- Research Article
- Open Access
Approximating Curve and Strong Convergence of the CQ Algorithm for the Split Feasibility Problem
Journal of Inequalities and Applications volume 2010, Article number: 102085 (2010)
Using the idea of Tikhonov's regularization, we present properties of the approximating curve for the split feasibility problem (SFP) and obtain the minimum-norm solution of SFP as the strong limit of the approximating curve. It is known that in the infinite-dimensional setting, Byrne's CQ algorithm (Byrne, 2002) has only weak convergence. We introduce a modification of Byrne's CQ algorithm in such a way that strong convergence is guaranteed and the limit is also the minimum-norm solution of SFP.
Let and be nonempty closed convex subsets of real Hilbert spaces and , respectively. The problem under consideration in this article is formulated as finding a point satisfying the property:
where is a bounded linear operator. Problem (1.1), referred to by Censor and Elfving  as the split feasibility problem (SFP), attracts many authors' attention due to its application in signal processing . Various algorithms have been invented to solve it (see [2–7] and reference therein).
In particular, Byrne  introduced the so-called algorithm. Take an initial guess arbitrarily, and define recursively as
where and where denotes the projector onto and is the spectral radius of the self-adjoint operator Then the sequence generated by (1.2) converges strongly to a solution of SFP whenever is finite-dimensional and whenever there exists a solution to SFP (1.1).
However, the algorithm need not necessarily converge strongly in the case when is infinite dimensional. Let us mention that the algorithm can be regarded as a special case of the well-known Krasnosel'skii-Mann algorithm for approximating fixed points of nonexpansive mappings . This iterative method is introduced in  and defined as follows. Take an initial guess arbitrarily, and define recursively as
where satisfying If is nonexpansive with a nonempty fixed point set, then the sequence generated by (1.3) converges weakly to a fixed point of . It is known that Krasnosel'skii-Mann algorithm is in general not strongly convergent (see [9, 10] for counterexamples) and neither is the algorithm.
It is therefore the aim of this paper to construct a new algorithm so that strong convergence is guaranteed. The paper is organized as follows. In the next section, some useful lemmas are given. In Section 3, we define the concept of the minimal norm solution of SFP (1.1). Using Tikhonov's regularization, we obtain a continuous curve for approximating such minimal norm solution. Together with some properties of this approximating curve, we introduce, in Section 4, a modification of Byrne's algorithm so that strong convergence is guaranteed and its limit is the minimum-norm solution of SFP (1.1).
Throughout the rest of this paper, denotes the identity operator on , the set of the fixed points of an operator and the gradient of the functional The notation "" denotes strong convergence and "" weak convergence.
Recall that an operator from into itself is called nonexpansive if
contractive if there exists such that
Obviously, contractions are nonexpansive, and if is nonexpansive, then is monotone (see ).
Let denote the projection from onto a nonempty closed convex subset of ; that is,
It is well known that is characterized by the inequality
Consequently, is nonexpansive.
The lemma below is referred to as the demiclosedness principle for nonexpansive mappings (see ).
Lemma 2.1 (demiclosedness principle).
Let be a nonempty closed convex subset of and a nonexpansive mapping with If is a sequence in weakly converging to and if the sequence converges strongly to , then In particular, if , then .
Let be a a functional. Recall that
(i) is convex if
(ii) is strictly convex if the strict less than inequality in (2.6) holds for all distinct .
(iii) is strongly convex if there exists a constant such that
(iv) is coercive if whenever It is easily seen that if is strongly convex, then it is coercive. See  for more details about convex functions.
The following lemma gives the optimality condition for the minimizer of a convex functional over a closed convex subset.
Lemma 2.2 (see ).
Let be a convex and differentiable functional and let be a closed convex subset of . Then is a solution of the problem
if and only if satisfies the following optimality condition:
Moreover, if is, in addition, strictly convex and coercive, then problem (2.8) has a unique solution.
The following is a sufficient condition for a real sequence to converge to zero.
Lemma 2.3 (see ).
Let be a nonnegative real sequence satisfying
where the sequences and satisfy the conditions:
3. Approximating Curves
where . A classical way to deal with such a possibly ill-posed problem is the well-known Tikhonov regularization, which approximates a solution of problem (3.1) by the unique minimizer of the regularized problem
where is known as the regularization parameter.
We now try to transfer this idea of Tikhonov's regularization method for solving the constrained linear inverse problem (3.1) to the case of SFP (1.1).
It is not hard to find that SFP (1.1) is equivalent to the minimization problem
Motivated by Tikhonov's regularization, we consider the minimization problem
where is the regularization parameter. Denote by the unique solution of (3.4); namely,
For any the minimizer given by (3.5) is uniquely defined. Moreover, is characterized by the inequality
Since is convex and differentiable with gradient (see )
is strictly convex, coercive, and differentiable with gradient
Thus, applying Lemma 2.2 gets the assertion (3.6), as desired.
The next result collects some useful properties of .
The following assertions hold.
(a) is decreasing for .
(b) is increasing for .
(c) defines a continuous curve from to
Let be fixed. Since and are the (unique) minimizers of and , respectively, we get
Adding up (3.10) and (3.11) yields
which implies that . Hence (a) holds.
It follows from (3.11) that
which together with (a) implies
and therefore (b) holds.
By Proposition 3.1, we have that
and also that
Adding up (3.15) and (3.16), we get
Since is monotone, we obtain from the last relation
It turns out that
Thus (c) holds.
Let , where . In what follows, we assume that that is, the solution set of SFP (1.1) is nonempty. The fact that is nonempty closed convex set thus allows us to introduce the concept of minimum-norm solution of SFP (1.1).
An element is said to be the minimal norm solution of SFP (1.1) if . In other words, is the projection of the origin onto the solution set of SFP (1.1). Thus the minimum-norm solution for SFP (1.1) exists and is unique.
Let be given as (3.5). Then converges strongly as to the minimum-norm solution of SFP (1.1).
We first show that the inequality
holds for any . To this end, observe that
Since , . It follows from (3.21) that
and (3.20) is proven.
Let now be a sequence such that as and let be abbreviated as All we need to prove is that contains a subsequence converging strongly to Since is bounded and since is bounded convex, by passing to a subsequence if necessary, we may assume that converges weakly to a point By Proposition 3.1, we deduce that
It turns out that
Since the characterizing inequality (2.5) gives
and this implies that
Now by combining (3.26) and (3.24), we get
where the last inequality follows from (3.20). Consequently, we get
Note that is also weakly continuous and hence . Now due to (3.28), we can use the demiclosedness principle (Lemma 2.1) to conclude that . That is, or ; therefore, We next prove that and this finishes the proof. To see this, we have that the weak convergence to of together with (3.20) implies that
This shows that is also a point in which assumes minimum norm. Due to uniqueness of minimum-norm element, we must have .
The above argument shows that if the solution set of SFP (1.1) is empty, then the net of norms, , diverges to as .
4. A Modified CQ Algorithm
It is a standard way to use contractions to approximate nonexpansive mappings. We follow this idea and use contractions to approximate the nonexpansive mapping in order to modify Byrne's algorithm. More precisely, we introduce the following algorithm which is viewed as a modification of Byrne's algorithm. The purpose for such a modification lies in the hope of strong convergence.
For an arbitrary guess , the sequence is generated by the iterative algorithm
where is a sequence in such that
Note that a prototype of is for all .
To prove the convergence of algorithm (4.1) (see Theorem 4.3 below), we need a lemma below.
Set , where with being the spectral radius of the self-adjoint operator
(i) is an averaged mapping; namely, , where is a constant and is a nonexpansive mapping from into itself.
(ii); consequently, .
That which is averaged is actually proved in .
To see (ii), we first observe that the inclusion holds trivially. It remains to prove the implication: . To see this, we notice that the relation is equivalent to the relation . It turns out that
Since the solution set , we can take . Now since , we have by (2.5),
It follows from (4.2) and (4.3) that
This shows that ; that is, .
Finally, since , and both and are averaged, we have .
The sequence generated by algorithm (4.1) converges strongly to the minimum-norm solution of SFP (1.1).
Define operators and on by
where is averaged by Lemma 4.2.
It is readily seen that is a contraction with contractive constant . Namely,
Also we may rewrite algorithm (4.1) as
We first prove that is a bounded sequence. Indeed, since , we can take any (thus by Lemma 4.2) to deduce that
Substituting (4.9) into (4.8), we get
By induction, we can easily show that, for all ,
In particular, is bounded.
We now claim that
To see this, we compute
Letting be a constant such that for all , we find
Substituting (4.14) into (4.13), we arrive at
By virtue of the assumptions (a)–(c), we can apply Lemma 2.3 to (4.15) to obtain (4.12). Consequently we also have
This follows from the following computations:
Therefore, the demiclosedness principle (Lemma 2.1) ensures that each weak limit point of is a fixed point of the nonexpansive mapping , that is, a point of the solution set of SFP (1.1).
One of the key ingredients of the proof is the following conclusion:
where is the minimum-norm element of (i.e., the projection ). Since
to prove (4.18), it suffices to prove that
To prove (4.20), we use Lemma 4.2 to get and is averaged. Write for some and nonexpansive mapping . Then we derive, by taking a point , that
It turns out that (for some constant for all )
Now since , (4.23) implies (4.20).
To prove (4.21), we take a subsequence of so that
Since is bounded, we may further assume with no loss of generality that converges weakly to a point . Noticing that and that is the projection of the origin onto , and applying (2.5), we arrive at
This is (4.21).
Finally we prove in norm. To see this, we compute
satisfies the property (due to (4.18))
We therefore can apply Lemma 2.3 to (4.26) to conclude that . This completes the proof.
Censor Y, Elfving T: A multiprojection algorithm using Bregman projections in a product space. Numerical Algorithms 1994, 8(2–4):221–239.
Byrne C: Iterative oblique projection onto convex sets and the split feasibility problem. Inverse Problems 2002, 18(2):441–453. 10.1088/0266-5611/18/2/310
Byrne C: A unified treatment of some iterative algorithms in signal processing and image reconstruction. Inverse Problems 2004, 20(1):103–120. 10.1088/0266-5611/20/1/006
Qu B, Xiu N: A note on the CQ algorithm for the split feasibility problem. Inverse Problems 2005, 21(5):1655–1665. 10.1088/0266-5611/21/5/009
Xu H-K: A variable Krasnosel'skiĭ-Mann algorithm and the multiple-set split feasibility problem. Inverse Problems 2006, 22(6):2021–2034. 10.1088/0266-5611/22/6/007
Yang Q: The relaxed CQ algorithm solving the split feasibility problem. Inverse Problems 2004, 20(4):1261–1266. 10.1088/0266-5611/20/4/014
Yang Q, Zhao J: Generalized KM theorems and their applications. Inverse Problems 2006, 22(3):833–844. 10.1088/0266-5611/22/3/006
Mann WR: Mean value methods in iteration. Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society 1953, 4: 506–510. 10.1090/S0002-9939-1953-0054846-3
Genel A, Lindenstrauss J: An example concerning fixed points. Israel Journal of Mathematics 1975, 22(1):81–86. 10.1007/BF02757276
Güler O: On the convergence of the proximal point algorithm for convex minimization. SIAM Journal on Control and Optimization 1991, 29(2):403–419. 10.1137/0329022
Alber Y, Ryazantseva I: Nonlinear Ill-Posed Problems of Monotone Type. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands; 2006:xiv+410.
Goebel K, Kirk WA: Topics in Metric Fixed Point Theory, Cambridge Studies in Advanced Mathematics. Volume 28. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA; 1990:viii+244.
Aubin J-P: Optima and Equilibria: An Introduction to Nonlinear Analysis, Graduate Texts in Mathematics. Volume 140. Springer, Berlin, Germany; 1993:xvi+417.
Engl HW, Hanke M, Neubauer A: Regularization of Inverse Problems, Mathematics and Its Applications. Volume 375. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands; 1996:viii+321.
Xu H-K: Iterative algorithms for nonlinear operators. Journal of the London Mathematical Society. Second Series 2002, 66(1):240–256. 10.1112/S0024610702003332
Eicke B: Iteration methods for convexly constrained ill-posed problems in Hilbert space. Numerical Functional Analysis and Optimization 1992, 13(5–6):413–429. 10.1080/01630569208816489
Neubauer A: Tikhonov-regularization of ill-posed linear operator equations on closed convex sets. Journal of Approximation Theory 1988, 53(3):304–320. 10.1016/0021-9045(88)90025-1
H. K. Xu was supported in part by NSC 97-2628-M-110-003-MY3, and by DGES MTM2006-13997-C02-01.
About this article
Cite this article
Wang, F., Xu, H. Approximating Curve and Strong Convergence of the CQ Algorithm for the Split Feasibility Problem. J Inequal Appl 2010, 102085 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/102085
- Minimization Problem
- Weak Convergence
- Nonexpansive Mapping
- Strong Convergence
- Bounded Linear Operator