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The collineations which act as addition and multiplication on points in a certain class of projective Klingenberg planes

Abstract

Let P K 2 (Q(ε)) be the projective Klingenberg plane coordinated by the dual quaternion ring Q(ε)=Q+Qε={x+yεx,yQ} where Q is any quaternion ring. In this paper, we determine the addition and multiplication of the points on the line [0,1,0] of P K 2 (Q(ε)) as the image of some collineations of the plane P K 2 (Q(ε)). To do this, we give the collineations S a and L a . Later we show that the addition and multiplication of the nonneighbor points on the line [0,1,0] can be obtained as the images under that S a and L a .

MSC:51C05, 51J10, 12E15.

1 Introduction and preliminaries

In the plane geometry, there are three important classes: affine planes, projective planes and hyperbolic planes. In recent years, studies on the generalization of these classes are becoming more popular. In this paper, we study on the projective Klingenberg planes, which are generalizations of the projective planes. Now we give some required concepts from [14] for understanding projective Klingenberg planes. A ring R:=(R,+,) is defined as a set R together with two binary operations + and , which we call addition and multiplication, such that the following axioms are satisfied:

R1: (R,+) is an Abelian group;

R2: Multiplication is associative;

R3: Distributive laws holds.

A ring R with identity element is called local if the set I of its non-units forms an ideal.

A Projective Plane Π=(P,L,) is a system in which the elements of P are called points and the elements of are called lines together with an incidence relation between the points and lines such that

P1: If P and Q are distinct points, then there is a unique line passing through P and Q (denoted by PQ or PQ);

P2: If l and m are any lines, then there exist at least one point on both l and m;

P3: There exists four points such that no three of them are collinear.

In any projective plane, it is well known that there is a unique point on any distinct line pair and if l and m are distinct lines, the intersection point of these lines is denoted by lm or lm.

A Projective Klingenberg plane (PK-Plane) is a system (P,L,,) where (P,L,) is an incidence structure and is an equivalence relation on PL (called neighboring) such that no point is neighbor to any line and the following axioms are satisfied:

PK1: If P and Q are non-neighbor points, then there is a unique line passing through P and Q;

PK2: If l and m are non-neighbor lines, then there is a unique point on both l and m;

PK3: There is a projective plane Π and an incidence structure epimorphism χ:Π Π such that PQχ(P)=χ(Q) and lmχ(l)=χ(m).

A point PP is called near a line gL (which is denoted by Pg) iff there exists a line hg such that Ph.

An incidence structure automorphism preserving and reflecting the neighbor relation is called a collineation of Π.

Let Π be a PK-plane with canonical image Π . Choose a basis (O,U,V,E) whose image (χ(O),χ(U),χ(V),χ(E)) in Π form a quadrangle. Let g :=UV, l:=OE, W:=l(UV), η:={PlPO} and R:={PlPW}. Let 0:=O, 1:=E. Then the points PP and the lines gL of Π get their coordinates as follows:

If P g , let P=(x,y,1) where (x,x,1)=(PV)l, (y,y,1)=(PU)l;

If P g , PV let P=(1,y,z) where (1,z,1)=((PVUE)O)EV and (1,y,1)=OPEV;

If PV, let P=(w,1,z) where (1,1,z)=PUl, and (w,1,1)=OPEU (clearly w,zη);

If gV, then g=[m,1,k] where (1,m,1)=((g g )O)EV, (0,k,1)=gOV;

If gV, g g , then g=[1,n,p] where (n,1,1)=((g g )O)EU, (p,0,1)=gOU;

If g g , then g=[q,n,1] where (1,0,q)=gOU, (0,1,n)=gOV (then q,nη).

Then O=(0,0,1), U=(1,0,0), V=(0,1,0), E=(1,1,1), OU=[0,1,0], OV=[1,0,0], UV=[0,0,1], l=OE=[1,1,0] and a point aR has coordinates (a,a,1). We note that ( a 1 , a 2 , a 3 )( b 1 , b 2 , b 3 ) if and only if a i b i I, for i=1,2,3, dually for lines.

Let R be a local ring and the set of the non-units is denoted by I. Now we recall a theorem and corollary which are constructed in [2] for Moufang-Klingenberg planes.

Theorem 1.1 The system (P,L,,) is a PK-plane where

P = { ( x , y , 1 ) x , y R } { ( 1 , y , z ) y R , z I } { ( w , 1 , z ) w , z I } , L = { [ m , 1 , k ] m , k R } { [ 1 , n , p ] n I , p R } { [ q , n , 1 ] q , n I } , ( x , y , 1 ) [ m , 1 , k ] y = x m + k , ( x , y , 1 ) [ 1 , n , p ] x = y n + p , ( x , y , 1 ) [ q , n , 1 ] , ( 1 , y , z ) [ m , 1 , k ] y = m + z k , ( 1 , y , z ) [ q , n , 1 ] z = q + y n , ( 1 , y , z ) [ 1 , n , p ] , ( w , 1 , z ) [ 1 , n , p ] w = n + z p , ( w , 1 , z ) [ q , n , 1 ] z = w q + n , ( w , 1 , z ) [ m , 1 , k ] , ( x 1 , x 2 , x 3 ) ( y 1 , y 2 , y 3 ) x i y i I , [ a 1 , a 2 , a 3 ] [ b 1 , b 2 , b 3 ] a i b i I .

Corollary 1.2 If tI, then 1t is a unit and, therefore,

( x , y , 1 ) ( 1 , y , z ) , ( x , y , 1 ) ( w , 1 , z ) , ( 1 , y , z ) ( w , 1 , z ) , ( w , 1 , z ) ( u , 1 , t ) , ( x , y , 1 ) ( u , v , 1 ) ( x u I , y v I ) , ( 1 , y , z ) ( 1 , v , t ) y v I .

The PK-Plane given in Theorem 1.1 is denoted by P K 2 (R) and is called the PK-Plane coordinatized with (the local ring) R.

Finally we give the definition of dual quaternions, some theorems and a corollary from [5], which we use in the next section.

We consider any quaternion ring Q={ x 0 + x 1 i+ x 2 j+ x 3 k x 0 , x 1 , x 2 , x 3 F} over a field F (which is a division ring) and the set Q(ε)=Q+Qε={a+bεa,bQ} together with the following operations:

( a + b ε ) + ( c + d ε ) = ( a + c ) + ( b + d ) ε , ( a + b ε ) ( c + d ε ) = a c + ( a d + b c ) ε ,

where ε represents any element not in Q.

The elements of Q(ε) are called as dual quaternions. Obviously, the unity of Q(ε) is 1.

Theorem 1.3 The non-unit elements of Q(ε) are in the form , for bQ and if a0, a,bQ, then a+bε is a unit and ( a + b ε ) 1 = a 1 a 1 b a 1 ε.

Theorem 1.4 The set of non-units I=Qε={bεbQ} is an ideal of Q(ε).

Corollary 1.5

  1. (1)

    Q(ε) is a local ring (and it is called as the dual local ring on Q);

  2. (2)

    It is obvious from Theorem  1.1 that P K 2 (Q(ε))=(P,L,,) is a PK-plane and

Theorem 1.6 Neighbor relation is an equivalence relation over P and in P K 2 ( Q ( ε ) ).

Theorem 1.7 In P K 2 ( Q ( ε ) ) the following properties are satisfied:

  1. (1)

    ( x 1 + x 2 ε, y 1 + y 2 ε,1)[ m 1 + m 2 ε,1, k 1 + k 2 ε] y 1 = x 1 m 1 + k 1 , y 2 = x 2 m 1 + x 1 m 2 + k 2 ;

  2. (2)

    ( x 1 + x 2 ε, y 1 + y 2 ε,1)[1, n 2 ε, p 1 + p 2 ε] x 1 = p 1 , x 2 = y 1 n 2 + p 2 ;

  3. (3)

    (1, y 1 + y 2 ε, z 2 ε)[ m 1 + m 2 ε,1, k 1 + k 2 ε] y 1 = m 1 , y 2 = m 2 + z 2 k 1 ;

  4. (4)

    (1, y 1 + y 2 ε, z 2 ε)[ q 2 ε, n 2 ε,1] z 2 = q 2 + y 1 n 2 ;

  5. (5)

    ( w 2 ε,1, z 2 ε)[1, n 2 ε, p 1 + p 2 ε] w 2 = n 2 + z 2 p 1 ;

  6. (6)

    ( w 2 ε,1, z 2 ε)[ q 2 ε, n 2 ε,1] z 2 = n 2 ;

  7. (7)

    ( a 1 + a 2 ε, b 1 + b 2 ε,1)( c 1 + c 2 ε, d 1 + d 2 ε,1) c 1 = a 1 d 1 = b 1 ;

  8. (8)

    (1, a 1 + a 2 ε, b 2 ε)(1, c 1 + c 2 ε, d 2 ε) c 1 = a 1 ;

  9. (9)

    For every a 2 , b 2 , c 2 , d 2 Q; ( a 2 ε,1, b 2 ε)( c 2 ε,1, d 2 ε).

2 Two collineations of P K 2 (Q(ε))

In this section, we will define two transformations for the points and lines of P K 2 (Q(ε)) and also we will show that these transformations are collineations. Similar transformations can be found in [6].

Let a= a 1 + a 2 ε be an arbitrary element of Q(ε). Then we define a transformation S a :P K 2 (Q(ε))P K 2 (Q(ε)) as:

( x 1 + x 2 ε , y 1 + y 2 ε , 1 ) ( x 1 + a 1 + ( x 2 + a 2 ) ε , y 1 + y 2 ε , 1 ) , ( 1 , y 1 + y 2 ε , z 2 ε ) ( 1 , y 1 + ( y 2 z 2 a 1 y 1 ) ε , z 2 ε ) , ( w 2 ε , 1 , z 2 ε ) ( ( w 2 + z 2 a 1 ) ε , 1 , z 2 ε ) , [ m 1 + m 2 ε , 1 , k 1 + k 2 ε ] [ m 1 + m 2 ε , 1 , k 1 a 1 m 1 + ( k 2 a 1 m 2 a 2 m 1 ) ε ] , [ 1 , n 2 ε , p 1 + p 2 ε ] [ 1 , n 2 ε , p 1 + a 1 + ( p 2 + a 2 ) ε ] , [ q 2 ε , n 2 ε , 1 ] [ q 2 ε , n 2 ε , 1 ] .

Similarly, we define a transformation L a :P K 2 (Q(ε))P K 2 (Q(ε)) where a= a 1 + a 2 εQ(ε) and a 1 0 as:

( x 1 + x 2 ε , y 1 + y 2 ε , 1 ) ( a 1 x 1 + ( a 1 x 2 + a 2 x 1 ) ε , a 1 y 1 a 1 + ( a 1 y 1 a 2 + a 1 y 2 a 1 + a 2 y 1 a 1 ) ε , 1 ) , ( 1 , y 1 + y 2 ε , z 2 ε ) ( 1 , y 1 a 1 + ( y 1 a 2 + y 2 a 1 ) ε , ( z 2 a 1 1 ) ε ) , ( w 2 ε , 1 , z 2 ε ) ( ( a 1 1 w 2 ) ε , 1 , ( a 1 1 z 2 a 1 1 ) ε ) , [ m 1 + m 2 ε , 1 , k 1 + k 2 ε ] [ m 1 a 1 + ( m 1 a 2 + m 2 a 1 ) ε , 1 , a 1 k 1 a 1 + ( a 1 k 1 a 2 + a 1 k 2 a 1 + a 2 k 1 a 1 ) ε ] , [ 1 , n 2 ε , p 1 + p 2 ε ] [ 1 , ( a 1 1 n 2 ) ε , a 1 p 1 + ( a 1 p 2 + a 2 p 1 ) ε ] , [ q 2 ε , n 2 ε , 1 ] [ ( q 2 a 1 1 ) ε , ( a 1 1 n 2 a 1 1 ) ε , 1 ] .

Now, we can give the following theorem.

Theorem 2.1 The transformations S a and L a defined above are collineations of P K 2 (Q(ε)).

Proof It must be shown that S a and L a are bijective and preserves the incidence and the neighbor relations.

It can be shown that S a and L a are one.to.one transformations. Also since;

S a ( x 1 a 1 + ( x 2 a 2 ) ε , y 1 + y 2 ε , 1 ) = ( x 1 + x 2 ε , y 1 + y 2 ε , 1 ) , S a ( 1 , y 1 + ( y 2 + z 2 a 1 y 1 ) ε , z 2 ε ) = ( 1 , y 1 + y 2 ε , z 2 ε ) , S a ( ( w 2 z 2 a 1 ) ε , 1 , z 2 ε ) = ( w 2 ε , 1 , z 2 ε ) , S a [ m 1 + m 2 ε , 1 , k 1 + a 1 m 1 + ( k 2 + a 1 m 2 + a 2 m 1 ) ε ] = [ m 1 + m 2 ε , 1 , k 1 + k 2 ε ] , S a [ 1 , n 2 ε , p 1 a 1 + ( p 2 a 2 ) ε ] = [ 1 , n 2 ε , p 1 + p 2 ε ] , S a [ q 2 ε , n 2 ε , 1 ] = [ q 2 ε , n 2 ε , 1 ]

and

L a ( a 1 1 x 1 + ( a 1 1 ( x 2 a 2 a 1 1 x 1 ) ) ε , a 1 1 y 1 a 1 1 + ( a 1 1 ( ( y 2 y 1 a 1 1 a 2 ) a 1 1 a 2 a 1 1 y 1 a 1 1 ) ε , 1 ) ) = ( x 1 + x 2 ε , y 1 + y 2 ε , 1 ) , L a ( 1 , y 1 a 1 1 + ( ( y 2 y 1 a 1 1 a 2 ) a 1 1 ) ε , ( z 2 a 1 ) ε ) = ( 1 , y 1 + y 2 ε , z 2 ε ) , L a ( ( a 1 w 2 ) ε , 1 , ( a 1 z 2 a 1 ) ε ) = ( w 2 ε , 1 , z 2 ε ) , L a [ a 1 1 m 1 + ( a 1 1 ( m 2 a 2 a 1 1 m 1 ) ) ε , 1 , a 1 1 k 1 a 1 1 + ( a 1 1 ( k 2 k 1 a 1 1 a 2 a 2 a 1 1 k 1 ) a 1 1 ) ε ] = [ m 1 + m 2 ε , 1 , k 1 + k 2 ε ] , L a [ 1 , ( a 1 n 2 ) ε , a 1 1 p 1 + ( a 1 1 ( p 2 a 2 a 1 1 p 1 ) ) ε ] = [ 1 , n 2 ε , p 1 + p 2 ε ] , L a [ ( q 2 a 1 ) ε , ( a 1 n 2 a 1 ) ε , 1 ] = [ q 2 ε , n 2 ε , 1 ] ,

we find that S a and L a are surjective and also since,

S a ( x 1 + x 2 ε , y 1 + y 2 ε , 1 ) S a [ m 1 + m 2 ε , 1 , k 1 + k 2 ε ] y 1 + y 2 ε = ( x 1 + a 1 + ( x 2 + a 2 ) ε ) ( m 1 + m 2 ε ) + k 1 a 1 m 1 y 1 + y 2 ε = + ( k 2 a 1 m 2 a 2 m 1 ) ε y 1 = x 1 m 1 + k 1 y 2 = x 1 m 2 + x 2 m 1 + k 2 ( x 1 + x 2 ε , y 1 + y 2 ε , 1 ) [ m 1 + m 2 ε , 1 , k 1 + k 2 ε ] , S a ( x 1 + x 2 ε , y 1 + y 2 ε , 1 ) S a [ 1 , n 2 ε , p 1 + p 2 ε ] x 1 + a 1 + ( x 2 + a 2 ) ε = ( y 1 + y 2 ε ) ( n 2 ε ) + p 1 + a 1 + ( p 2 + a 2 ) ε x 1 = p 1 x 2 = y 1 n 2 + p 2 ( x 1 + x 2 ε , y 1 + y 2 ε , 1 ) [ 1 , n 2 ε , p 1 + p 2 ε ] , S a ( 1 , y 1 + y 2 ε , z 2 ε ) S a [ m 1 + m 2 ε , 1 , k 1 + k 2 ε ] y 1 + ( y 2 z 2 a 1 y 1 ) ε = m 1 + m 2 ε + ( z 2 ε ) ( k 1 a 1 m 1 + ( k 2 a 1 m 2 a 2 m 1 ) ε ) y 1 = m 1 y 2 = m 2 + z 2 k 1 ( 1 , y 1 + y 2 ε , z 2 ε ) [ m 1 + m 2 ε , 1 , k 1 + k 2 ε ] , S a ( 1 , y 1 + y 2 ε , z 2 ε ) S a [ q 2 ε , n 2 ε , 1 ] z 2 ε = q 2 ε + ( y 1 + ( y 2 z 2 a 1 y 1 ) ε ) ( n 2 ε ) z 2 ε = q 2 ε + ( y 1 n 2 ) ε ( 1 , y 1 + y 2 ε , z 2 ε ) [ q 2 ε , n 2 ε , 1 ] , S a ( w 2 ε , 1 , z 2 ε ) S a [ 1 , n 2 ε , p 1 + p 2 ε ] ( w 2 + z 2 a 1 ) ε = n 2 ε + ( z 2 ε ) ( p 1 + a 1 + ( p 2 + a 2 ) ε ) w 2 = n 2 + z 2 p 1 ( w 2 ε , 1 , z 2 ε ) [ 1 , n 2 ε , p 1 + p 2 ε ] , S a ( w 2 ε , 1 , z 2 ε ) S a [ q 2 ε , n 2 ε , 1 ] z 2 ε = ( ( w 2 + z 2 a 1 ) ε ) ( q 2 ε ) + n 2 ε z 2 ε = n 2 ε ( w 2 ε , 1 , z 2 ε ) [ q 2 ε , n 2 ε , 1 ]

and

L a ( x 1 + x 2 ε , y 1 + y 2 ε , 1 ) L a [ m 1 + m 2 ε , 1 , k 1 + k 2 ε ] y 1 = x 1 m 1 + k 1 y 2 = x 1 m 2 + x 2 m 1 + k 2 ( x 1 + x 2 ε , y 1 + y 2 ε , 1 ) [ m 1 + m 2 ε , 1 , k 1 + k 2 ε ] , L a ( x 1 + x 2 ε , y 1 + y 2 ε , 1 ) L a [ 1 , n 2 ε , p 1 + p 2 ε ] x 1 = p 1 x 2 = y 1 n 2 + p 2 ( x 1 + x 2 ε , y 1 + y 2 ε , 1 ) [ 1 , n 2 ε , p 1 + p 2 ε ] , L a ( 1 , y 1 + y 2 ε , z 2 ε ) L a [ m 1 + m 2 ε , 1 , k 1 + k 2 ε ] y 1 = m 1 y 2 = m 2 + z 2 k 1 ( 1 , y 1 + y 2 ε , z 2 ε ) [ m 1 + m 2 ε , 1 , k 1 + k 2 ε ] , L a ( 1 , y 1 + y 2 ε , z 2 ε ) L a [ q 2 ε , n 2 ε , 1 ] z 2 = q 2 + y 1 n 2 ( 1 , y 1 + y 2 ε , z 2 ε ) [ q 2 ε , n 2 ε , 1 ] , L a ( w 2 ε , 1 , z 2 ε ) L a [ 1 , n 2 ε , p 1 + p 2 ε ] w 2 = n 2 + z 2 p 1 ( w 2 ε , 1 , z 2 ε ) [ 1 , n 2 ε , p 1 + p 2 ε ] , L a ( w 2 ε , 1 , z 2 ε ) L a [ q 2 ε , n 2 ε , 1 ] z 2 ε = n 2 ε ( w 2 ε , 1 , z 2 ε ) [ q 2 ε , n 2 ε , 1 ] ,

we have that S a and L a preserves the incidence relation. Finally, since

S a ( x 1 + x 2 ε , y 1 + y 2 ε , 1 ) S a ( u 1 + u 2 ε , v 1 + v 2 ε , 1 ) x 1 u 1 = 0 y 1 v 1 = 0 ( x 1 + x 2 ε , y 1 + y 2 ε , 1 ) ( u 1 + u 2 ε , v 1 + v 2 ε , 1 ) , S a ( 1 , y 1 + y 2 ε , z 2 ε ) S a ( 1 , v 1 + v 2 ε , t 2 ε ) y 1 v 1 = 0 ( 1 , y 1 + y 2 ε , z 2 ε ) ( 1 , v 1 + v 2 ε , t 2 ε ) , S a ( w 2 ε , 1 , z 2 ε ) S a ( u 2 ε , 1 , t 2 ε ) ( w 2 ε , 1 , z 2 ε ) ( u 2 ε , 1 , t 2 ε ) , S a [ m 1 + m 2 ε , 1 , k 1 + k 2 ε ] S a [ u 1 + u 2 ε , 1 , t 1 + t 2 ε ] m 1 u 1 = 0 k 1 t 1 = 0 [ m 1 + m 2 ε , 1 , k 1 + k 2 ε ] [ u 1 + u 2 ε , 1 , t 1 + t 2 ε ] , S a [ 1 , n 2 ε , p 1 + p 2 ε ] S a [ 1 , v 2 ε , t 1 + t 2 ε ] p 1 t 1 = 0 [ 1 , n 2 ε , p 1 + p 2 ε ] [ 1 , v 2 ε , t 1 + t 2 ε ] , S a [ q 2 ε , n 2 ε , 1 ] S a [ u 2 ε , v 2 ε , 1 ] [ q 2 ε , n 2 ε , 1 ] [ u 2 ε , v 2 ε , 1 ]

and

L a ( x 1 + x 2 ε , y 1 + y 2 ε , 1 ) L a ( u 1 + u 2 ε , v 1 + v 2 ε , 1 ) x 1 u 1 = 0 y 1 v 1 = 0 ( x 1 + x 2 ε , y 1 + y 2 ε , 1 ) ( u 1 + u 2 ε , v 1 + v 2 ε , 1 ) , L a ( 1 , y 1 + y 2 ε , z 2 ε ) L a ( 1 , v 1 + v 2 ε , t 2 ε ) y 1 v 1 = 0 ( 1 , y 1 + y 2 ε , z 2 ε ) ( 1 , v 1 + v 2 ε , t 2 ε ) , L a ( w 2 ε , 1 , z 2 ε ) L a ( u 2 ε , 1 , t 2 ε ) ( w 2 ε , 1 , z 2 ε ) ( u 2 ε , 1 , t 2 ε ) , L a [ m 1 + m 2 ε , 1 , k 1 + k 2 ε ] L a [ u 1 + u 2 ε , 1 , t 1 + t 2 ε ] m 1 u 1 = 0 k 1 t 1 = 0 [ m 1 + m 2 ε , 1 , k 1 + k 2 ε ] [ u 1 + u 2 ε , 1 , t 1 + t 2 ε ] , L a [ 1 , n 2 ε , p 1 + p 2 ε ] L a [ 1 , v 2 ε , t 1 + t 2 ε ] p 1 t 1 = 0 [ 1 , n 2 ε , p 1 + p 2 ε ] [ 1 , v 2 ε , t 1 + t 2 ε ] , L a [ q 2 ε , n 2 ε , 1 ] L a [ u 2 ε , v 2 ε , 1 ] [ q 2 ε , n 2 ε , 1 ] [ u 2 ε , v 2 ε , 1 ] ,

we conclude that S a and L a preserves the neighbor relation. □

3 Addition and multiplication of points and their correspondences with collineations

In this section, we recall some definitions,theorems and results about geometric addition and multiplication of points on OU in P K 2 (Q(ε)) from [7] and also we will determine same relations between S a , L a and geometric definitions of addition and multiplication of points on OU where (O,U,V,E) is a base of P K 2 (Q(ε)).

Definition 3.1 Let A and B be non-neighbor points of P K 2 (Q(ε)) on the line OU. Then

  1. (1)

    A+B is defined as the intersection point of the lines LV and OU where L=KUBS, K=AVOS, S=(1,1,0);

  2. (2)

    AB is defined as the intersection point of the lines VN and OU where N=ASOM, M=BV1S, S=(1,1,0), 1=(1,0,1).

Theorem 3.2 Let A=( a 1 + a 2 ε,0,1) and B=( b 1 + b 2 ε,0,1) be non-neighbor points on the line OU and Z=(1,0, z 2 ε) be the point on the line OU (neighbor to U) then;

  1. (1)

    A+B=(( a 1 + b 1 )+( a 2 + b 2 )ε,0,1);

  2. (2)

    A+Z=(1,0, z 2 ε);

  3. (3)

    AB=( a 1 b 1 +( a 1 b 2 + a 2 b 1 )ε,0,1);

  4. (4)

    AZ=(1,0,( z 2 a 1 1 )ε) where AO;

  5. (5)

    ZA=(1,0,( a 1 1 z 2 )ε) where AO.

Corollary 3.3 Following statements are valid where the points A, B, Z, O are defined as in Theorem  3.2 and Y is a point neighbor to (0,0,1) (i.e. Y{( y 2 ε,0,1) x 2 Q})

  1. (1)

    A+B=B+A and A+Z=Z+A;

  2. (2)

    A+O=A and O+Z=Z;

  3. (3)

    A+YA;

  4. (4)

    ABBA;

  5. (5)

    OA=AO=O;

  6. (6)

    1A=A=A1 and 1Z=Z=Z1;

  7. (7)

    AYY and YAY.

Now we give a theorem which interprets the relation between the geometric addition and multiplication of points and the collineations S a , L a which are given in last section.

Theorem 3.4 Following equalities are valid for the point A=(a,0,1) and any point X on the line OU=[0,1,0] where a= a 1 + a 2 εQ(ε):

  1. (1)

    S a (X)=X+A;

  2. (2)

    L a (X)=AX where a 1 0.

Proof (1) If X is any non-neighbor point to U on the line OU, then there exist a b 1 + b 2 εQ(ε) such that X=( b 1 + b 2 ε,0,1). In this case,

S a (X)= ( b 1 + a 1 + ( b 2 + a 2 ) ε , 0 , 1 ) =X+A.

If X is any point on the line OU neighbor to U, then there exist a z 2 εQ(ε) such that X=(1,0, z 2 ε). In this case,

S a (X)= ( 1 , 0 + ( 0 z 2 ( a 1 0 ) ) ε , z 2 ε ) =(1,0, z 2 ε)=X+A.
  1. (2)

    If X is any non-neighbor point to U on the line OU then there exist a b 1 + b 2 εQ(ε) such that X=( b 1 + b 2 ε,0,1). In this case

    L a ( X ) = ( a 1 b 1 + ( a 1 b 2 + a 2 b 1 ) ε , a 1 0 a 1 + ( a 1 0 a 2 + a 1 0 a 1 + a 2 0 a 1 ) ε , 1 ) = ( a 1 b 1 + ( a 1 b 2 + a 2 b 1 ) ε , 0 , 1 ) = A X .

If X is any point on the line OU neighbor to U, then there exist a z 2 εQ(ε) such that X=(1,0, z 2 ε). In this case,

L a (X)= ( 1 , 0 a 1 + ( 0 a 2 + 0 a 1 ) ε , ( z 2 a 1 1 ) ε ) = ( 1 , 0 , ( z 2 a 1 1 ) ε ) =AX.

Therefore, S a (X)=X+A and L a (X)=AX for any point X on [0,1,0] where A=(a,0,1). □

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Acknowledgements

Dedicated to Professor Hari M Srivastava.

This work was supported by the Commission of Scientific Research Projects of Uludag University, Project number UAP(F)-2012/23.

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Celik, B., Dayioglu, A. The collineations which act as addition and multiplication on points in a certain class of projective Klingenberg planes. J Inequal Appl 2013, 193 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1186/1029-242X-2013-193

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Keywords

  • projective Klingenberg planes
  • collineations
  • local ring
  • division ring