Superstability of approximate d'Alembert harmonic functions
© Kim et al; licensee Springer. 2011
Received: 18 May 2011
Accepted: 23 November 2011
Published: 23 November 2011
In this article, we study the superstability problem for the complex-valued functional equation
on an abelian group and on a commutative semisimple Banach algebra. As a result, we obtain application to harmonic functions satisfying the equation approximately.
for all x ∈ X. And then Aoki  and Bourgin  generalized the theorem of Hyers by considering the stability problem with unbounded Cauchy differences for approximately additive mappings. Rassias  succeeded in extending the result of Hyers for approximate linear mappings by weakening the condition for the Cauchy difference to be unbounded. The stability phenomenon that was presented by Rassias may be called the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability. This terminology may also be applied to the cases of other functional equations (see ). The stability problem for functional equations has been extensively investigated by a number of mathematicians [7–15]. On the other hand, there is a strong stability phenomenon which is known as a superstability. An equation of a homomorphism is called superstable if each approximate homomorphism is actually a true homomorphism. This property was first observed when the following theorem was proved by Baker et al. .
for some ε > 0 and for all x,y ∈ V, then either f is bounded or f(x + y) = f(x)f(y) for all x,y ∈ V.
which is also called the d'Alembert equation, as in the following theorem.
for all x, y ∈ G, then either f is bounded by the constant or f satisfies the d'Alembert functional equation (1) for all x, y ∈ G.
In 2002, Badora and Ger  proved the superstability of d'Alembert functional equation concerning complex-valued mappings.
Then, either f is bounded or f satisfies Equation 1.
for all x, y ∈ G, provided that for an arbitrary linear multiplicative functional the superposition x* ○ f fails to be bounded.
fails to satisfy d'Alembert equation (1). This remark shows that Theorem 1.4 fails for the algebra and .
for all x,y,z ∈ G, which is called the remainder of Equation 4 and acts as a perturbation of Equation 4. The purpose of this article is to investigate the superstability of Equation 4 under the condition that the perturbing term Df(x,y,z) is controlled by a function ϕ(x), ϕ(y) or ϕ(z). Moreover, we extend all superstability results for Equation 4 to the superstability on the commutative semisimple Banach algebra.
2 Superstability of (4)
for all x,y ∈ G.
for all x, y, z ∈ G.
for all x, y, z ∈ G. This completes the proof.
Similarly we can prove that if the difference Df(x, y, z) is bounded by ϕ (y) or ϕ(z), we obtain the same result as in Theorem 2.2.
for all x, y, z ∈ G.
3 Extension to Banach algebra
All the results in Section 2 can be extended to the superstability on the commutative semisimple Banach algebra. In this section, let (G,+) be an abelian group, and (E, || · ||) be a commutative semisimple Banach algebra.
for all x, y, z ∈ G.
as claimed. This completes the proof.
By the similar manner, we can prove that if the difference Df(x, y, z) is bounded by ϕ (y) or ϕ(z), we obtain the same result as in Theorem 3.1.
As results of superstability concerning Equation 4, we obtain application to harmonic functions satisfying the equation approximately.
If f is an unbounded harmonic function, then there is a constant α ∈ C \ R such that f(x) = cos αx and f is a solution of the d'Alembert's functional equation (1).
for all x ∈ R. Putting x: = -x in (14) and then combining the equalities, we see that f is odd and so f(x) = 0 for all x ∈ R. This is a contradiction. Therefore, |f(0)| > 0. Hence, f satisfies also the d'Alembert functional equation (1) by Lemma 2.1. It is well known that a harmonic solution f : R → C of the d'Alembert functional equation (1) has to have the form f(x) = cos αx, ∀x ∈ R, where α is a complex number . Since f is unbounded, the constant α of that form falls into the set C \ R. This completes the proof.
Similarly, one can prove that if the difference Df(x, y, z) is bounded by ϕ(y) or ϕ(z), one obtains the same result as in Theorem 3.2.
Department of Mathematics, Chungnam National University, 79 Daehangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764, Korea; 2 Department of Mathematics, Kangnam University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-702, Korea
The authors would like to thank the referees for their valuable comments. The first author was partially supported by the Basic Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (No. 2011-0002614). The second and third author of this study was partially supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (Grant number: 2010-0010243).
- Ulam SM: A Collection of Mathematical Problems. Interscience Publishers, New York; 1960.Google Scholar
- Hyers DH: On the stability of the linear functional equations. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1941, 27: 222–224. 10.1073/pnas.27.4.222MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Aoki T: On the stability of the linear transformation in Banach spaces. J Math Soc Japan 1950, 2: 64–66. 10.2969/jmsj/00210064MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Bourgin DG: Classes of transformations and bordering transformations. Bull Am Math Soc 1951, 57: 223–237. 10.1090/S0002-9904-1951-09511-7MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Rassias TM: On the stability of the linear mapping in Banach spaces. Proc Am Math Soc 1978, 72: 297–300. 10.1090/S0002-9939-1978-0507327-1View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Jung SM: Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of functional equations. Dynam Syst Appl 1997, 6: 541–566.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Bodaghib A, Alias IA, Gordji ME: On the stability of quadratic double centralizers and quadratic multipliers: a fixed point approach. J Inequal Appl 2011, 9. 2011, Article ID 957541Google Scholar
- Gordji ME, Khodae H: On the generalized Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of quadratic functional equations. Abstr Appl Anal 2009, 11. 2009, Article ID 923476Google Scholar
- Jung SM: Hyers-Ulam stability of Fibonacci functional equation. Bull Iran Math Soc 2009, 35: 217–227.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Khodaei H, Rassias TM: Approximately generalized additive functions in several variables. Int J Nonlinear Anal Appl 2010, 1: 22–41.MATHGoogle Scholar
- Najati A: On the stability of a quartic functional equation. J Math Anal Appl 2008, 340: 569–574. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2007.08.048MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Park C: Generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of quadratic functional equations: a fixed point approach. Fixed Point Theory Appl 2008, 9. 2008, Article ID 493751Google Scholar
- Pourpasha MM, Rassias JM, Saadati R, Vaezpour SM: A fixed point approach to the stability of Pexider quadratic functional equation with involution. J Inequal Appl 2010, 18. 2010, Article ID 839639Google Scholar
- Rahimi A, Najati A, Bae JH: On the asymptoticity aspect of Hyers-Ulam stability of quadratic mappings. J Inequal Appl 2010, 14. 2010, Article ID 454875Google Scholar
- Saadati R, Zohdi MM, Vaezpour SM: Nonlinear L-random stability of an ACQ-functional equation. J Inequal Appl 2011, 23. 2011, Article ID 194394Google Scholar
- Baker JA, Lawrence J, Zorzitto F: The stability of the equation f(x + y) = f(x)f(y). Proc Am Math Soc 1979, 74: 242–246.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Baker JA: The stability of the cosine equation. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1980, 3: 411–416.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Badora R, Ger R: On some trigonometric functional inequalities. In Functional Equations-- Results and Advances. Edited by: Daroczy, Z, Pales Z. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht; 2002:3–15.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nakmahschalasint P: The stability of a cosine functional equation. KMITL Sci J 2007, 1: 49–53.Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.