- Research Article
- Open Access
Existence of Solutions of Second Order Boundary Value Problems with Integral Boundary Conditions and Singularities
© G. Ye and X. Li. 2010
- Received: 28 December 2009
- Accepted: 20 March 2010
- Published: 12 May 2010
By the notation and monotone convergence theorem of Henstock-Kurzweil integral, we investigate the existence of continuous solutions for the second order boundary value problems with integral boundary conditions in which the nonlinearities are allowed to have the singularities in t and are not Lebesgue integrable.
- Integrable Function
- Fixed Point Theorem
- Linear Problem
- Continuous Solution
- Homogeneous Problem
In , Taliaferro showed that problem (1.1) has a solution, where , and with and .
Since then, there are many improvements of this result in literatures for more general case.
In  and other literatures, the authors studied (1.1) in the case where , is continuous, and with or in the case where is continuous and satisfies with and . We note that admit a time singularity at and/or and space singularity at .
In , the authors considered (1.1) when , , is continuous, and a.e. (in particular, is allowed to have a finite number of singularities).
In , Agarwal and O'Regan studied (1.1) when , and satisfies the following caratheodory conditions.
The map is continuous for .
The map is measurable for all .
There exists with such that for and .
In , the authors studied (1.1) with and supposed that , is continuous, and .
with being continuous is not included in all those papers abovementioned.
where are nonnegative constants and are not certainly -integrable.
Henstock-Kurzweil integral encompasses the Newton, Riemann and Lebesgue integrals. A particular feature of this integral is that integrals of highly oscillating function which occur in quantum theory and nonlinear analysis such as , where on and , can be defined.
This paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we make some preliminaries in Henstock-Kurzweil integral; in Section 3, we will prove the equivalence of problem (1.3) and an integral equation as well as existence and uniqueness of solution for the linear problem which associate with (1.3); in Section 4, we are devoted to the existence results for the singular problem (1.3). An example will be given in Section 5.
In this section we introduce the basic facts on Henstock-Kurzweil integrability, a concept that extends the classical Lebesgue integrability on the real line. All notations and properties can be found in the references (see, e.g., [13, 14]).
Let be the real unit interval provided with the -algebra of Lebesgue measurable sets with the Lebesgue measure .
One says that is a tagged partition of if is a finite family of closed subintervals of which are nonoverlapping, that is, their interiors are pairwise disjoint, and whose union is , and if . Given a function (called a gauge of ), one says that a tagged partition is -fine if for every .
is a Henstock-Kurzweil (shortly ) integral of over .
A function is generalized absolutely continuous (or ) on if is continuous on and if can be expressed as a countable union of sets on each of which is absolutely continuous (or ).
For the Lebesgue integral of function , we denote that .
Denote by the continuous functions space on , by the absolutely continuous functions space on , by the generalized absolutely continuous functions space on , and by the space of -integrable functions from to . Assume that the space is equipped with pointwise ordering and normed by the maximum norm, and that the space is equipped with a.e. pointwise ordering and normed by the Alexiewicz norm.
The Henstock-Kurzweil integral is linear, and additive over nonoverlapping intervals of .
defined a function , which is continuous and belongs to , a.e. derivable and a.e. on .
It is easy to prove the following lemma.
For every , functions and are derivable on and and their derivations are absolutely continuous.
Let be an -integrable function, then
()for every , and are -integrable in ;
is derivable a.e. on and
() satisfies the following conditions:
() is derivable a.e. on and
( ) From Lemma 3.1, since we know that and are absolutely continuous respect to , and , the conclusions are in as follows.
The proof of another condition is similar.
and verifies the boundary conditions. The uniqueness of solution of (3.17) follows from Lemma 3.1.
We impose the following hypotheses on the functions and .
and are -integrable whenever .
and are increasing in for almost every .
a.e. hold on for all .
To prove our results, we need the following fixed point theorem for mappings of which is proved in .
Let be an increasing mapping which maps every monotone sequence of to a sequence which converges pointwise to a function of . If , , , and , then has in an order interval of least and greatest fixed points and they are increasing in .
We prove an existence result for solutions of (4.1).
Assume that the hypotheses ( )–( ) are satisfied, then (4.1) has least and greatest solutions in .
That is, is increasing in .
Thus, by Lemma . We know that has in the order interval of least fixed point and greatest fixed point . The functions and are least and greatest solutions of (4.1) in . The hypothesis implies also that if , then . Thus all the solutions of (4.1) belong to the order interval , whence and are least and greatest of all solutions in of (4.1).
The proof is completed.
and satisfies the following caratheodory conditions:
the map is continuous for ,
the map is measurable for all ,
there exists with such that for and ,
is increasing in for .
Since function is not Lebesgue integrable, the results in literature do not hold for (5.1). Let , , then and is -integrable for every continuous since is Lebesgue integrable for every continuous and HK-integrable.
Hence, the existence of continuous solution of problem (5.1) is guaranteed by Theorem 4.2.
This work was supported by NNSF of China (10871059).
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