247X(02)00048-3MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Parvate A, Gangal AD: Calculus on fractal subsets of real line I. Formulation.
*Fractals*2009, 17(01):53–81. 10.1142/S0218348X09004181MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Parvate A, Gangal AD: Calculus on fractal subsets of real line II. Conjugacy with ordinary calculus.
*Fractals*2011, 19(03):271–290. 10.1142/S0218348X11005440MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Golmankhaneh AK, Golmankhaneh AK, Baleanu D: Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics on fractals subset of real-line.
*Int. J. Theor. Phys.*2013, 52: 4210–4217. 10.1007/s10773-013-1733-xMATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Golmankhaneh AK, Golmankhaneh AK, Baleanu D:About Maxwell’s equations on fractal subsets of ${R}^{3}$.
*Cent. Eur. J. Phys.*2013, 11: 863–867. 10.2478/s11534-013-0192-6Google Scholar - Golmankhaneh AK, Fazlollahi V, Baleanu D: Newtonian mechanics on fractals subset of real-line.
*Rom. Rep. Phys.*2013, 65: 84–93.Google Scholar - Golmankhaneh, AK: Investigation in dynamics: with focus on fractional dynamics and application to classical and quantum mechanical processes. Ph.D. Thesis, submitted to University of Pune, India (2010)Google Scholar
- Kigami J 143. In
*Analysis on Fractals*. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; 2001.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Strichartz RS:
*Differential Equations on Fractals: A Tutorial*. Princeton University Press, Princeton; 2006.Google Scholar - Chilov GE, Gurevic BL:
*Integral, Measure, and Derivative: A Unified Approach*. Dover, New York; 1966.Google Scholar - Gordon RA 4. In
*The Integrals of Lebesgue, Denjoy, Perron, and Henstock*. Am. Math. Soc., Providence; 1994.View ArticleGoogle Scholar

## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.