- Research Article
- Open Access
- Published:

# Stability of a Cauchy-Jensen Functional Equation in Quasi-Banach Spaces

*Journal of Inequalities and Applications*
**volume 2010**, Article number: 151547 (2010)

## Abstract

We obtain the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of the Cauchy-Jensen functional equation .

## 1. Introduction

In 1940, Ulam proposed the general Ulam stability problem (see [1]).

*Let*
*be a group and let*
*be a metric group with the metric*
*. Given*
*, does there exist a*
*such that if a mapping*
*satisfies the inequality*
*for all*
*then there is a homomorphism*
*with*
*for all*
*?*

In 1941, this problem was solved by Hyers [2] in the case of Banach space. Thereafter, we call that type the Hyers-Ulam stability.

Throughout this paper, let and be vector spaces. A mapping is called an *additive mapping* (respectively, an *affine mapping*) if satisfies the Cauchy functional equation (respectively, the Jensen functional equation ). Aoki [3] and Rassias [4, 5] extended the Hyers-Ulam stability by considering variables for Cauchy equation. Using the method introduced in [3], Jung [6] obtained a result for Jensen equation. It also has been generalized to the function case by Găvruta [7] and Jung [8] for Cauchy equation, and by Lee and Jun [9] for Jensen equation.

Definition 1.1.

A mapping is called a *Cauchy-Jensen mapping* if satisfies the system of equations

When , the function given by is a solution of (1.1). In particular, letting , we get a function given by .

For a mapping , consider the functional equation

Definition 1.2 (see [10, 11]).

Let be a real linear space. A *quasi-norm* is real-valued function on X satisfying the following.

(i) for all and if and only if .

(ii) for all and all .

(iii)There is a constant such that for all .

The pair is called a *quasi-normed space* if is a quasi-norm on . The smallest possible is called the *modulus of concavity* of . A *quasi-Banach space* is a complete quasi-normed space. A quasi-norm is called a *-norm* () if

for all . In this case, a quasi-Banach space is called a *-Banach space*.

The authors [12] obtained the solutions of (1.1) and (1.2) as follows.

Theorem 1 A.

A mapping satisfies (1.1) if and only if there exist a biadditive mapping and an additive mapping such that for all .

Theorem 1 B.

A mapping satisfies (1.1) if and only if it satisfies (1.2).

In this paper, we investigate the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of (1.1) and (1.2).

## 2. Stability of (1.1) and (1.2)

Throughout this section, assume that is a quasi-normed space with quasi-norm and that is a -Banach space with -norm . Let be the modulus of concavity of .

Let and be two functions such that

for all , and

for all .

Theorem 2.1.

Suppose that a mapping satisfies the inequalities

for all . Then the limits

exist for all and the mappings and are Cauchy-Jensen mappings satisfying

for all .

Proof.

Letting and replacing by in (2.5) then,

for all . Replacing by in the above inequality and dividing by , we get

for all and all nonnegative integers . Since is a -Banach space, we have

for all and all nonnegative integers and with . Therefore we conclude from (2.3) and (2.12) that the sequence is a Cauchy sequence in for all . Since is complete, the sequence converges in for all . So one can define the mapping by

for all . Letting and passing the limit in (2.12), we get (2.8). Now, we show that is a Cauchy-Jensen mapping. It follows from (2.1), (2.11), and (2.13) that

for all . So for all .

On the other hand it follows from (2.1), (2.5), (2.6), and (2.13) that

for all . Thus is a Cauchy-Jensen mapping. Next, setting in (2.6) and replacing by and by in (2.6), one can obtain that

respectively, for all . By two above inequalities,

for all . By the same method as above, one can find a Cauchy-Jensen mapping which satisfies (2.9). In fact, for all .

From now on, let be a function such that

for all .

We will use the following lemma in order to prove Theorem 2.3.

Lemma 2.2 (see [13]).

Let and let be nonnegative real numbers. Then

Theorem 2.3.

Suppose that a mapping satisfies and the inequality

for all . Then the limit exists for all and the mapping is the unique Cauchy-Jensen mapping satisfying

where

for all .

Proof.

Letting in (2.21), we get

for all . Putting and in (2.24), we get

for all . Replacing by and by in (2.24), we get

for all . By (2.25) and (2.26), we have

for all . Setting and in (2.24), we get

for all . By (2.27) and the above inequality, we get

for all . Replacing by in (2.26), we get

for all . By (2.29) and the above inequality, we have

for all . Replacing by in the above inequality, we get

for all . By (2.25) and the above inequality, we get

where

for all . Replacing by and by in the above inequality and dividing ,we get

for all and all nonnegative integers . Since is a -norm, we have

for all and all nonnegative integers and with . Therefore we conclude from (2.18) and (2.36) that the sequence is a Cauchy sequence in for all . Since is complete, the sequence converges in for all . So one can define the mapping by

for all . Letting , passing the limit in (2.36), and applying lemma, we get (2.22). Now, we show that is a Cauchy-Jensen mapping. By lemma, we infer that for all . It follows from (2.18), (2.35), and the above equality that

for all . So for all .

On the other hand it follows from (2.18), (2.21), and (2.37) that

for all . Hence the mapping satisfies (1.2). To prove the uniqueness of , let be another Cauchy-Jensen mapping satisfying (2.22). It follows from (2.19) that

for all . Hence for all . So it follows from (2.22) and (2.37) that

for all . So .

## References

- 1.
Ulam SM:

*A Collection of Mathematical Problems, Interscience Tracts in Pure and Applied Mathematics*. Interscience, New York, NY, USA; 1968:xiii+150. - 2.
Hyers DH: On the stability of the linear functional equation.

*Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America*1941, 27: 222–224. 10.1073/pnas.27.4.222 - 3.
Aoki T: On the stability of the linear transformation in Banach spaces.

*Journal of the Mathematical Society of Japan*1950, 2: 64–66. 10.2969/jmsj/00210064 - 4.
Rassias ThM: On the stability of the linear mapping in Banach spaces.

*Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society*1978, 72(2):297–300. 10.1090/S0002-9939-1978-0507327-1 - 5.
Rassias ThM: On a modified Hyers-Ulam sequence.

*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*1991, 158(1):106–113. 10.1016/0022-247X(91)90270-A - 6.
Jung S-M: Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of Jensen's equation and its application.

*Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society*1998, 126(11):3137–3143. 10.1090/S0002-9939-98-04680-2 - 7.
Găvruţa P: A generalization of the Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of approximately additive mappings.

*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*1994, 184(3):431–436. 10.1006/jmaa.1994.1211 - 8.
Jung S-M: On the Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of approximately additive mappings.

*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*1996, 204(1):221–226. 10.1006/jmaa.1996.0433 - 9.
Lee Y-H, Jun K-W: A generalization of the Hyers-Ulam-Rassias stability of Jensen's equation.

*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*1999, 238(1):305–315. 10.1006/jmaa.1999.6546 - 10.
Benyamini Y, Lindenstrauss J:

*Geometric Nonlinear Functional Analysis. Vol. 1, American Mathematical Society Colloquium Publications*.*Volume 48*. American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, USA; 2000:xii+488. - 11.
Rolewicz S:

*Metric Linear Spaces*. 2nd edition. PWN-Polish Scientific, Warsaw, Poland; Reidel, Dordrecht, The Netherlands; 1984:xi+459. - 12.
Park W-G, Bae J-H: On a Cauchy-Jensen functional equation and its stability.

*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*2006, 323(1):634–643. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2005.09.028 - 13.
Najati A, Moghimi MB: Stability of a functional equation deriving from quadratic and additive functions in quasi-Banach spaces.

*Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications*2008, 337(1):399–415. 10.1016/j.jmaa.2007.03.104

## Author information

## Rights and permissions

**Open Access** This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

## About this article

### Cite this article

Bae, J., Park, W. Stability of a Cauchy-Jensen Functional Equation in Quasi-Banach Spaces.
*J Inequal Appl* **2010, **151547 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/151547

Received:

Accepted:

Published:

### Keywords

- Banach Space
- Functional Equation
- Nonnegative Integer
- Cauchy Sequence
- Affine Mapping