- Research Article
- Open Access
- Published:

# Periodic Systems Dependent on Parameters

*Journal of Inequalities and Applications*
**volumeÂ 2010**, ArticleÂ number:Â 796165 (2010)

## Abstract

This paper is concerned with a periodic system dependent on parameter. We study differentiability with respect to parameters of the periodic solution of the system. Applying a fixed point theorem and the results regarding parameters for -semigroups, we obtained some convenient conditions for determining differentiability with parameters of the periodic solution. The paper is concluded with an application of the obtained results to a periodic boundary value problem.

## 1. Introduction

One of the fundamental subjects in dynamic systems is the boundary value problem. When studying boundary value problems of differential and integrodifferential equations, we often encounter the problems involving parameters. Take, for example, a periodic boundary value problem

on the Banach space , where and are both -periodic and continuously differentiable. It appears that the boundary conditions contain four scalars and . Because these scalars may vary as the environment of the system changes, they are considered as parameters. Reforming (1.1) (for details, see Section 5), we have the periodic boundary value problem

where . Clearly is -periodic.

Furthermore, when (1.2) is written as a matrix equation (for details, see Section 5), its associated abstract Cauchy problem has the following form:

This example motivates the discussion on the parameter properties of the general abstract periodic Cauchy Problem (1.3). Since the periodic system (1.3) depends on parameters, it is a natural need for investigating continuity and differentiability with respect to parameters of the solution of the system. Moreover, in applications, the differentiability with respect to parameter is often a typical and necessary condition for studying problems such as bifurcation and inverse problem [1]. It is worth mentioning that (1.1) indicates that the occurrence of parameters in the boundary conditions leads to the dependence of the domain of the operator on the parameters. We have developed some effective methods for dealing with this tricky phenomenon.

In our previous work [2], we have obtained results on continuity in parameters of (1.3). In this paper, we will discuss the differentiability with respect to parameters of solutions of (1.3).

According to the semigroup theory, when generates a -semigroup , the weak solution of (1.3) can be expressed in terms of the -semigroup :

It is clear that the differentiability with respect to parameter of semigroup will be the key for determining the differentiability with respect to parameter of the solution of (1.3). Some recent works [3, 4] have obtained fundamental results on the differentiability with respect to parameters of -semigroup. Applying these results together with some fixed point theorem, we are able to prove that (1.3) has a unique periodic solution, which is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to parameter .

We now give the outline of the approaches and contents of the paper. The general approach is that we first prove some theorems for the general periodic system (1.3). Then, by applying these results, we derive a theorem concerning (1.2) and thereby we obtain differentiability with respect to the parameter of the solution of (1.1). The paper begins with the preliminary section, which presents some differentiability results, a fixed point theorem, and related theorems. These results will be used in proving our theorems in later sections. In order to obtain results for (1.3), we, in Section 3, first study a special case of (1.3)

where for some , and is continuous in . After obtaining the differentiability results for (1.5), we, in Section 4, employ a fixed point theorem to attain the differentiability results of (1.3). Lastly, in Section 5, we will apply the obtained abstract results to the periodic boundary value problem (1.1) and use this example to illustrate the obtained results. One will see that the assumptions of the abstract theorems are just natural properties of (1.1).

## 2. Preliminaries

In this section, we state some existing theorems that will be used in later proofs. We start by giving the results on differentiability with respect to parameters.

Consider the abstract Cauchy problem (1.3), where is a closed linear operator on a Banach space and is a multiparameter ( is an open subset of a finite-dimensional normed linear space with norm ). Let be the -semigroup generated by the operator . For further information on -semigroup, see [5].

In [3], we obtained a general theorem on differentiability with respect to the parameter of -semigroup on the entire space . It is noticed that a major assumption of the theorem is that the resolvent is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to . In a recent paper, Grimmer and He [4] have developed several ways to determine differentiability with respect to parameter of . Here, we include one of such theorems for reference.

Assumption Q.

Let be given. Then for each there exist bounded operators with bounded inverses and , such that .

Note that if , then

Thus, having such a relationship for some implies a similar relationship at any other . Without loss of generality then, we may just consider the differentiating of the semigroup at .

Define , for , and assume that is invertible.

Theorem 2.1 (see [3]).

Assume Assumption Q and that

there are constants and such that

There is such that for all .

There is such that for all .

For each and are (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to at .

Then for each , is (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to at .

Theorem 2.2 (see [3]).

Assume the following

For some for all .

For each , there exists a constant such that

for each and each is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to on . Moreover, for any , there exists some ball centered at , say such that implies

where , is measurable and for

Then for each is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to on for . In particular, for

where is a smooth curve in running from to for some ,

Now we state a fixed point theorem from [6].

Definition 2.3 (see [6, page ]).

Suppose thatâ€‰â€‰ is a subset of a Banach space is a subset of a Banach space , and is a family of operators taking . The operator is said to be a uniform contraction on if and there is a such that

Theorem 2.4 (see [6, page ]).

If is a closed subset of a Banach space , is a subset of a Banach space , in is a uniform contraction on , and is continuous in for each fixed in , then the unique fixed point of in , is continuous in . Furthermore, if are the closures of open sets and has continuous first derivatives in , respectively, for , then has a continuous first derivative with respect to in .

Theorem 2.5 (see [7, page ]).

Let be a continuous mapping of an open subset of into . is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable in if and only if f is (FrechÃ©t) differentiable at each point with respect to the th () variable, and the mapping (of into ) is continuous in . Then at each point of , the derivative of is given by

Theorem 2.6 (see [4]).

Let and be Banach spaces, and let Assume that

for each is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable in . In particular, for , is the (FrechÃ©t) derivative of at , and is continuous in .

Then, for each , there is a constant such that

Lemma 2.7.

Let . If , then exists, and

Moreover, .

Proof.

The proof is standard and is omitted here.

## 3. Differentiability Results of (1.5)

In this section, we study (1.5), which is a special case of (1.3). We will prove that the uniques periodic solution of (1.5) is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to parameter . We first state a theorem from [2]. This result shows that (1.5) has a unique periodic solution which is continuous in parameter .

Theorem 3.1 (see [2]).

Assume that

is continuous in for each , and

for some and all , and

for some integer with and all .

Then there exists a unique -periodic solution of (1.5), say , which is continuous in for .

Now we will discuss differentiability with respect to parameter of the periodic solution of (1.5). The following lemma presents a general result on the differentiability with respect to parameter of the fixed point of a parameter dependent operator.

Lemma 3.2.

Let for each , and let be the fixed point of for each , which is continuous in . Also, let . If has the first partial derivatives and which satisfy

is continuous in for each and for all , and

is continuous in ,

then is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to .

Proof.

We begin by noting that the equation

has a unique solution, say , which is linear in .

It follows from Lemma 3.2() and Theorem 2.4 that

is the unique solution of (3.2) for , which is continuous in .

From the uniqueness, one observes that

for all scalars and . That is, is linear in and may be written as , where is a bounded linear operator for each .

Now we show that is the derivative of .

Let . Since by hypothesis, one sees that

Note that there is a function continuous in and approaching zero as such that

Now from (3.5) and since is a solution of (3.2), we have

Thus

Since and are continuous, and is compact, the right-hand side of this expression is as . Also, there is a such that for , so is bounded. Thus as .

Remark 3.3.

This proof is based on that of Theorem from [6, page ].

Now we prove the main theorem of the section.

Theorem 3.4.

Assume that

for all .

is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to for each . Moreover for any there is some such thatâ€‰â€‰â€‰â€‰

is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to .

Then there exists a unique -periodic solution of (1.5), say , which is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to for .

Proof.

First note that from Theorem 3.1, we have that

is the unique -periodic solution of (1.5).

Now we want to show that is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to by applying Lemma 3.2. To this end, we need to prove the following two claims first.

Claim 1.

is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to for . In particular, for any ,

In fact, for any and with ,

The first two terms on the right go to as by Theorem 3.4() and (). The last term on the right goes to because is continuous at and the set is compact, so (3.11) holds.

Now for each fixed and , and any , and , from Theorem 3.4()- () and (3.11), it is clear that is continuous at . This completes the proof of Claim 1.

Based on Claim 1, we have the following claim.

Claim 2.

In fact, from Theorem 2.5 it suffices to show that

W.l.o.g. assume that . Let be any point in . Since is continuous on , there exists such that

Now from (3.9), we have

Thus by a theorem from [8, page ], we have

Furthermore,

Now the left-hand side of (3.17) is

and the right-hand side of (3.17) is

where

That is,

This completes the proof of Claim 2.

Next, consider the operator

We will apply Lemma 3.2 and Claims 1-2 to show that the operator has as the fixed point and is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to .

Note that the operator has the following properties.

(i) is defined on the Banach space .

(ii) is a uniform contraction on .

In fact, for all and ,

() is continuous in for each fixed . (For the detailed proof, see Theorem from [2].)

Applying Theorem 2.4, we have that is the fixed point of .

Furthermore, it is clear that the first derivative of with respect to

satisfies Lemma 3.2(). It is also clear from Claim 2 that the first derivative of with respect to

is continuous in by Theorem 3.4() and (). (Note that using the same argument as in the proof of Claim 1, we can show that is continuous at and thereby is continuous at .)

Finally applying Lemma 3.2, we have that is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to . Using a similar argument as that in Claim 1 and Claim 2 we can show that and are continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to . Thus,

is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to for .

Now we present a theorem with an assumption on the resolvent of the operator instead of the -semigroup .

Theorem 3.5.

Assume Theorem 3.4() and () and that

for some for all ,

there exists a constant such that

for each and each is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to on . Moreover, for any there exists such that implies

where is measurable and for

Then there exists a unique -periodic solution of (1.5), say , which is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to for .

Proof.

First note that from Theorem 2.2 we have, for each

where is a smooth curve in running from to for some ,

Moreover, since is continuous in , it is clear from (3.28) that is continuous in , so Theorem 3.4() is satisfied. Also it is clear from (3.28) that is continuous in . By Theorem 2.6, we have

Now by the Principle of Uniform Boundedness, there is a such that

thus (3.9) is satisfied. Now the desired result follows from Theorem 3.4.

## 4. Differentiability Results of (1.3)

In this section, we discuss the general (1.3). Let .

Lemma 4.1.

Assume that Theorem 3.4() and () are satisfied. Then is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to for each .

Proof.

First note that from Theorem 3.4(), we see that exists by Lemma 2.7. Also,

Next consider the operator defined on :

Then we have

so is a uniform contraction. Also it is obvious that is continuous in by Theorem 3.4(). Therefore from Theorem 2.4 it follows that there is a unique fixed point of , say .

Furthermore, since

which clearly satisfy Lemma 3.2() and (), so by Lemma 3.2, we have that

is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable w.r.t. .

Let .

Consider the equation

on a Banach space , where for some and , and is continuous in .

Lemma 4.2.

Assume that Lemma 3.2() and Theorem 3.4() and (3.9) are satisfied and

is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to .

Then there exists a unique -periodic solution of (4.6), say , which is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to for . Also

which is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to .

Proof.

Let . Then . Also it is obvious that satisfies Theorem 3.4(). Therefore by Theorem 3.4, there is a unique -solution of (4.6) which is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to . In particular, is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to . Moreover, using the same argument as that in the proof of Theorem 3.4 we see that

Thus

which is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable w.r.t. by Lemma 4.1.

Define by

Lemma 4.3.

Assume that Theorem 3.4()-() and (3.9) and Lemma 4.2(K) are satisfied. In addition, assume that

is continuous in for each , and

for some and all .

where is continuous in and .

is continuous in .

Then the operator has a unique fixed point which is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to .

Proof.

It is clear that is a Banach space. Since , then, by the continuity of , there is such that implies

Now for ,

Hence,

Therefore is a uniform contraction.

Furthermore, is continuous in for fixed , and also

are continuous in . Therefore from Theorem 2.4 it follows that has a unique fixed point, say , which is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to .

Now we present the main theorem for (1.3).

Theorem 4.4.

Assume that Theorem 3.4()-() and (3.5), Lemmas 4.2(K), and 4.3()â€“() are satisfied.

Then there exists a unique -periodic solution of (1.3), say , which is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to for .

Proof.

This is an immediate result from Lemmas 4.2 and 4.3.

## 5. Application to a Periodic Boundary Value Problem

Consider the periodic boundary value problem (1.1) on the Banach space , where , for some and .

Let

where

Then (1.1) becomes

where .

Assume and let and . Then the associated abstract Cauchy problem is

on , where

We now show that (5.4) satisfies all assumptions of Theorem 3.5.

It is well known that the operator generates an analytic semigroup. The resolvent of satisfies, for all and ,

Thus Assumptions Theorem 3.5() and () are satisfied. Also, refer to [3, Section 4], we have shown that is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to . So Assumption Theorem 3.5() is satisfied. Furthermore, from the expression of , it is obvious that is continuous in and is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to , so Theorem 3.4() is satisfied. Now to apply Theorem 3.5, we only need to show that Theorem 3.4() is satisfied.

In fact, for ,

where , and , and depend on . Moreover,

Thus Theorem 3.4() is satisfied. Now all the assumptions of Theorem 3.5 are satisfied, therefore (5.4) has a unique -periodic solution, say , which is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to . Moreover, is the unique -periodic solution of (1.1) and it is continuously (FrechÃ©t) differentiable with respect to .

## References

He M, Xu Y: Continuity and determination of parameters for quasistatic thermoelastic system. In

*Proceedings of the Second ISAAC Conference, Vol. 2 (Fukuoka, 1999), 2000, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Int. Soc. Anal. Appl. Comput.*. Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1585â€“1597.Grimmer R, He M: Fixed point theory and nonlinear periodic systems.

*CUBO Mathematical Journal*2009, 11(3):101â€“113.He M: A parameter dependence problem in parabolic PDEs.

*Dynamics of Continuous, Discrete & Impulsive Systems Series A*2003, 10(1â€“3):169â€“179.Grimmer R, He M: Differentiability with respect to parameters of semigroups.

*Semigroup Forum*1999, 59(3):317â€“333.Goldstein JA:

*Semigroups of Linear Operators and Applications, Oxford Mathematical Monographs*. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA; 1985:x+245.Hale JK:

*Ordinary Differential Equations, Pure and Applied Mathematics*.*Volume 20*. Wiley-Interscience, New York, NY, USA; 1969:xvi+332.DieudonnÃ© J:

*Foundations of Modern Analysis, Pure and Applied Mathematics*.*Volume 10*. Academic Press, New York, NY, USA; 1960:xiv+361.Friedman A:

*Foundations of Modern Analysis*. Dover, New York, NY, USA; 1982:vi+250.

## Author information

### Authors and Affiliations

### Corresponding author

## Rights and permissions

**Open Access** This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

## About this article

### Cite this article

He, M. Periodic Systems Dependent on Parameters.
*J Inequal Appl* **2010**, 796165 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/796165

Received:

Revised:

Accepted:

Published:

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/796165

### Keywords

- Banach Space
- Weak Solution
- Open Subset
- Periodic Boundary
- Fixed Point Theorem