# On Inverse Moments for a Class of Nonnegative Random Variables

- SooHak Sung
^{1}Email author

**2010**:823767

https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/823767

© Soo Hak Sung. 2010

**Received: **1 April 2010

**Accepted: **20 May 2010

**Published: **15 June 2010

## Abstract

Using exponential inequalities, Wu et al. (2009) and Wang et al. (2010) obtained asymptotic approximations of inverse moments for nonnegative independent random variables and nonnegative negatively orthant dependent random variables, respectively. In this paper, we improve and extend their results to nonnegative random variables satisfying a Rosenthal-type inequality.

## 1. Introduction

where and means that as The left-hand side of (1.2) is the inverse moment and the right-hand side is the inverse of the moment. Generally, it is not easy to compute the inverse moment, but it is much easier to compute the inverse of the moment.

The inverse moments can be applied in many practical applications. For example, they appear in Stein estimation and Bayesian poststratification (see Wooff [1] and Pittenger [2]), evaluating risks of estimators and powers of test statistics (see Marciniak and Weso owski [3] and Fujioka [4]), expected relaxation times of complex systems (see Jurlewicz and Weron [5]), and insurance and financial mathematics (see Ramsay [6]).

For nonnegative asymptotically normal random variables , (1.2) was established in Theorem 2.1 of Garcia and Palacios [7]. Unfortunately, that theorem is not true under the suggested assumptions, as pointed out by Kaluszka and Okolewski [8]. Kaluszka and Okolewski [8] also proved (1.2) for ( in the i.i.d. case) when is a sequence of nonnegative independent random variables satisfying and (Lyapunov's condition of order 3), that is, with Hu et al. [9] generalized the result of Kaluszka and Okolewski [8] by considering for some instead of

Recently, Wu et al. [10] obtained the following result by using the truncation method and Bernstein's inequality.

Theorem 1.1.

Then (1.2) holds for all real numbers and

Specifically, Wu et al. [10] proved the following result.

Theorem 1.2.

Let be a sequence of nonnegative independent random variables. Suppose that, for some ,

(iii) for some positive constant

(iv) for some positive constant

where is the same as in (1.6) for some positive constants satisfying (1.7). Then (1.5) holds for all real numbers and .

Wang et al. [11] obtained some exponential inequalities for negatively orthant dependent (NOD) random variables. By using the exponential inequalities, they extended Theorem 1.1 for independent random variables to NOD random variables without condition (1.3).

Note that the Rosenthal inequality holds for NOD random variables (see Asadian et al. [13]).

In this paper, we improve and extend Theorem 1.2 for independent random variables to random variables satisfying a Rosenthal type inequality. We also extend Wang et al. [11] result for NOD random variables to the more general case.

Throughout this paper, the symbol denotes a positive constant which is not necessarily the same one in each appearance, and denotes the indicator function of the event

## 2. Main Results

Throughout this section, we assume that is a sequence of nonnegative random variables satisfying a Rosenthal type inequality (see (2.1)).

The following theorem gives sufficient conditions under which the inverse moment is asymptotically approximated by the inverse of the moment.

Theorem 2.1.

Let be a sequence of nonnegative random variables. Let and where and are defined by (1.6), and is a sequence of positive real numbers. Suppose that the following conditions hold:

Then (1.5) holds for all real numbers and .

Proof.

Therefore and so (2.9) is proved.

Remark 2.2.

In (2.1), are monotone transformations of If is a sequence of independent random variables, then (2.1) is clearly satisfied from the Rosenthal inequality (1.8). There are many sequences of dependent random variables satisfying (2.1) for all Examples include sequences of NOD random variables (see Asadian et al. [13]), -mixing identically distributed random variables satisfying (see Shao [14]), -mixing identically distributed random variables satisfying (see Shao [15]), negatively associated random variables (see Shao [16]), and -mixing random variables (see Utev and Peligrad [17]).

We can extend Theorem 1.1 for independent random variables to the more general random variables by using Theorem 2.1. To do this, the following lemma is needed.

Lemma 2.3.

Proof.

Hence the result is proved by (2.24) and (2.26).

By using Theorem 2.1, we can obtain the following theorem which improves and extends Theorem 1.1 for independent random variables to the more general random variables satisfying the Rosenthal-type inequality (2.1).

Theorem 2.4.

Let be a sequence of nonnegative random variables with Let and be defined by (1.1). Assume that the Rosenthal-type inequality (2.1) with holds for all where is the same as in (ii). Furthermore, assume that

Then (1.2) holds for all real numbers and .

Proof.

Note that the norming constants in (2.34) are different from those in

Combining (2.36) with (2.37) gives the desired result.

Remark 2.5.

Wang et al. [11] extended Wu et al. [10] result (see Theorem 1.1) to NOD random variables without condition (1.3). As observed in Remark 2.2, (2.1) holds for not only independent random variables but also NOD random variables. Hence Theorem 2.4 improves and extends the results of Wu et al. [10] and Wang et al. [11] to the more general random variables.

Theorem 2.6.

Assume that the Rosenthal-type inequality (2.1) holds for all Furthermore, assume that

(ii) for some positive constant

(iii) for some positive constant

Then (1.5) holds for all real numbers and .

Proof.

since and Hence all conditions of Theorem 2.1 are satisfied. The result follows from Theorem 2.1.

Remark 2.7.

The conditions of Theorem 2.6 are much weaker than those of Theorem 1.2 in the following three directions.

(i)If is a sequence of independent random variables, then (2.1) is satisfied from the Rosenthal inequality. Hence (2.1) is weaker than independence condition.

(ii)If satisfies (1.7), then it also satisfies (2.38) by the fact that Hence (2.38) is weaker than (1.7).

(iii)The condition in Theorem 1.2 is not needed in Theorem 2.6. Therefore Theorem 2.6 improves and extends Wu et al. [10] result (see Theorem 1.2) to the more general random variables.

## Declarations

### Acknowledgments

The author is grateful to the editor Andrei I. Volodin and the referees for the helpful comments. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0013131).

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Wooff DA: Bounds on reciprocal moments with applications and developments in Stein estimation and post-stratification.
*Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B*1985, 47(2):362–371.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Pittenger AO: Sharp mean-variance bounds for Jensen-type inequalities.
*Statistics & Probability Letters*1990, 10(2):91–94. 10.1016/0167-7152(90)90001-NMathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Marciniak E, Wesołowski J: Asymptotic Eulerian expansions for binomial and negative binomial reciprocals.
*Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society*1999, 127(11):3329–3338. 10.1090/S0002-9939-99-05105-9MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Fujioka T: Asymptotic approximations of the inverse moment of the noncentral chi-squared variable.
*Journal of the Japan Statistical Society*2001, 31(1):99–109.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Jurlewicz A, Weron K: Relaxation of dynamically correlated clusters.
*Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids*2002, 305(1–3):112–121.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Ramsay CM: A note on random survivorship group benefits.
*ASTIN Bulletin*1993, 23: 149–156. 10.2143/AST.23.1.2005106View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Garcia NL, Palacios JL: On inverse moments of nonnegative random variables.
*Statistics & Probability Letters*2001, 53(3):235–239. 10.1016/S0167-7152(01)00008-6MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Kaluszka M, Okolewski A: On Fatou-type lemma for monotone moments of weakly convergent random variables.
*Statistics & Probability Letters*2004, 66(1):45–50. 10.1016/j.spl.2003.10.009MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Hu SH, Chen GJ, Wang XJ, Chen EB: On inverse moments of nonnegative weakly convergent random variables.
*Acta Mathematicae Applicatae Sinica*2007, 30(2):361–367.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Wu T-J, Shi X, Miao B: Asymptotic approximation of inverse moments of nonnegative random variables.
*Statistics & Probability Letters*2009, 79(11):1366–1371. 10.1016/j.spl.2009.02.010MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Wang X, Hu S, Yang W, Ling N: Exponential inequalities and inverse moment for NOD sequence.
*Statistics and Probability Letters*2010, 80(5–6):452–461. 10.1016/j.spl.2009.11.023MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Rosenthal HP: On the subspaces of spanned by sequences of independent random variables.
*Israel Journal of Mathematics*1970, 8: 273–303. 10.1007/BF02771562MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Asadian N, Fakoor V, Bozorgnia A: Rosenthal's type inequalities for negatively orthant dependent random variables.
*Journal of the Iranian Statistical Society*2006, 5: 69–75.Google Scholar - Shao QM: A moment inequality and its applications.
*Acta Mathematica Sinica*1988, 31(6):736–747.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Shao QM: Maximal inequalities for partial sums of -mixing sequences.
*The Annals of Probability*1995, 23(2):948–965. 10.1214/aop/1176988297MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Shao Q-M: A comparison theorem on moment inequalities between negatively associated and independent random variables.
*Journal of Theoretical Probability*2000, 13(2):343–356. 10.1023/A:1007849609234MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Utev S, Peligrad M: Maximal inequalities and an invariance principle for a class of weakly dependent random variables.
*Journal of Theoretical Probability*2003, 16(1):101–115. 10.1023/A:1022278404634MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar

## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.