- Open Access
Hadamard product of analytic functions and some special regions and curves
© Piejko and Sokół; licensee Springer. 2013
- Received: 20 April 2013
- Accepted: 15 August 2013
- Published: 3 September 2013
In this paper we present some new applications of convolution and subordination in geometric function theory. The paper deals with several ideas and techniques used in this topic. Besides being an application to those results, it provides interesting corollaries concerning special functions, regions and curves.
- Hadamard product
- univalent functions
- convex functions
- closed convex hull
Dedicated to Professor Hari M Srivastava
Of course the functions from map the unit disc onto convex domains.
The convolution has the algebraic properties of ordinary multiplication. We now look at some problems on convolution and at some of the relations between the convolution and the subordination. One can consider the following problems.
where is some subclass of ℋ.
If and , where are univalent in Δ, then, by (1.2), Problem 2 above becomes the following one:
Ruscheweyh and Sheil-Small  proved the Pòlya-Schoenberg conjecture that the class of convex univalent functions is preserved under convolution, namely . They proved also that the class of starlike functions and the class of close-to-convex functions are closed under convolution with the class . Another solution of Problem 1 is the following theorem.
Theorem A (see )
Problem 2, when the sets M and K are discs with center and radius , was considered in  and in other papers. One of results obtained there is the following theorem.
Theorem B (see )
In this paper we shall look for a solution of the following modified Problem 3.
The next theorem is a solution of Problem 4.
Theorem C (see )
is the Libera operator .
Theorem C improves an earlier result from  with the stronger assumption and the same conclusion. Moreover, if we assume more, that and f is univalent in Δ, then in (1.3) instead of we can put any convex univalent function. This is contained in the following result due to Ruscheweyh and Stankiewicz .
Theorem D (see )
This relationship allows us to obtain several subordination results about convolution. Note that there are no assumptions about the normalization of functions. It is one of the solutions of Problem 3. Many of the convolution properties were studied by Ruscheweyh in , and they have found many applications in various fields. The book  is also an excellent survey of the results. For the recent results on the Hadamard product in geometric function theory, see [9–13].
where . In Section 3 we prove that for given the curve , is the Booth lemniscate. Let denote a class of starlike functions consisting of functions f such that .
Lemma 2.1 The function given by (2.1) is a starlike univalent function for .
Thus, it is obvious that is a starlike univalent function for . □
Lemma 2.2 Let the function be of the form (2.1), and let be given by (1.4). If , then .
which is true for . □
Moreover, analogous consideration as in the above proof leads us to the fact that for . In Lemma 3.2 we show that for .
is the Libera operator.
Therefore, using Theorem C, we get (2.5). □
- 1.Suppose that . Let be a circle with the center S and the length of the radius R such that
- 2.Let . Then the curve (3.7) consists of points M such that
We say that a closed curve γ is convex when it is boundary of a convex bounded domain. Otherwise, we say that the curve γ is concave.
is attained at one point only. If , then the curve , is concave and (3.10) is attained twice. Moreover, in both cases this curve is symmetric with respect to both axes.
Corollary 3.3 If , then .
By Lemma 2.1 the functions , , are starlike univalent, hence by the geometric interpretation (1.2) of a subordination under univalent functions, we obtain from Theorem 2.3 the following corollary.
and hence by Lemma 3.1 the subordination (3.16) is equivalent to (3.13). □
The function is univalent as the convolution of a convex univalent function, so by (1.2) we obtain (3.18). □
Hence by (1.2) we obtain (3.21). □
- Ruscheweyh S, Sheil-Small T: Hadamard product of schlicht functions and the Polya-Schoenberg conjecture. Comment. Math. Helv. 1973, 48: 119–135. 10.1007/BF02566116MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Stankiewicz J, Stankiewicz Z: Some applications of the Hadamard convolution in the theory of functions. Ann. Univ. Mariae Curie-Skl̄odowska, Sect. A 1986, 40: 251–265.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Piejko K, Stankiewicz J: Convolution of functions with free normalization. Demonstr. Math. 2001, 34(1):69–76.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Miller SS, Mocanu PT, Reade MO: Subordination preserving integral operators. Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 1984, 283(2):605–615. 10.1090/S0002-9947-1984-0737887-4MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Libera RJ: Some classes of regular univalent functions. Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 1965, 16: 755–758. 10.1090/S0002-9939-1965-0178131-2MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hallenbeck DI, Ruscheweyh S: Subordination by convex functions. Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 1975, 52: 191–195. 10.1090/S0002-9939-1975-0374403-3MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ruscheweyh S, Stankiewicz J: Subordination under convex univalent function. Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci., Math. 1985, 33: 499–502.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Ruscheweyh S Sem. Math. Sup. 83. In Convolutions in Geometric Function Theory. Presses University Montreal, Montreal; 1982.Google Scholar
- Wang Z-G, Sun Y, Xu N: Some properties of certain meromorphic close-to-convex functions. Appl. Math. Lett. 2012, 25(3):454–460. 10.1016/j.aml.2011.09.035MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Deniz E, Răducanu D, Orhan H: On the univalence of an integral operator defined by Hadamard product. Appl. Math. Lett. 2012, 25(2):179–184. 10.1016/j.aml.2011.08.011MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Faisal I, Darus M: A study of a special family of analytic functions at infinity. Appl. Math. Lett. 2012, 25(3):654–657. 10.1016/j.aml.2011.10.007MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- El-Ashwah RM, Aouf MK: The Hadamard product of meromorphic univalent functions defined by using convolution. Appl. Math. Lett. 2011, 24(12):2153–2157. 10.1016/j.aml.2011.06.017MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sarkar N, Goswami P, Bulboacă T: Subclasses of spirallike multivalent functions. Math. Comput. Model. 2011, 54(11–12):3189–3196. 10.1016/j.mcm.2011.08.015View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rogosinski W: On the coefficients of subordinate functions. Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. 1943, 48(2):48–82.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Booth J I. In A Treatise on Some New Geometrical Methods. Longmans, Green, London; 1873.Google Scholar
- Booth J II. In A Treatise on Some New Geometrical Methods. Longmans, Green, London; 1877.Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.