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Some properties on the lexicographic product of graphs obtained by monogenic semigroups
Journal of Inequalities and Applications volume 2013, Article number: 238 (2013)
In (Das et al. in J. Inequal. Appl. 2013:44, 2013), a new graph on monogenic semigroups (with zero) having elements was recently defined. The vertices are the non-zero elements and, for , any two distinct vertices and are adjacent if in . As a continuing study, in an unpublished work, some well-known indices (first Zagreb index, second Zagreb index, Randić index, geometric-arithmetic index, atom-bond connectivity index, Wiener index, Harary index, first and second Zagreb eccentricity indices, eccentric connectivity index, the degree distance) over were investigated by the same authors of this paper.
In the light of the above references, our main aim in this paper is to extend these studies to the lexicographic product over . In detail, we investigate the diameter, radius, girth, maximum and minimum degree, chromatic number, clique number and domination number for the lexicographic product of any two (not necessarily different) graphs and .
MSC:05C10, 05C12, 06A07, 15A18, 15A36.
1 Introduction and preliminaries
The base of the graph is actually zero-divisor graphs (cf. ). In fact, the history of studying zero-divisor graphs began over commutative rings by the paper , and then it was followed over commutative and noncommutative rings by some of the joint papers [3–5]. After that the same terminology has been converted to commutative and noncommutative semigroups [6, 7].
In a recent study , the graph is defined by changing the adjacency rule of vertices and not destroying the main idea. Detailed, the authors considered a finite multiplicative monogenic semigroup with zero as the set
Then, by following the definition given in , an undirected (zero-divisor) graph associated to was obtained as in the following. The vertices of the graph are labeled by the nonzero zero-divisors (in other words, all nonzero element) of , and any two distinct vertices and , where () are connected by an edge in the case with the rule if and only if . The fundamental spectral properties such as the diameter, girth, maximum and minimum degree, chromatic number, clique number, degree sequence, irregularity index and dominating number for this new graph are presented in . Furthermore, in an unpublished work, the same authors of this paper studied the first and second Zagreb indices, Randić index, geometric-arithmetic index and atom-bond connectivity index, Wiener index, Harary index, the first and second Zagreb eccentricity indices, eccentric connectivity index and the degree distance to indicate the importance of the graph .
It is known that studying the extension of graphs is also an important tool (see, for instance, [8, 9]) since there are so many applications in science. With this idea, the lexicographic product of any two simple graphs G and H (in some references, it is also called composition product ) is defined which has the vertex set such that any two vertices and are connected to each other by an edge if and only if or and (see, for instance, [11–13]). In here, we replace by and by (as defined in (1)), where with 0 and with 0 such that . Hence, the lexicographic product has a vertex set which is given by
Here, any two vertices and are connected to each other if and only if
In this paper, by considering , we present some certain results for the diameter, radius, girth, maximum and minimum degrees, and finally chromatic, clique and domination numbers.
2 Main results
It is known that the girth of a simple graph G is the length of the shortest cycle contained in that graph. However, if G does not contain any cycle, then the girth of it is assumed to be infinity. Thus the first theorem of this paper is the following.
Proof By considering (3), we easily conclude that
Then, thinking the above steps at the same time, we get
as desired. □
The degree of a vertex v of G is the number of vertices adjacent to v. Among all degrees, the maximum (or the minimum ) degrees of G is the number of the largest (or the smallest) degree in G .
Theorem 2 The maximum and minimum degrees of are
Proof It is obvious that the vertex set in (2) has a total of nm vertices. Among these vertices, let us take the vertex . So, the maximum degree Δ of the graph is equal to
since the vertex is adjacent to all the other vertices.
On the other hand, let us take the vertex . Then, again by (3), the adjacency of with a vertex holds only if we have or and . That means the vertex is connected to and . Thus , as required. □
We recall that the distance (length of the shortest path) between two vertices u and v of G is denoted by . Moreover, the diameter of a simple graph G is defined by
We then have the next result.
Proof Obviously, the vertex in (2) has at least one neighborhood, and so the diameter can be figured out by considering the distance between and one of the other vertices in the vertex set. Therefore, by (3), the vertex is adjacent only to the vertices and . However is adjacent to all the vertices defined in (2). Therefore the diameter should be obtained by considering the distance between and , where , . In here, we must assume that the case and does not hold at the same time since there exists an adjacency
Hence the result. □
The eccentricity of a vertex v, denoted by , in a connected graph G is the maximum distance between v and any other vertex u of G. (For a disconnected graph, all vertices are defined to have infinite eccentricity.) It is clear that is equal to the maximum eccentricity among all the vertices of G. On the other hand, the minimum eccentricity is called the radius [15, 16] of G and denoted by
Proof We know that the vertex is adjacent to all the vertices in (2). Thus the radius can be figured out by considering the distance between and one of the other vertices in the set (2). So,
Hence, the eccentricity is equal to 1, which implies the required result. □
A subset D of the vertex set of a graph G is called a dominating set if every vertex is joined to at least one vertex of D by an edge. Additionally, the domination number is the number of vertices in the smallest dominating set for G. (We may refer to  for the fundamentals of a domination number.)
In our case, by (2), the dominating set is defined by since the vertices are adjacent to all the other vertices. Hence we obtain the next result.
Theorem 5 .
Basically, the coloring of G is to be an assignment of colors (elements of some set) to the vertices of G, one color to each vertex, so that adjacent vertices are assigned distinct colors. If n colors are used, then the coloring is referred to as an n-coloring. If there exists an n-coloring of G, then G is called n-colorable. The minimum number n for which G is n-colorable is called the chromatic number of G and is denoted by .
In addition, there exists another graph parameter, namely the clique of a graph G. In fact, depending on the vertices, each of the maximal complete subgraphs of G is called a clique. Moreover, the largest number of vertices in any clique of G is called the clique number and denoted by . In general, by , it is well known that for any graph G. For every induced subgraph H of G, if holds, then G is called a perfect graph .
By constructing the next result (see Theorem 6 below) for the chromatic number over the lexicographic product of the graphs and , we shall present a negative answer of a result given in  (see Remark 1).
We recall that for a real number r, the notation denotes the least integer ≥r. This fact will be needed for some of our results below.
The proof of the following lemma can be found in [, Theorem 6].
Lemma 1 ()
For a monogenic semigroup as in (1), the chromatic number of the graph is given by
The next result is an extension of the above lemma to the lexicographic product.
Theorem 6 The chromatic number of is equal to
In other words, .
Proof First step: The list of vertices that the vertex is adjacent to all the other vertices was given in (2). That means the color that was used for cannot be used for any other vertices. So, let us suppose that the color used for the vertex is labeled by . Secondly, if we consider the vertex , then it is easy to see that is adjacent to all the vertices except the vertex . Thus, the color for , say , can be also used only for . As a similar idea, the vertex is adjacent to all the vertices except the vertices and . Thus the color, say , for can be also used only for the vertex . (Notice that the color has been already used for in the previous step.) After that, following the same progress, we see that the total of different colors is needed to handle the coloring of all vertices in the set .
Second step: Except the set of vertices , the vertex is adjacent to all the other vertices defined in (2). On the other hand, while each element in the sets
is adjacent to each other, there also exists an adjacency among the vertices
That means the color used for can be also used for the vertices
So, let us suppose that the color used for and the vertices
is labeled by .
Now let us secondly consider the vertex . Since is not adjacent to vertices and , the color, say , for can be also used only for
(The color has been already used for the vertices in the previous step.) Similarly, it is easy to see that the vertex is not adjacent to the vertices
Thus the color, say , for can be also used only for the vertices and . (Again, notice that the color has been already used for previously.)
Finally, we need the total of different colors for the coloring of vertices in the set
Third step: The vertex cannot be adjacent to the vertices
in the set (2). In the second step, we have already colored the vertices . Furthermore, again similarly as in the second step, the vertices
are adjacent to each other, and also there exists an adjacency among the vertices
That means the color that used for can be also used for the vertices
So, let us suppose that the color used for and is labeled by . Moreover, if we consider the vertex , then it is clear that it is not adjacent to the vertices
Hence, the color, say , for the vertex can be also used only for
(We note that the color has been already used for
previously.) Finally, the vertex is not adjacent to the vertices
Thus the color, say , for can be also used only for the vertices
(Note that the color has been already used for .) Following a similar process as in the third step, one can see that the total of different colors is needed to handle the coloring of all the vertices in the set
By applying the same procedure as in the above steps, one can see that to handle the coloring of all the vertices in the set (2), we need the total of steps. In fact, each step has different colors. Therefore we obtain
as desired. □
Remark 1 It is clear that . This trivial upper bound is attained for any G and H with and . However, in Theorem 6, we obtained an equality between and . But it was shown in , that there is not any product ∗ of graphs for which the equality holds for all graphs G and H.
In [, Theorem 3.1], the authors proved that the clique number is preserved under the lexicographic product for any graphs G and H. In the following, we deal with this result by considering our special graphs. Before that, we need to present the following lemma, the truthfulness of which is quite clear.
Lemma 2 For any , there always exists
Theorem 7 The clique number of is equal to
Proof In the proof, we must first check whether the subgraph is complete or not (which means any two distinct vertices in the vertex set of this subgraph are adjacent). Now let us consider the graph . According to the definition, a subgraph will be complete if, for all distinct vertices and ,
i.e., for all i, j, a, b.
On the other hand, the equality in (4) will hold only in case the sum would be at least equal to the or the sum would be at least equal to the and . Therefore, for any two vertices and , we must have at least
since and . This process will be given a maximal complete subgraph, say A, with the vertex set
Note that the number of elements in the set is given by
Hence we obtain , as required. □
Remark 2 By Theorems 6 and 7,
which implies that the lexicographic product preserves the perfectness property for the special graphs and . We note that each graph in here is perfect by . Actually, Eq. (5) implies a special case of the result in  since in this reference the authors proved that the lexicographic product is perfect iff G and H are perfect.
Example 1 For the semigroups
as in (1), let us consider the graph . Depending on the results presented in this paper, we can state the following equalities:
(by Theorem 1).
and (by Theorem 2).
(by Theorem 3).
(by Theorem 4).
(by Theorem 5).
(by Theorem 6).
(by Theorem 7).
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Dedicated to Professor Hari M Srivastava.
The first, third and fourth authors are partially supported by Research Project Offices of Selcuk and Uludag universities. The second author is supported by the Faculty research Fund, Sungkyunkwan University, 2012 and Sungkyunkwan University BK21 Project, BK21 Math Modelling HRD Div. Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
All authors completed the paper together. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
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Akgunes, N., Das, K.C., Cevik, A.S. et al. Some properties on the lexicographic product of graphs obtained by monogenic semigroups. J Inequal Appl 2013, 238 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1186/1029-242X-2013-238
- monogenic semigroup
- lexicographic product
- clique number
- chromatic number
- independence number
- domination number