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Circuit lengths of graphs for the Picard group
Journal of Inequalities and Applications volume 2013, Article number: 106 (2013)
In this paper, we examine some properties of suborbital graphs for the Picard group. We obtain edge and circuit conditions, then propose a conjecture for the graph to be forest. This paper is an extension of some results in (Jones et al. in The Modular Group and Generalized Farey Graphs, pp. 316-338, 1991).
Let be a quadratic extension of the rational numbers. is the ring of integers of . The Picard group is denoted by P and contains all linear fractional transformations
P is an important subgroup of . On the other hand,
is a subgroup of .
Let us consider the map , . Since
θ is a surjective homomorphism. It is clear that . Hence, the relation between A and is given by the isomorphism
that is, .
In this study, we consider the action of the Picard group on the set in the spirit of the theory of permutation groups and a graph arising from this action in hyperbolic geometric terms.
2 The action of P on
Any element of is represented as a reduced fraction with and . ∞ is represented as . As , where ε is a unit, the representation is not unique. Since , we have a well-defined action of P on . The action of P on now becomes
Note that as and , it follows that and so is a reduced fraction.
Theorem 2.1 The action of P on is transitive.
Proof It is enough to prove that the orbit containing ∞ is . If (in reduced form), then as , there exist with . Then the element of P sends ∞ to . □
We now consider the imprimitivity of the action of P on , beginning with a general discussion of the primitivity of permutation groups. Let be a transitive permutation group, consisting of a group G acting on a set Δ transitively. An equivalence relation ≈ on Δ is called G-invariant if, whenever satisfy , then for all . The equivalence classes are called blocks, and the block containing α is denoted by .
We call imprimitive if Δ admits some G-invariant equivalence relation different from
the identity relation if and only if ;
the universal relation for all .
Otherwise is called primitive. These two relations are supposed to be trivial relations. Clearly, a primitive group must be transitive, for if not, the orbits would form a system of blocks. The converse is false, but we have the following useful result in .
Lemma 2.2 Let be a transitive permutation group. is primitive if and only if , the stabilizer of , is a maximal subgroup of G for each .
From the above lemma we see that whenever, for some α, , then Δ admits some G-invariant equivalence relation other than the trivial cases. Because of the transitivity, every element of Δ has the form for some . Thus one of the nontrivial G-invariant equivalence relations on Δ is given as follows:
The number of blocks (equivalence classes) is the index and the block containing α is just the orbit .
We can apply these ideas to the case where G is the P and Δ is .
Lemma 2.3 The stabilizer of ∞ in is the set of denoted by .
Definition 2.4 is a subgroup of P.
It is clear that . We will define an equivalence relation ≈ induced on by P. We must point out that this equivalence relation is different from the one in . Here let us take the group instead of . The purpose of our work is related to this choice. We now collect some information on permutation groups (see ). Given a permutation group G on a finite set Δ, some natural questions arise as follows:
Orbit problem: What are the orbits of G?
Block problem: Is G primitive? If not, find a nontrivial block for G.
Actually, it is more important to find the minimal nontrivial blocks for G because many computations dealing with permutation groups work better with it. In this meaning, the choice of decomposition- is substantial.
Hence, our aim is to see how graphs are affected by decomposition .
Now let . Corresponding to these, there are two matrices
in P for which , . Now iff , so iff and . Here, the number of blocks is .
Theorem 2.5 The index , where and N is not a unit.
Proof Firstly, we define . Let . Equivalently, this is the number of solutions of . By the Chinese reminder theorem, for . Hence, we can restrict ourselves to powers of a prime .
Suppose that . There are residue classes , where denotes Euler’s function. To each of these classes for a, the numbers b and c may be chosen arbitrarily . is uniquely determined. In this case there are altogether solutions.
Suppose that . There are residue classes . Corresponding to each of these, may be chosen arbitrarily since in the case , there are possibilities for and is again uniquely determined. Hence there are additional solutions.
Together we obtain . Consequently, we have since , as required. □
3 Suborbital graphs of P on
In , Sims introduced the idea of suborbital graphs of a permutation group G acting on a set Δ. These are graphs with a vertex-set Δ, on which G induces automorphisms. We summarize Sims’ theory as follows.
Let be transitive permutation group. Then G acts on by (, ). The orbits of this action are called suborbitals of G. The orbit containing is denoted by . From we can form a suborbital graph : its vertices are the elements of Δ, and there is a directed edge from γ to δ if . A directed edge from γ to δ is denoted by . If , then we will say that there exists an edge in . In this paper our calculation concerns P, so we can draw this edge as a hyperbolic geodesic in the upper half-plane , see .
The orbit is also a suborbital graph and it is either equal to or disjoint from . In the latter case, is just with the arrows reserved and we call, in this case, and paired suborbital graphs. In the former case, and the graph consists of pairs of oppositely directed edges; it is convenient to replace each such pair by a single undirected edge so that we have a undirected graph which we call self-paired.
In this study, G and Δ will be P and , respectively. Since P acts transitively on , each suborbital contains a pair for some ; writing , we denote this suborbital by and the corresponding suborbital graph by .
Definition 3.1 By a directed circuit in , we mean a sequence of different vertices such that , where ; an anti-directed circuit will denote a configuration like the above with at least an arrow (not all) reversed.
If , then the circuit, directed or not, is called a triangle.
If , then we will call the configuration a self-paired edge: it consists of a loop based at each vertex.
We call a graph a forest if it does not contain any circuits.
We now investigate the suborbital graphs for the action P on .
Theorem 3.2 There is an edge in iff there exists a unit such that
Proof We assume that there exists an edge in . Therefore there exist some T in P such that T sends the pair to the pair , that is, and . Let ; . Then we have that and . Since , there exist the units such that , and , . Hence, we have that
From the determinant, we have . As , , then , . Thus, we obtain that , and . Taking with , we have that , and .
Conversely, we suppose that , and . If the plus sign is valid, then there exist such that , . Taking with and , then , and then
As , we have , so and hence in . If the minus sign is valid, then there exist such that , . Taking with and , then , and then
The result is the same. □
Theorem 3.3 is self-paired iff .
Proof We suppose that is self-paired. If , then it must also be . So, there exists such that . From the edge , we have that means that . From the edge , we obtain that . Hence, and then .
Conversely, suppose that . Taking with , we have that . If , then there exists such that . Hence . Let , then , and . The case of is similar. □
If in , then Theorem 3.2 implies that there exists such that , so . Thus each connected component of lies in a single block for ≈, of which there are , so we have the following corollary.
Corollary 3.4 has at least connected components; in particular, is not connected if N is not a unit.
As we saw, each is a disjoint union of subgraphs, the vertices of each subgraph forming a single block with respect to the relation ≈. Since P acts transitively on , it permutes these blocks transitively, so the subgraphs are all isomorphic. We let be the subgraph of whose vertices form the block so that consists of disjoint copies of .
Theorem 3.5 Let . There is an edge in iff there exists a unit such that and , where either or and .
Proof It is clear that and . Since , we obtain that by Theorem 3.2. Thus
if , then , giving ;
if , then , giving .
Hence in iff either or . Opposite direction can be seen easily. □
Theorem 3.6 permutes the vertices and the edges of transitively.
Proof Suppose that . As P acts on transitively, for some . Since and ≈ is P-invariant equivalence relation, ; that is, . Thus, as , .
Assume that , and . Then . Therefore, for some ,
Hence as . Furthermore, and ; that is, . □
Theorem 3.7 contains directed triangles iff there exists a unit such that .
Proof Suppose that contains a directed triangle. Because of the transitive action, the form of the directed triangle can be taken as . Since the edge conditions in Theorem 3.5 have to be provided for the edge , there are two cases. In the first, there exists a unit such that and , giving . In the second, there exists a unit such that and , giving . Consequently, we obtain that .
Conversely, let be a unit such that . Theorem 3.2 implies that there is a directed triangle in . □
Theorem 3.8 If , then contains no anti-directed triangles.
Proof Suppose that contains an anti-directed triangle. Because of the transitive action, we may assume that an anti-directed triangle has the form . From the second edge, there exists a unit such that and . Since , then , giving . Hence we have that means that or . But is impossible. Therefore, we obtain that . If , then , which contradicts to . □
3.3 Some results
Example 3.9 Let us take that .
If , then is satisfied for .
If , then is satisfied for .
Thus, the subgraphs and have directed triangles.
Example 3.10 For , there is no unit which satisfies the congruence . So, the subgraphs and have no directed triangles.
Observation 3.11 The transformation which is defined by means of the congruence is an elliptic element of order 3. Furthermore, it is easily seen that
In , authors examined conjugacy classes of elliptic elements in the Picard group. And they proved that there is only one class of third-order elliptic elements in P, which means that any elliptic transformation of order 3 is a conjugate to
or its square. So, if our calculation is true, ϕ must be conjugate to this transformation. It is well known that the transformations and are conjugates iff there exists a transformation such that . Let us give an example.
Example 3.12 Let . If , then is satisfied for . Hence, is a directed triangle in . The corresponding elliptic element is . Furthermore, it can be easily seen that and are conjugates.
Observation 3.13 It is well known that, because of the abstract group structure of P as a free product amalgamated with a modular group, each finite ordered elliptic element will be either of order 2 or 3. On the other hand, in [2, 11], authors give some results about a connection between the periods of elliptic elements of a chosen permutation group with the circuits in suborbital graphs of it. At this point, it is reasonable to conjecture the following.
Conjecture 3.14 is a forest if and only if it contains no triangles, that is, if and only if is not congruent to zero for modulo N.
Remark 3.15 A similar conjecture is given by Jones, Singerman and Wicks for the modular group in  and then proved by Akbaş . In our case, the assertion which says that no edges cross to each other seems to be a problem.
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Dedicated to Professor Hari M Srivastava.
The authors would like to thank Baris Kendirli for reading the first version of the manuscript and his enthusiastic support during XXV National Mathematics Symposium in Nigde. This work is partly supported by the research fund of Karadeniz Technical University (Project No: ARGEBD-9752).
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
All authors completed the paper together, and read and approved the final manuscript.
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Beşenk, M., Güler, B.Ö., Değer, A.H. et al. Circuit lengths of graphs for the Picard group. J Inequal Appl 2013, 106 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1186/1029-242X-2013-106
- Maximal Subgroup
- Permutation Group
- Modular Group
- Residue Class
- Linear Fractional Transformation