# On a relation between Schur, Hardy-Littlewood-Pólya and Karamata’s theorem and an inequality of some products of ${x}^{p}-1$ derived from the Furuta inequality

- Keiichi Watanabe
^{1}Email author

**2013**:137

https://doi.org/10.1186/1029-242X-2013-137

© Watanabe; licensee Springer 2013

**Received: **18 November 2012

**Accepted: **13 March 2013

**Published: **29 March 2013

## Abstract

We show a functional inequality of some products of ${x}^{p}-1$ as an application of an operator inequality. Furthermore, we will show it can be deduced from a classical theorem on majorization and convex functions.

**MSC:**26D07, 26A09, 26A51, 39B62, 47A63.

## Keywords

## 1 Introduction

by simpler ones, how can we guess what forms and coefficients are possible?

**Example**The following inequality does not hold on an interval contained in $1<x$.

In Section 2, we prove a certain functional inequality as mentioned above, although the efficiency and possible applications to other branches of mathematics are still to be clarified.

In Section 3, we show that the functional inequality derived in Section 2 can be easily deduced from Schur, Hardy-Littlewood-Pólya and Karamata’s theorem on majorization and convex functions. Although the proof presented in Section 2 looks like a detour, one should note that it naturally arises as a byproduct of the Furuta inequality, which is an epochmaking extension of the celebrated Löwner-Heinz inequality [1, 2]. It seems worthy to compare various ways to derive fundamental functional inequalities, for it might contribute to clarify relations between their background theories and to suggest further developments.

## 2 An inequality of some products of ${x}^{p}-1$

The proof of the following theorem is based on an operator inequality by Furuta [3] and an argument related to the best possibility of that by Tanahashi [4]. The main feature of the argument is applying an order-preserving operator inequality to matrices which contain variables as their entries. It might be a new method to obtain functional inequalities systematically.

**Theorem 2.1** [5]

*Let*$0\le p$, $1\le q$

*and*$0\le r$

*with*$p+r\le (1+r)q$.

*If*$0<x$,

*then*

**Proposition 2.2**

*Let*$1\le p$, $0\le r$.

*Then*,

*for arbitrary*$0<x$,

*Proof* Put $q=\frac{p+r}{1+r}$. Since $1\le p$, we have $1\le q$, and hence Proposition 2.2 immediately follows from Theorem 2.1. □

**Theorem 2.3**

*Let*$0<{p}_{2}\le {p}_{1}$, $0<{q}_{2}\le {q}_{1}$, ${p}_{1}+{p}_{2}={q}_{1}+{q}_{2}$

*and*${p}_{1}\le {q}_{1}$.

*Then*,

*for arbitrary*$0<x$,

*Proof*For a moment, we add $1\le {p}_{1},{p}_{2},{q}_{1}$ and ${q}_{2}=1$ to the assumption. Apply Proposition 2.2 with $p={p}_{2}$, $r={p}_{1}-1$, then the inequality (1) implies

for arbitrary $0<x$. By substituting ${x}^{{q}_{2}}$ to *x* in the above inequality, it is immediate to see the inequality (2). □

**Definition 2.4** For a finite sequence ${p}_{1},\dots ,{p}_{n}$ of real numbers, we denote its decreasing rearrangement by ${p}_{[1]}\ge \cdots \ge {p}_{[n]}$.

*p*is said to be majorized by

*q*and denoted by $({p}_{1},\dots ,{p}_{n})\prec ({q}_{1},\dots ,{q}_{n})$ if the following inequalities are satisfied:

**Theorem 2.5**

*Let*

*n*

*be a natural number*.

*Suppose*$0<{p}_{j},{q}_{j}$, $j=1,\dots ,n$

*and*$({p}_{1},\dots ,{p}_{n})\prec ({q}_{1},\dots ,{q}_{n})$.

*Then*,

*for arbitrary*$1<x$,

*If* *n* *is even*, *the inequality* (3) *holds for arbitrary* $0<x<1$. *If* *n* *is odd*, *the reverse inequality of* (3) *holds for arbitrary* $0<x<1$.

*Proof*The case $n=2$ is exactly Theorem 2.3. Suppose that the case

*n*is valid. We may assume $0<{p}_{n+1}\le {p}_{n}\le \cdots \le {p}_{1}$, $0<{q}_{n+1}\le {q}_{n}\le \cdots \le {q}_{1}$ and

*k*such that $1\le k\le n$ and

by the assumption of the induction.

If $k=n$, then the *n*-tuples $\{{p}_{1},\dots ,{p}_{n}\}$ and $\{{q}_{1},\dots ,{q}_{n-1},{q}^{\mathrm{\prime}}\}$ satisfy the assumption of the case *n*, so we may assume $k\ne n$ by using the inequality (4).

*n*-tuples $\{{p}_{1},\dots ,{p}_{n}\}$ and $\{{q}_{1},\dots ,{q}_{n-2},{q}^{\mathrm{\prime}},{q}_{n+1}\}$ satisfy the assumption of the case

*n*, so we may assume $k\ne n,n-1$. For $k\le n-2$, we have

*n*-tuples $\{{p}_{1},\dots ,{p}_{n}\}$, $\{{q}_{1},\dots ,{q}_{k-1},{q}^{\mathrm{\prime}},{q}_{k+2},\dots ,{q}_{n+1}\}$ satisfy the assumption of the case

*n*, and so we can obtain

for arbitrary $1<x$.

for $1<x$.

The last assertion of the theorem can be easily seen by substituting $\frac{1}{x}$ for $0<x<1$ and multiplying ${x}^{{p}_{1}+\cdots +{p}_{n}}$ to both sides.

This completes the proof. □

**Remark 2.6**Each following example of the case $n=5$ does not satisfy one of the conditions for parameters in the assumption of Theorem 2.5, and the inequality does not hold for all $1<x$.

- (i)${p}_{1}>{q}_{1}$$4\cdot 6\cdot 8{({x}^{2}-1)}^{2}{({x}^{3}-1)}^{2}({x}^{10}-1)\le {2}^{2}\cdot {3}^{2}\cdot 10{(x-1)}^{2}({x}^{4}-1)({x}^{6}-1)({x}^{8}-1).$
- (ii)${p}_{1}+{p}_{2}>{q}_{1}+{q}_{2}$$6\cdot 8\cdot 12{({x}^{2}-1)}^{3}{({x}^{11}-1)}^{2}\le {2}^{3}\cdot {11}^{2}{(x-1)}^{2}({x}^{6}-1)({x}^{8}-1)({x}^{12}-1).$
- (iii)${p}_{1}+{p}_{2}+{p}_{3}>{q}_{1}+{q}_{2}+{q}_{3}$${5}^{2}\cdot {10}^{2}{({x}^{2}-1)}^{2}{({x}^{9}-1)}^{3}\le {2}^{2}\cdot {9}^{3}(x-1){({x}^{5}-1)}^{2}{({x}^{10}-1)}^{2}.$
- (iv)${p}_{1}+{p}_{2}+{p}_{3}+{p}_{4}>{q}_{1}+{q}_{2}+{q}_{3}+{q}_{4}$${3}^{4}\cdot 9(x-1){({x}^{5}-1)}^{4}\le {5}^{4}{({x}^{3}-1)}^{4}({x}^{9}-1).$

**Remark 2.7**There exists an example of the case $n=3$ such that ${p}_{1}>{q}_{1}$, but the inequality holds for $1<x$.

## 3 A proof by Schur, Hardy-Littlewood-Pólya and Karamata’s theorem

Theorem 2.5 is a special case of a more general theorem on majorization and convex functions.

**Theorem 3.1** (C.1. Proposition in [6], Theorem 108 in [7], Karamata [8])

*Let*

*n*

*be a natural number and*${p}_{j}$, ${q}_{j}$

*be real numbers from an interval*$(\alpha ,\beta )$.

*If*$({p}_{1},\dots ,{p}_{n})\prec ({q}_{1},\dots ,{q}_{n})$,

*then*

*for every real*-*valued convex function* *f* *on* $(\alpha ,\beta )$.

**Proposition 3.2**

*Let*$1<x$

*be a fixed real number*.

*Then*

*is convex on the interval* $(0,\mathrm{\infty})$.

Although it is definitely elementary to prove this proposition, we will give it for the sake of completeness.

*g*, where

Therefore, ${g}_{2}$ is increasing on $0<t$ and ${g}_{2}(0)=0$ so that $0<{g}_{2}(t)$ ($0<t$), and hence $0<{g}_{1}^{\mathrm{\prime}}(t)$ ($0<t$).

Again, therefore, ${g}_{1}$ is increasing on $0<t$ and ${g}_{1}(0)=0$ so that $0<{g}_{1}(t)$ ($0<t$), and hence $0<{g}^{\mathrm{\prime}}(t)$ ($0<t$).

Once again, therefore, *g* is increasing on $0<t$ and $g(0)=0$ so that $0<g(t)$ ($0<t$), and hence $0<{f}^{\mathrm{\prime}\mathrm{\prime}}(t)$ ($0<t$), namely, *f* is convex on the interval $(0,\mathrm{\infty})$. This completes the proof of Proposition 3.2. □

The completion of the proof of Theorem 2.5 by using Schur, Hardy-Littlewood-Pólya and Karamata’s theorem.

The rest is identical to the proof of Theorem 2.5. This completes the proof.

## Declarations

### Acknowledgements

The author is grateful to the referee, for the careful reading of the paper and for the helpful suggestions and comments. The author was supported in part by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

## Authors’ Affiliations

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