Fixed point theorems for a generalized almost -contraction with respect to S in ordered metric spaces
© Sintunavarat et al.; licensee Springer 2012
Received: 27 July 2012
Accepted: 1 November 2012
Published: 13 November 2012
In this paper, the existence theorems of fixed points and common fixed points for two weakly increasing mappings satisfying a new condition in ordered metric spaces are proved. Our results extend, generalize and unify most of the fundamental metrical fixed point theorems in the literature.
1 Introduction and preliminaries
The classical Banach contraction principle is one of the most useful results in nonlinear analysis. In a metric space, the full statement of the Banach contraction principle is given by the following theorem.
for all, where, then T has a unique fixed point.
Due to its simplicity and usefulness, it has become a very popular tool in solving existence problems in many branches of mathematical analysis and its has many applications in solving nonlinear equations. Then, several authors studied and extended it in many direction; for example, see [1–19] and the references therein.
Despite these important features, Theorem 1.1 suffers from one drawback: the contractive condition (1.1) forces T to be continuous on X. It was then natural to ask if there exist weaker contractive conditions which do not imply the continuity of T. In 1968, this question was answered in confirmation by Kannan , who extended Theorem 1.1 to mappings that need not be continuous on X (but are continuous at their fixed point, see ).
On the other hand, Sessa  introduced the notion of weakly commuting mappings, which are a generalization of commuting mappings, while Jungck  generalized the notion of weak commutativity by introducing compatible mappings and then weakly compatible mappings .
In 2004, Berinde  defined the notion of a weak contraction mapping which is more general than a contraction mapping. However, in  Berinde renamed it as an almost contraction mapping, which is more appropriate. Berinde  proved some fixed point theorems for almost contractions in complete metric spaces. Afterward, many authors have studied this problem and obtained significant results (see [27–36]). Moreover, in  Berinde proved that any strict contraction, the Kannan  and Zamfirescu  mappings as well as a large class of quasi-contractions are all almost contractions.
Let T and S be two self mappings in a metric space . The mapping T is said to be a S-contraction if there exists such that for all .
In 2006, Al-Thagafi and Shahzad  proved the following theorem which is a generalization of many known results.
Theorem 1.2 ([, Theorem 2.1])
Let E be a subset of a metric spaceand S, T be two selfmaps of E such that. Suppose that S and T are weakly compatible, T is an S-contraction andis complete. Then S and T have a unique common fixed point in E.
Recently Babu et al. defined the class of mappings satisfying condition (B) as follows.
for all .
They proved a fixed point theorem for such mappings in complete metric spaces. They also discussed quasi-contraction, almost contraction and the class of mappings that satisfy condition (B) in detail.
In recent year, Ćirić et al. defined the following class of mappings satisfying an almost generalized contractive condition.
for all , where .
Definition 1.5 Let be a partial ordered set. We say that are comparable if or holds.
Definition 1.6 Let be a partial ordered set. A mapping is said to be nondecreasing if , whenever and .
Definition 1.7 Let be a partial ordered set. Two mappings are said to be strictly increasing if and for all .
In 2004, Ran and Reurings  proved the following result.
Theorem 1.8 Letbe a partially ordered set such that every pairhas a lower and an upper bound. Suppose that d is a complete metric on X. Letbe a continuous and monotone mapping. Suppose that there existssuch thatfor all comparable. If there existssuch that, then T has a unique fixed point.
Ćirić et al. in  established fixed point and common fixed point theorems which are more general than Theorem 1.8 and several comparable results in the existing literature regarding the existence of a fixed point in ordered spaces.
In this paper, we introduce a new class which extends and unifies mappings satisfying the almost generalized contractive condition and establish the result on the existence of fixed points and common fixed points in a complete ordered space. This result substantially generalizes, extends and unifies the main results of Ćirić et al. [, Theorems 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.6], Theorem 1.8, and several comparable results in the existing literature regarding the existence of a fixed and a common fixed point in ordered spaces.
2 Fixed point theorems for a generalized almost -contraction
First we introduce the notion of generalized almost -contraction mappings.
for all comparable , where .
Theorem 2.2 Letbe a partially ordered set, and let a complete metric d exist on X. Letbe a strictly increasing continuous mapping with respect to ≤ and a generalized almost-contraction mapping. If there existssuch that, then T has a unique fixed point in X.
Since , if we take the limit as , then , which implies that is a Cauchy sequence. Since X is complete, there exists a such that as . It follows from the continuity of T that implies that . Therefore, z is a fixed point of T. □
Example 2.3 Let , the partial order ≤ be defined by if and only if and d be the usual metric on X. Let be defined by for all . It can be easily checked that T is a generalized almost -contraction mapping with and . Moreover, T is strictly increasing on X, and there exists such that . Therefore, T satisfies the conditions of Theorem 2.2 and thus T has a fixed point 0.
The following corollaries follow immediately from the Theorem 2.2 with and .
Corollary 2.4 ([, Theorem 2.1])
for all comparable, where. If there existssuch that, then T has a fixed point in X.
for all comparable, where. If there existssuch that, then T has a fixed point in X.
Proof Since (2.10) is a special case of the generalized almost -contraction, the result follows from Theorem 2.2. □
for all comparable. If there existssuch that, then T has a fixed point in X.
Proof Since (2.11) is a special case of the generalized almost -contraction, the result follows from Theorem 2.2. □
Theorem 2.7 Letbe a partially ordered set, and let a complete metric d exist on X. Letbe a strictly increasing mapping with respect to ≤ and a generalized almost-contraction mapping with a continuous mapping ϕ. If there existssuch thatand for an increasing sequencein X converging towe haveandfor all, then T has a fixed point in X.
Taking the limit as , we get that . Since , we have , that is, , which is a contradiction. Therefore, there exists such that which implies that is a fixed point of T. □
3 Common fixed point theorems for a generalized almost -contraction with respect to S
for all comparable , where .
Remark 3.2 If we take where and where , then the generalized almost -contraction with respect to S reduces to an almost generalized contraction of Ćirić et al. in .
The following theorem deals with the existence of a common fixed point of two weakly increasing mappings which is more general and covers more than the result of Ćirić et al. in .
Theorem 3.3 Letbe a partially ordered set, and let a complete metric d exist on X. Letbe two strictly weakly increasing mappings with respect to ≤ and T be a generalized almost-contraction with respect to S. If either S or T is continuous, then there exists a common fixed point of S and T in X.
which is a contradiction. Therefore, and then z is a common fixed point of S and T. Similarly, it can be proved that S and T have a common fixed point if S is continuous. □
The following corollaries are a generalization and extension of Corollaries 2.4 and 2.5 in Ćirić et al. in .
for all comparable, where. If either S or T is continuous, then there exists a common fixed point of S and T in X.
Proof Since (3.11) is a special case of the generalized almost -contraction with respect to S, the result follows from Theorem 3.3. □
for all comparable. If either S or T is continuous, then there exists a common fixed point of S and T in X.
Proof Since (3.12) is a special case of the generalized almost -contraction with respect to S, the result follows from Theorem 3.3. □
Now, we have the following result of the continuity on the set of common fixed points. Let denote the set of all common fixed points of S and T.
Theorem 3.6 Letbe a partially ordered set, and let a complete metric d exist on X. Letand T be a generalized almost-contraction mapping with respect to S. Ifand for any sequencein X withasfor some, we havefor all, then S and T are continuous at.
for all . Letting , we have . Therefore, S is continuous at . Similarly, it can be shown that T is continuous at . □
Remark 3.7 In fixed point theory, after the remarkable paper of Huang and Zhang , cone metric spaces have been considered by several authors. The results and theorems in this paper can be also generalized to cone metric spaces.
This work was supported by the Higher Education Research Promotion and National Research University Project of Thailand, Office of the Higher Education Commission. The first author would like to thank the Research Professional Development Project Under the Science Achievement Scholarship of Thailand (SAST) for financial support during the preparation of this manuscript. The second author was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2012R1A1A2042138). This project was partially completed during the first and third authors’ last visit to Kyungnam University.
- Chis A: Fixed point theorems for multivalued generalized contractions on complete gauge spaces. Carpath. J. Math. 2006, 22(1–2):33–38.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Ćirić LB: On contraction type mappings. Math. Balk. 1971, 1: 52–57.Google Scholar
- Guran L: Fixed points for multivalued operators with respect to a w -distance on metric spaces. Carpath. J. Math. 2007, 23(1–2):89–92.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Rhoades BE: A biased discussion of fixed point theory. Carpath. J. Math. 2007, 23(1–2):11–26.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Rakotch E: A note on contractive mappings. Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 1962, 13: 459–465. 10.1090/S0002-9939-1962-0148046-1MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Reich S: Kannan’s fixed point theorem. Boll. Unione Mat. Ital. 1971, 4: 1–11.Google Scholar
- Reich S: Some remarks concerning contraction mappings. Can. Math. Bull. 1971, 14: 121–124. 10.4153/CMB-1971-024-9View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Reich S: Fixed point of contractive functions. Boll. Unione Mat. Ital. 1972, 5: 26–42.Google Scholar
- Reich S, Zaslavski AJ: Approximating fixed points of contractive set-valued mappings. Commun. Math. Anal. 2010, 8: 70–78.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Reich S, Zaslavski AJ: The set of noncontractive mappings is σ -porous in the space of all nonexpansive mappings. C. R. Acad. Sci., Sér. I Math. 2001, 333: 539–544.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Reich S, Zaslavski AJ: A note on Rakotch contraction. Fixed Point Theory 2008, 9: 267–273.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Rus IA: Generalized contractions. Semin. Fixed Point Theory 1983, 3: 1–130.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Sintunavarat W, Kumam P:Weak condition for generalized multi-valued -weak contraction mappings. Appl. Math. Lett. 2011, 24: 460–465. 10.1016/j.aml.2010.10.042MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sintunavarat W, Kumam P: Gregus type fixed points for a tangential multi-valued mappings satisfying contractive conditions of integral type. J. Inequal. Appl. 2011., 2011: Article ID 3Google Scholar
- Sintunavarat W, Cho YJ, Kumam P: Common fixed point theorems for c -distance in ordered cone metric spaces. Comput. Math. Appl. 2011, 62: 1969–1978. 10.1016/j.camwa.2011.06.040MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sintunavarat W, Kumam P: Common fixed point theorems for hybrid generalized multi-valued contraction mappings. Appl. Math. Lett. 2012, 25: 52–57. 10.1016/j.aml.2011.05.047MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sintunavarat W, Kumam P:Common fixed point theorems for generalized -operator classes and invariant approximations. J. Inequal. Appl. 2011., 2011: Article ID 67Google Scholar
- Sintunavarat W, Kumam P: Fixed point theorems for a generalized intuitionistic fuzzy contraction in intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces. Thai J. Math. 2012, 10(1):123–135.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Sintunavarat W, Kumam P: Generalized common fixed point theorems in complex valued metric spaces and applications. J. Inequal. Appl. 2012., 2012: Article ID 84Google Scholar
- Kannan R: Some results on fixed points. Bull. Calcutta Math. Soc. 1968, 10: 71–76.Google Scholar
- Rhoades BE: Contractive definitions and continuity. Contemp. Math. 1988, 72: 233–245.MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sessa S: On a weak commutativity condition of mappings in fixed point consideration. Publ. Inst. Math. 1982, 32: 149–153.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Jungck G: Compatible mappings and common fixed points. Int. J. Math. Math. Sci. 1986, 9(4):771–779. 10.1155/S0161171286000935MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jungck G: Common fixed points for noncontinuous nonself maps on nonmetric spaces. Far East J. Math. Sci. 1996, 4: 199–215.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Berinde V: Approximating fixed points of weak contractions using the Picard iteration. Nonlinear Anal. Forum 2004, 9(1):43–53.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Berinde V: General constructive fixed point theorems for Ćirić-type almost contractions in metric spaces. Carpath. J. Math. 2008, 24(2):10–19.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Beg I, Abbas M: Coincidence point and invariant approximation for mappings satisfying generalized weak contractive condition. Fixed Point Theory Appl. 2006., 2006: Article ID 74503Google Scholar
- Berinde V: Some remarks on a fixed point theorem for Ćirić-type almost contractions. Carpath. J. Math. 2009, 25(2):157–162.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Berinde V: Common fixed points of noncommuting almost contractions in cone metric spaces. Math. Commun. 2010, 15(1):229–241.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Berinde V: Approximating common fixed points of noncommuting almost contractions in metric spaces. Fixed Point Theory 2010, 11(2):179–188.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Berinde V: Approximating common fixed points of noncommuting discontinuous weakly contractive mappings in metric spaces. Carpath. J. Math. 2009, 25(1):13–22.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Ćirić LB: A generalization of Banach’s contraction principle. Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 1974, 45: 267–273.Google Scholar
- Ćirić L, Hussain N, Cakić N: Common fixed points for Ćirić type f -weak contraction with applications. Publ. Math. (Debr.) 2010, 76(1–2):31–49.Google Scholar
- Ćirić L, Rakočević V, Radenović S, Rajović M, Lazović R: Common fixed point theorems for non-self mappings in metric spaces of hyperbolic type. J. Comput. Appl. Math. 2010, 233: 2966–2974. 10.1016/j.cam.2009.11.042MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pacurar M: Remark regarding two classes of almost contractions with unique fixed point. Creat. Math. Inform. 2010, 19(2):178–183.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Pacurar M: Iterative Methods for Fixed Point Approximation. Risoprint, Cluj-Napoca; 2009.Google Scholar
- Zamfirescu T: Fixed point theorems in metric spaces. Arch. Math. 1972, 23: 292–298. 10.1007/BF01304884MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Al-Thagafi MA, Shahzad N: Noncommuting selfmaps and invariant approximations. Nonlinear Anal. 2006, 64: 2777–2786.MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Babu GVR, Sandhya ML, Kameswari MVR: A note on a fixed point theorem of Berinde on weak contractions. Carpath. J. Math. 2008, 24(1):8–12.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Ćirić L, Abbas M, Saada R, Hussain N: Common fixed points of almost generalized contractive mappings in ordered metric spaces. Appl. Math. Comput. 2011, 217: 5784–5789. 10.1016/j.amc.2010.12.060MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ran ACM, Reurings MCB: A fixed point theorem in partially ordered sets and some applications to matrix equations. Proc. Am. Math. Soc. 2004, 132: 1435–1443. 10.1090/S0002-9939-03-07220-4MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Huang L-G, Zhang X: Cone metric spaces and fixed point theorems of contractive mappings. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 2007, 332: 1468–1476. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2005.03.087MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.