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# On the spectral radius of bipartite graphs which are nearly complete

- Kinkar Chandra Das
^{1}, - Ismail Naci Cangul
^{2}Email author, - Ayse Dilek Maden
^{3}and - Ahmet Sinan Cevik
^{3}

**2013**:121

https://doi.org/10.1186/1029-242X-2013-121

© Das et al.; licensee Springer 2013

**Received:**19 December 2012**Accepted:**24 February 2013**Published:**21 March 2013

## Abstract

For $p,q,r,s,t\in {\mathbb{Z}}^{+}$ with $rt\le p$ and $st\le q$, let $G=G(p,q;r,s;t)$ be the bipartite graph with partite sets $U=\{{u}_{1},\dots ,{u}_{p}\}$ and $V=\{{v}_{1},\dots ,{v}_{q}\}$ such that any two edges ${u}_{i}$ and ${v}_{j}$ are not adjacent if and only if there exists a positive integer *k* with $1\le k\le t$ such that $(k-1)r+1\le i\le kr$ and $(k-1)s+1\le j\le ks$. Under these circumstances, Chen *et al.* (Linear Algebra Appl. 432:606-614, 2010) presented the following conjecture:

Assume that $p\le q$, $k<p$, $|U|=p$, $|V|=q$ and $|E(G)|=pq-k$. Then whether it is true that

In this paper, we prove this conjecture for the range ${min}_{{v}_{h}\in V}\{deg{v}_{h}\}\le \lfloor \frac{p-1}{2}\rfloor $.

**MSC:**05C05, 05C50.

## Keywords

- bipartite graph
- adjacency matrix
- spectral radius

## 1 Introduction

*G*be a (simple) graph with the vertex and edge sets given by $V(G)=\{{v}_{1},{v}_{2},\dots ,{v}_{n}\}$ and $E(G)=\{{v}_{i}{v}_{j}\mid {v}_{i}\text{and}{v}_{j}\text{are adjacent}\}$, respectively. The

*adjacency matrix*of

*G*on

*n*vertices is an $n\times n$ matrix $A(G)$ whose entries ${a}_{ij}$ are given by

*eigenvalues of the graph*

*G*. We can list the eigenvalues of the graph

*G*in a non-increasing order as follows:

The largest eigenvalue ${\lambda}_{1}(G)$ is often called the *spectral radius* of *G*.

Throughout this paper, we will consider only finite, simple, undirected, bipartite graphs. So, let us suppose that $G=(U\cup V,E)$ is such a bipartite graph, where $U=\{{u}_{1},{u}_{2},\dots ,{u}_{p}\}$, $V=\{{v}_{1},{v}_{2},\dots ,{v}_{q}\}$ are two sets of vertices and *E* is the set of edges defined as a subset of $U\times V$. As a usual notation, the *degrees* of vertices ${u}_{i}\in U$ and ${v}_{j}\in V$ will be denoted by $deg{u}_{i}$ and $deg{v}_{j}$, respectively. For the integers $p,q,r,s,t\in {\mathbb{Z}}^{+}$ satisfying $rt\le p$ and $st\le q$, let us denote the bipartite graph *G* by $G(p,q;r,s;t)$ with the above partite sets *U* and *V* such that ${u}_{i}\in U$ and ${v}_{j}\in V$ are *not adjacent* if and only if there exists a $k\in {\mathbb{Z}}^{+}$ with $1\le k\le t$ such that $(k-1)r+1\le i\le kr$ and $(k-1)s+1\le j\le ks$.

In the literature, upper bounds for the spectral radius in terms of various parameters for unweighted and weighted graphs have been widely investigated [1–10]. As a special case, in [3], Chen *et al.* studied the spectral radius of bipartite graphs which are close to a complete bipartite graph. For partite sets *U* and *V* having $|U|=p$, $|V|=q$ and $p\le q$, in the same reference, the authors also gave an affirmative answer to the conjecture [[11], Conjecture 1.2] by taking $|E(G)|=pq-2$ into account of a bipartite graph. Furthermore, refining the same conjecture for the number of edges is at least $pq-p+1$, there still exists the following conjecture.

**Conjecture 1** [3]

*For positive integers*

*p*,

*q*

*and*

*k*

*satisfying*$p\le q$

*and*$k<p$,

*let*

*G*

*be a bipartite graph with partite sets*

*U*

*and*

*V*

*having*$|U|=p$

*and*$|V|=q$,

*and*$|E(G)|=pq-k$.

*Then*

We note that similar conjectures in this topic have been resolved by the first author in the papers [12–16]. In here, as the main goal, we present the proof of Conjecture 1 for the range ${min}_{{v}_{h}\in V}\{deg{v}_{h}\}\le \lfloor \frac{p-1}{2}\rfloor $.

## 2 Main result

The following lemma will be needed for the proof of our main result.

**Lemma 1** [3]

*Let*${\lambda}_{1}$

*be the spectral radius of the bipartite graph*$G(p,q;k,1;1)$.

*Then*

We now present an upper bound on the spectral radius of the bipartite graph *G*.

**Theorem 1**

*For positive integers*

*p*,

*q*

*and*

*k*

*satisfying*$p\le q$

*and*$k<p$,

*let*

*G*

*be a bipartite graph with partite sets*

*U*

*and*

*V*

*having*$|U|=p$

*and*$|V|=q$,

*and*$|E(G)|=pq-k$.

*If*${min}_{{v}_{h}\in V}\{deg{v}_{h}\}\le \lfloor \frac{p-1}{2}\rfloor $,

*then*

*with equality if and only if* $G\cong G(p,q;k,1;1)$.

*Proof*Let $\mathbf{Z}={({x}_{1},{x}_{2},\dots ,{x}_{p},{y}_{1},{y}_{2},\dots ,{y}_{q})}^{T}$ be an eigenvector of $A(G)$ corresponding to an eigenvalue ${\lambda}_{1}(G)$. For the sets

*U*and

*V*, let ${x}_{i}={max}_{1\le h\le p}{x}_{h}$ and ${y}_{j}={max}_{1\le h\le q}{y}_{h}$, respectively. Also, let us suppose that ${v}_{1}$ is the vertex having minimum degree in

*V*. Then we have

*V*and the total number of edges in bipartite graph

*G*is $pq-k$, we have

Thus $f(x)$ is a decreasing function on $1\le x\le \lfloor \frac{p-1}{2}\rfloor $. Since $p-k\le {d}_{1}\le \lfloor \frac{p-1}{2}\rfloor $ , from (8), we get the required result (1).

Hence we conclude that $G\cong G(p,q;k,1;1)$.

Conversely, by Lemma 1, one can easily see that the equality holds in (1) for the graph $G(p,q;k,1;1)$. □

**Remark 1** In Theorem 1, we proved Conjecture 1 for the range ${min}_{{v}_{h}\in V}\{deg{v}_{h}\}\le \lfloor \frac{p-1}{2}\rfloor $. However, this conjecture is still open for the range $\lfloor \frac{p-1}{2}\rfloor <{min}_{{v}_{h}\in V}\{deg{v}_{h}\}<p$.

## Declarations

### Acknowledgements

Dedicated to Professor Hari M Srivastava.

The first author is supported by BK21 Math Modeling HRD Div. Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea, and the other authors are partially supported by Research Project Offices of Uludag (2012-15 and 2012-19) and Selcuk Universities.

## Authors’ Affiliations

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## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.