Open Access

Polar duals of convex and star bodies

Journal of Inequalities and Applications20122012:90

https://doi.org/10.1186/1029-242X-2012-90

Received: 17 December 2011

Accepted: 17 April 2012

Published: 17 April 2012

Abstract

In this article, some new inequalities about polar duals of convex and star bodies are established. The new inequalities in special case yield some of the recent results.

MR (2000) Subject Classification: 52A30.

Keywords

polar dualL p -mixed volumedual L p -mixed volumethe Bourgain and Milman's inequality

1 Notations and preliminaries

The setting for this article is n-dimensional Euclidean space n ( n > 2 ) . Let K n denotes the set of convex bodies (compact, convex subsets with non-empty interiors) in n . We reserve the letter u for unit vectors, and the letter B for the unit ball centered at the origin. The surface of B is S n -l. The volume of the unit n-ball is denoted by ωn.

We use V(K) for the n-dimensional volume of convex body K. h ( K , ) : S n - 1 , denotes the support function of K K n ; i.e., for u S n -l
h ( K , u ) = Max { u x : x K } ,
(1.1)

where u · x denotes the usual inner product u and x in n .

Let δ denotes the Hausdorff metric on K n , i.e., for K , L K n , δ ( K , L ) = h K - h L , where | · | denotes the sup-norm on the space of continuous functions C(S n -l).

Associated with a compact subset K of n , which is star-shaped with respect to the origin, is its radial function ρ ( K , ) : S n - 1 , defined for u S n -l, by
ρ ( K , u ) = Max { λ 0: λ u K } .
(1.2)

If ρ(K, ·) is positive and continuous, K will be called a star body. Let S n denotes the set of star bodies in n . Let δ ̃ denotes the radial Hausdorff metric, as follows, if K, L S n , then δ ̃ ( K , L ) = ρ K - ρ L (See [1, 2]).

1.1 L p -mixed volume and dual L p -mixed volume

If K , L K n , the L p -mixed volume V p (K, L) was defined by Lutwak (see [3]):
V p ( K , L ) = 1 n S n - 1 h ( L , u ) p d S p ( K , u ) ,
(1.3)

where S p (K, ·) denotes a positive Borel measure on S n -1.

The L p analog of the classical Minkowski inequality (see [3]) states that: If K and L are convex bodies, then
V p ( K , L ) V ( K ) ( n - p ) / n V ( L ) p / n ,
(1.4)

with equality if and only if K and L are homothetic.

If K, L S n , p ≥ 1, the L p -dual mixed volume - p ( K , L ) was defined by Lutwak (see [4]):
- p ( K , L ) = 1 n S n - 1 ρ ( K , u ) n + p ρ ( L , u ) - p d S ( u ) ,
(1.5)

where dS(u) signifies the surface area element on S n -1 at u.

The following dual L p -Minkowski inequality was obtained in [2]: If K and L are star bodies, then
- p ( K , L ) n V ( K ) n + p V ( L ) - p ,
(1.6)

with equality if and only if K and L are dilates.

1.2 Mixed bodies of convex bodies

If K 1 , , K n - 1 K n , the notation of mixed body [K1,..., K n -1] states that (see [5]): corresponding to the convex bodies K 1 , , K n - 1 K n in n , there exists a convex body, unique up to translation, which we denote by[K1,..., K n -1].

The following is a list of the properties of mixed body: It is symmetric, linear with respect to Minkowski linear combinations, positively homogeneous, and for K i K n , i = 1 , , n , L 1 K n and λi> 0,
  1. (1)

    V1([K1, ..., K n -1], K n ) = V(K1, ..., K n -1, K n );

     
  2. (2)

    [K1 + L1, K2, ..., K n -1] = [K1, K2, ..., K n -1] + [L1, K2, ..., K n -1];

     
  3. (3)

    [λ 1 K 1, ..., λ n -1K n -1] = λ1... λ n -1 · [K1, ..., K n -1];

     
  4. (4)

    [ K , , K ] n - 1 = K .

     

The properties of mixed body play an important role in proving our main results.

1.3 Polar of convex body

For K K n , the polar body of K, K* is defined:
K * = { x n : x y 1 , y K } .
It is easy to get that
ρ ( K , u ) - 1 = h ( K * , u ) .
(1.7)

Bourgain and Milman's inequality is stated as follows (see [6]).

If K is a convex symmetric body in n , then there exists a universal constant c> 0 such that
V ( K ) V ( K * ) c n ω n 2 .
(1.8)

Different proofs were given by Pisier [7].

2 Main results

In this article, we establish some new inequalities on polar duals of convex and star bodies.

Theorem 2.1 If K, K1, ..., K n- 1 are convex bodies in n and let L = [K1, ..., K n- 1], then the L p -mixed volumes V p (K, L), V p (K*, L), V p (B, L) satisfy
V p ( K , L ) V p ( K * , L ) V p ( B , L ) 2 .
(2.1)
Proof From (1.1) and (1.2), it is easy
h ( K , u ) ρ ( K , u ) , K K n .
(2.2)
By definition of L p -mixed volume, we have
V p ( K , L ) = 1 n S n - 1 h ( K , u ) p d S p ( L ; u ) ,
(2.3)
and
V p ( K * , L ) = 1 n S n - 1 h ( K * , u ) p d S p ( L , u ) .
(2.4)
Multiply both sides of (2.3) and (2.4), in view of (1.7) and (2.2) and using the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality (see [8]), we obtain
n 2 V p ( K , L ) V p ( K * , L ) = S n - 1 h ( K , u ) p d S p ( K 1 , , K n - 1 ; u ) S n - 1 1 ρ ( K , u ) p d S p ( K 1 , , K n - 1 ; u ) S n - 1 h ( K , u ) p 2 1 ρ ( K , u ) p 2 d S p ( K 1 , , K n - 1 ; u ) 2 S n - 1 d S p ( K 1 , , K n - 1 ; u ) 2 = n 2 V p 2 ( B , L ) .
Taking p = n - 1 in (2.1) and in view of the property (1) of mixed body, we obtain the following result: If K , K 1 , , K n - 1 K n , then
V ( K , K 1 , , K n - 1 ) V ( K * , K 1 , , K n ) V ( B , K 1 , , K n - 1 ) 2 .
(2.5)

This is just an inequality given by Ghandehari [9].

Let L = B, we have the following interesting result:

Let K be a convex body and K* its polar dual, then
V p ( K , B ) V p ( K * , B ) ω n 2 .
(2.6)
Taking p = n-1 in (2.6), we have the following result which was given in [9]:
W n - 1 ( K ) W n - 1 ( K * ) ω n 2 ,

with equality if and only if K is an n-ball.

Corollary 2.2 The L p -mixed volume of K and K*, V p (K, K*) satisfies
V p ( K * , K ) n ω n 2 ( n - p ) V ( K ) 2 p - n .
(2.7)
Proof In view of the property (4) of the mixed body, we have
V p ( K , [ K , , K ] ) = V p ( K , K ) = V ( K ) .
Form (1.4) and taking for K1 = K2 = = K n -1 = K in (2.1), we have
V ( K ) V p ( K * , K ) V p 2 ( B , K ) V ( B ) 2 ( n - p ) n V ( K ) 2 p n = ω n 2 ( n - p ) n V ( K ) 2 p n .
Taking p = n-1 in (2.7), we have the following result:
V ( K * , K , , K n - 1 ) n ω n 2 V ( K ) n - 2 .

This is just an inequality given by Ghandehari [9]. The cases p = 1 and n = 2 give Steinhardt's and Firey's result (see [7]).

A reverse inequality about ( K * , K , , K n - 1 ) was given by Ghandehari [9].
( K * , K , , K n - 1 ) n ω n 2 V ( K ) n - 2 .
Theorem 2.3 Let K be a star body in n , K* be the polar dual of K, then there exist a universal constant c> 0 such that
V ( K ) n + 2 p - p ( K * , K ) n ( c n ω n 2 ) n + p ,
(2.8)

where c is the constant of Bourgain and Milman's inequality.

Proof From (1.6) and (1.8), we have
- p ( K * , K ) V ( K * ) n + p n V ( K ) - p n = ( V ( K * ) V ( K ) ) n + p n V ( K ) - n + 2 p n ( c n ω n 2 ) n + p n V ( K ) - n + 2 p n .

The following theorem concerning L p -dual mixed volumes will generalize Santaló inequality.

Theorem 2.4 Let K1 and K2 be two star bodies, K 1 * and K 2 * be the polar dual of K1 and K2, then there exists a constant c, L p -dual mixed volumes - p ( K 1 , K 2 ) and - p ( K 1 * , K 2 * ) satisfy
- p ( K 1 , K 2 ) - p ( K 1 * , K 2 * ) c n ω n 2 .
(2.9)
Proof From (1.6), we have
- p ( K 1 , K 2 ) ( K 1 ) n + p n V ( K 2 ) - p n .
(2.10)
For K 1 * and K 2 * , we also have
- p ( K 1 * , K 2 * ) V ( K 1 * ) n + p n V ( K 2 * ) - p n .
(2.11)
Multiply both sides of (2.10) and (2.11) and using Bourgain and Milman's inequality, we obtain
- p ( K 1 , K 2 ) - p ( K 1 * , K 2 * ) ( V ( K 1 ) V ( K 1 * ) ) - p n ( V ( K 2 ) V ( K 2 * ) ) - p n ( c n ω n 2 ) n + p n ( c n ω n 2 ) - p n = c n ω n 2 .

Taking for K1 = K2 = K in (2.9) and in view of - p ( K 1 , K 2 ) = - p ( K , K ) = V ( K ) , (2.9) changes to the Bourgain and Milman's inequality (1.8).

Declarations

Acknowledgements

C.-J. Zhao research was supported by National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (10971205). W.-S. Cheung research was partially supported by a HKU URG grant.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Mathematics, China Jiliang University
(2)
Department of Mathematics, The University of Hong Kong

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Copyright

© Zhao et al; licensee Springer. 2012

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.