- Research Article
- Open Access

# Weak and Strong Convergence Theorems for Equilibrium Problems and Countable Strict Pseudocontractions Mappings in Hilbert Space

- Rudong Chen
^{1}Email author, - Xilin Shen
^{2}and - Shujun Cui
^{1}

**2010**:474813

https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/474813

© Rudong Chen et al. 2010

**Received:**27 August 2009**Accepted:**10 January 2010**Published:**2 February 2010

## Abstract

We introduce two iterative sequence for finding a common element of the set of solutions of an equilibrium problem and the set of fixed points of a countable family of strict pseudocontractions in Hilbert Space. Then we study the weak and strong convergence of the sequences.

## Keywords

- Hilbert Space
- Banach Space
- Convergence Theorem
- Equilibrium Problem
- Weak Convergence

## 1. Introduction

Let be a nonempty closed convex subset of a Hilbert space and let be a self-mapping of . Then is said to be a strict pseudocontraction mappings if for all , there exists a constant such that

(if (1.1) holds, we also say that is a -strict pseudocontraction). We use to denote the set of fixed points of , to denote weak(strong) convergence, and to denote the set of .

Let be a bifunction where is the set of real numbers. Then, we consider the following equilibrium problem:

The set of such is denoted by . Numerous problems in physics, optimization, and economics can be reduced to find a solution of (1.2). Some methods have been proposed to solve the equilibrium problem (see [1–3]). Recently, S. Takahashi and W. Takahashi [4] introduced an iterative scheme by the viscosity approximation method for finding a common element of the set of solutions of the equilibrium problem and the set of fixed points of a nonexpansive mapping in Hilbert spaces. They also studied the strong convergence of the sequences generated by their algorithm for a solution of the EP which is also a fixed point of a nonexpansive mapping defined on a closed convex subset of a Hilbert space.

In this paper, thanks to the condition introduced by Aoyama et al. [5], We introduce two iterative sequence for finding a common element of the set of solutions of an equilibrium problems and the set of fixed points of a countable family of strict pseudocontractions mappings in Hilbert Space. Then we study the weak and strong convergence of the sequences. The additional condition is inspired by Marino and Xu [6] and Kim and Xu [7].

## 2. Preliminaries

For solving the equilibrium problem, let us assume that the bifunction satisfies the following conditions (see [3]):

(A1)

(A2)

(A3) is upper-hemicontinuous, that is, for each ,

(A4) is convex and lower semicontinuous for each .

Let be a real Hilbert space. Then there hold the following well-known results:

If is a sequence in weakly convergent to , then

Recall that the nearest point projection from onto assigns to each its nearest point denoted by in ; that is, is the unique point in with the property

Given and , then if and only if there holds the following relation:

Lemma (see [6]).

Let be a nonempty closed convex subset of a real Hilbert space . Let : be a -strict pseudocontraction such that .

()(Demi-closed principle) is demi-closed on , that is, if and , then .

()The fixed point set of is closed and convex so that the projection is well defined.

Lemma (see [5]).

Then

Lemma (see [8]).

then .

Lemma (see [9]).

Further, if , then the following holds:

() is single-valued;

()

() is closed and convex.

## 3. Weak Convergence Theorems

Theorem 3.1.

Assume that for all , where is a small enough constant, and is a sequence in with Let for any bounded subset of and let be a mapping of into itself defined by and suppose that Then the sequences and converge weakly to an element of .

Proof.

Next, we claim that . since is bounded and is reflexive, is nonempty. Let be an arbitrary element. Then a subsequence of converges weakly to . Hence, from (3.11) we know that As , we obtain that . Let us show . Since , we have

and hence . Since is a strict pseudocontraction mapping, by Lemma 2.1( ) we know that the mapping is demiclosed at zero. Note that and . Thus, . Consequently, we deduce that . Since is an arbitrary element, we conclude that .

To see that and are actually weakly convergent, we take Since exist for every , by (2.2), we have

Hence and proof is completed.

## 4. Strong Convergence Theorems

Theorem 4.1.

Assume that for all , where is a small enough constant, and is a sequence in with and . Let for any bounded subset of and let be a mapping of into itself defined by Suppose that Then, converges strongly to .

Proof.

So is closed and convex. Then, is closed and convex.

Next, we show by induction that for all . is obvious. Suppose that for some . Let . Putting for all , we know from (4.1) that

and hence . This implies that for all .

This implied that is well defined.

From , we have

Lastly, we show that the sequence converges to . Since is bounded and is reflexive, is nonempty. Let be an arbitrary element. Then a subsequence of converges weakly to . From Lemma 2.1 and (4.16), we obtain that . Next, we show . Let be an arbitrary element of . From and , we have

and hence . Lemma 2.3 and (4.6) ensure the strong convergence of to . This completes the proof.

## Declarations

### Acknowledgment

This work is supported by the National Science Foundation of China, Grant 10771050.

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Blum E, Oettli W: From optimization and variational inequalities to equilibrium problems.
*The Mathematics Student*1994, 63(1–4):123–145.MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar - Flam SD, Antipin AS: Equilibrium programming using proximal-like algorithms.
*Mathematical Programming*1997, 78(1):29–41.MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Moudafi A, Thera M: Proximal and dynamical approaches to equilibrium problems. In
*Ill-Posed Variational Problems and Regularization Techniques (Trier, 1998), Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems*.*Volume 477*. Springer, New York, NY, USA; 1999:187–201.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Takahashi S, Takahashi W: Viscosity approximation methods for equilibrium problems and fixed point problems in Hilbert spaces.
*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*2007, 331(1):506–515. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2006.08.036MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Aoyama K, Kimura Y, Takahashi W, Toyoda M: Approximation of common fixed points of a countable family of nonexpansive mappings in a Banach space.
*Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications*2007, 67(8):2350–2360. 10.1016/j.na.2006.08.032MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Marino G, Xu H-K: Weak and strong convergence theorems for strict pseudo-contractions in Hilbert spaces.
*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*2007, 329(1):336–346. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2006.06.055MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Kim T-H, Xu H-K: Strong convergence of modified Mann iterations for asymptotically nonexpansive mappings and semigroups.
*Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications*2006, 64(5):1140–1152. 10.1016/j.na.2005.05.059MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Martinez-Yanes C, Xu H-K: Strong convergence of the CQ method for fixed point iteration processes.
*Nonlinear Analysis: Theory, Methods & Applications*2006, 64(11):2400–2411. 10.1016/j.na.2005.08.018MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Tada A, Takahashi W: Weak and strong convergence theorems for a nonexpansive mapping and an equilibrium problem.
*Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications*2007, 133(3):359–370. 10.1007/s10957-007-9187-zMATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar

## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.