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On Jordan Type Inequalities for Hyperbolic Functions
Journal of Inequalities and Applications volume 2010, Article number: 362548 (2010)
Abstract
This paper deals with some inequalities for trigonometric and hyperbolic functions such as the Jordan inequality and its generalizations. In particular, lower and upper bounds for functions such as and are proved.
1. Introduction
During the past several years there has been a great deal of interest in trigonometric inequalities [1–7]. The classical Jordan inequality [8, page 31]
has been in the focus of these studies and many refinements have been proved for it by Wu and Srivastava [9, 10], Zhang et al. [11], J.L. Li and Y.L. Li [5, 12], Wu and Debnath [13–15], Özban [16], Qi et al. [17], Zhu [18–29], Sándor [30, 31], Baricz and Wu [32, 33], Neuman and Sándor [34], Agarwal et al. [35], Niu et al. [36], Pan and Zhu [37], and Qi and Guo [38]. For a long list of recent papers on this topic see [7] and for an extensive survey see [17]. The proofs are based on familiar methods of calculus. In particular, a method based on a l'Hospital type criterion for monotonicity of the quotient of two functions from Anderson et al. [39] is a key tool in these studies. Some other applications of this criterion are reviewed in [40, 41]. Pinelis has found several applications of this criterion in [42] and in several other papers.
The inequality
where is wellknown and it was studied recently by Baricz in [43, page 111]. The second inequality of (1.2) is given in [8, page 354, 3.9.32] for For a refinement of the first inequality in (1.2) see Remark 1.3(1) and of the second inequality see Theorem 2.4.
This paper is motivated by these studies and it is based on the Master Thesis of Visuri [44]. Some of our main results are the following theorems.
Theorem 1.1.
For
Theorem 1.2.
For
We will consider quotients and at origin as limiting values and .
Remark 1.3.

(1)
Let
(1.5)
Then on because
In [45, ()] it is proved that for
Hence is a better lower bound for than (1.2) for .

(2)
Observe that
(1.8)
which holds true as equality if and only if . In conclusion, (1.8) holds for all . Together with (1.2) we now have
and by (1.8)
2. Jordan's Inequality
In this section we will find upper and lower bounds for by using hyperbolic trigonometric functions.
Theorem 2.1.
For
Proof.
The lower bound of holds true if the function is positive on . Since
we have for and is increasing on . Therefore
and the function is increasing on . Now for .
The upper bound of holds true if the function is positive on . Let us denote . Since for we have and for . Now
which is positive on , because and for . Therefore
for . Now for .
Proof of Theorem 1.1.
The upper bound of is clear by Theorem 2.1. The lower bound of holds true if the function is positive on .
Let us assume . Since we have . We will show that
is positive which implies the assertion.
Now is equivalent to
Since it is sufficient to show that , which is equivalent to
Let us denote . Now and therefore and . Therefore inequality (2.8) holds for and the assertion follows.
We next show that for the upper and lower bounds of (1.2) are better than the upper and lower bounds in Theorem 2.1.
Theorem 2.2.

(i)
For
(2.9)

(ii)
For
(2.10)

(iii)
For
Proof.

(i)
The claim holds true if the function is nonnegative on . By a simple computation we obtain . Inequality is equivalent to . By the series expansions of and we obtain
(2.12)
where is the th Bernoulli number. By the properties of the Bernoullin numbers , , coefficients , for , form an alternating sequence, as and for . Therefore by Leibniz Criterion
and for all . Now is a convex function on and is nondecreasing on with . Therefore is nondecreasing and .

(ii)
The claim holds true if the function is nonnegative on . By the series expansion of we have and therefore by the series expansion of
(2.14)
and the assertion follows.

(iii)
Clearly we have
(2.15)
which implies the first inequality of the claim. The second inequality is trivial since .
Theorem 2.3.
Let . Then
(i)the function
is increasing on ,
(ii)the function
is decreasing on ,
(iii)the functions and are decreasing on .
Proof.

(i)
Let us consider instead of the function
(2.18)
for . Note that and therefore the claim is equivalent to the function being decreasing on . We have
and is equivalent to . Since we have . Therefore is increasing on .

(ii)
We will consider instead of the function
(2.20)
for . Note that and therefore the claim is equivalent to the function being increasing on . We have
and is equivalent to . Since we have . Therefore and the assertion follows.

(iii)
We will show that is increasing on . Now ,
(2.22)
and . Therefore the function is increasing on and is decreasing on .
We will show that is increasing on . Now ,
and . Therefore the function is increasing on and is decreasing on .
We next will improve the upper bound of (1.2).
Theorem 2.4.
For
Proof.
The first inequality of (2.24) follows from (1.2).
By the series expansions of and
where the second inequality is equivalent to and the second inequality of (2.24) follows.
By the identity the upper bound of (2.24) is equivalent to . By the series expansion of
and by the Leibniz Criterion the assertion follows.
3. Hyperbolic Jordan's Inequality
In this section we will find upper and lower bounds for the functions and .
Theorem 3.1.
For
Proof.
We obtain from the series expansion of
which proves the lower bound.
By using the identity the chain of inequalities (1.2) gives
and the assertion follows from inequality .
Remark 3.2.
J.L. Li and Y.L. Li have proved [12, (4.9)] that
where This result improves Theorem 3.1.
Lemma 3.3.
For
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
Proof.

(i)
For we have which is equivalent to
(3.5)
By Theorems 2.1, 3.1, and (3.5)

(ii)
Since for we have
(3.7)

(iii)
By the series expansion of we have
(3.8)
Proof of Theorem 1.2.
The lower bound of follows from Lemma 3.3 and Theorem 3.1 since
The upper bound of holds true if the function is positive on . By the series expansion it is clear that
By Lemma 3.3 and (3.10)
and the assertion follows.
Theorem 3.4.
For
Proof.
The upper bound of holds true if the function is positive on . Since
we have
Therefore and the assertion follows.
Theorem 3.5.
For
Proof.
The upper bound of holds true if the function is positive on . Since the function is increasing. Therefore and .
The lower bound of holds true if the function is positive on . By the series expansions we have
By a straightforward computation we see that the polynomial is strictly decreasing on . Therefore
and the assertion follows.
Remark 3.6.
Baricz and Wu have shown in [33, page 276277] that the right hand side of Theorem 2.1 is true for and the right hand side of Theorem 3.5 is true for . Their proof is based on the infinite product representations.
Note that for
Hence, the upper bound in Theorem 3.5 is better that in Theorem 3.4.
4. Trigonometric Inequalities
Theorem 4.1.
For the following inequalities hold
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
Proof.

(i)
By setting the assertion is equivalent to
(4.1)
which is true because is decreasing on and .

(ii)
By the series expansions of and we have by Leibniz Criterion
(4.2)
and since on the assertion follows.

(iii)
By the series expansions of and we have by Leibniz Criterion
(4.3)
and since on the assertion follows.

(iv)
By the series expansions of and we have by Leibniz Criterion
and since on the assertion follows.
Remark 4.2.
Similar inequalities to Theorem 4.1 have been considered by Neuman in [46, page 3435].
Theorem 4.3.
Let . Then
(i)for
(ii)for
(iii)for
Proof.

(i)
The claim follows from the fact that is decreasing on .

(ii)
The claim is equivalent to saying that the function is increasing for . Since and is equivalent to the assertion follows.
(iii)The claim is equivalent to . By the series expansion of we have
where is the th Bernoulli number (, , ). The assertion follows from the Leibniz Criterion, if
for all . Since (4.9) is equivalent to
the assertion follows from the assumptions and .
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Klén, R., Visuri, M. & Vuorinen, M. On Jordan Type Inequalities for Hyperbolic Functions. J Inequal Appl 2010, 362548 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/362548
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Keywords
 Series Expansion
 Simple Computation
 Straightforward Computation
 Type Inequality
 Master Thesis