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# On Interpolation Functions of the Generalized Twisted -Euler Polynomials

*Journal of Inequalities and Applications*
**volume 2009**, Article number: 946569 (2009)

## Abstract

The aim of this paper is to construct -adic twisted two-variable Euler-(,)--functions, which interpolate generalized twisted (,)-Euler polynomials at negative integers. In this paper, we treat twisted (,)-Euler numbers and polynomials associated with -adic invariant integral on . We will construct two-variable twisted (,)-Euler-zeta function and two-variable (,)--function in Complex -plane.

## 1. Introduction

Tsumura and Young treated the interpolation functions of the Bernoulli and Euler polynomials in [1, 2]. Kim and Simsek studied on -adic interpolation functions of these numbers and polynomials [3–48]. In [49], Carlitz originally constructed -Bernoulli numbers and polynomials. Many authors studied these numbers and polynomials [4, 28, 38, 41, 50]. After that, twisted -Bernoulli and Euler numbers(polynomials) were studied by several authors [1–32, 32–65]. In [62], Whashington constructed one-variable -adic--function which interpolates generalized classical Bernoulli numbers at negative integers. Fox introduced the two-variable -adi -functions [53]. Young defined -adic integral representation for the two-variable -adic -functions [64]. Furthermore, Kim constructed the two-variable -adic --function, which is interpolation function of the generalized -Bernoulli polynomials [8]. This function is the -extension of the two-variable -adic -function. Kim constructed -extension of the generalized formula for two-variable of Diamond and Ferrero and Greenberg formula for two-variable -adic -function in the terms of the -adic gamma and log-gamma functions [8]. Kim and Rim introduced twisted -Euler numbers and polynomials associated with basic twisted --functions [28]. Also, Jang et al. investigated the -adic analogue twisted --function, which interpolates generalized twisted -Euler numbers attached to Dirichlet's character [55]. Kim et al. have studied two-variable -adic -functions, which interpolate the generalized Bernoulli polynomials at negative integers. In this paper, we will construct two-variale -adic twisted Euler --functions. This functions interpolation functions of the generalized twisted -Euler polynomials.

Let be a fixed odd prime number. Throughout this paper and will respectively denote the ring of rational integers, the ring of -adic rational integers, the field of -adic rational numbers and the completion of the algebraic closure of . Let be the normalized exponential valuation of such that . If , then . If , we normally assume , so that for . Throughout this paper we use the following notations (cf. [1–32, 32–48, 50, 51, 54–65]):

Hence, , for any with in the present -adic case.

For a fixed positive integer with , set

where satisfies the condition . The distribution is defined by

We say that is uniformly differential function at a point , and we write , if the difference quotients, have a limit as .

For , the -adic invariant -integral on is defined as [4, 18]

The fermionic -adic -measures on is defined as (cf. [14–16, 18, 22, 28])

for . For , the ferminoic -adic invariant -integral on is defined as

which has a sense as we see readily that the limit is convergent. For , we note that (cf. [14, 16, 18, 22, 28])

From the fermionic invariant integral on , we derive the following integral equation (cf. [14, 35]):

where .

## 2. Twisted -Euler Numbers and Polynomials

In this section, we will treat some properties of twisted -Euler numbers and polynomials associated with -adic invariant integral on . From now on, we take and with . Let be the space of primitive th root of unity,

Then, we denote

Hence is a -adic locally constant space. For , we denote by defined by , the locally constant function. If we take , then we have (cf. [35])

By induction in (1.8), Kim constructed the following useful identity (cf. [14, 28]):

where . From (2.4), if is odd, then we have

If we replace by into (2.5), we obtain

Let . Let be a Dirichlet's character of conductor , which is any multiple of with . By substituting into (2.6), we have

Remark 2.1.

In complex case, the generating function of the Euler numbers is given by (cf. [28])

By using Taylor series of , then we can define the generalized twisted Euler numbers attached to as follows (cf. [55]):

In [8], -Euler numbers were defined by

where and . In particular, if we take , then . These numbers are called -Euler numbers.

By using iterative method of -adic invariant integral on in the sense of fermionic, we define twisted -Euler numbers as follows (cf. [55]):

For and , we have that (cf. [55])

where with .

Let be the generating function of in complex plane as follows (cf. [55]):

Let be the Dirichlet's character with conductor with . Then the generalized twisted -Euler polynomials attached to is given by as follows:

For ,

where is any multiple of with and .

Then the distribution relation of the generalized twisted -Euler polynomials is given by as follows (cf. [14]):

## 3. Two-Variable Twisted -Euler-Zeta Function and --Function

In this section, we will construct two-variable twisted -Euler-zeta function and two-variable --function in Complex -plane. We assume with .

Firstly, we consider twisted -Euler numbers and polynomials in as follows (cf. [55]):

where and is th root of unity. In particular, if we take , then we have . These numbers are called twisted Euler numbers. By using derivative operator, we have .

From (3.1), we can define Hurwitz-type twisted -Euler-zeta function as follows (cf. [55]):

where and . Note that if in (3.2), then we see that the twisted -Euler-zeta function is defined by (cf. [28, 55])

For , we know (cf. [28])

From now on, we will define the two-variable --functions which interpolates the generalized -Euler polynomials.

Definition 3.1.

Let be the Dirichlet's character with conductor with . For and , we define

By substituting and into (3.5), then using (3.2), we have

Thus, we see the function which interpolates the generalized -Euler polynomials as follows.

Theorem 3.2.

For , let be the Dirichlet's character with conductor with . Then one has

By substituting with , into (3.7), we obtain

where .

Thus, we have the following theorem.

Theorem 3.3.

For , let be the Dirichlet's character with conductor with . Then one has

Remark 3.4.

If we take in (3.5), then we have (cf. [28, 55])

From (3.9) and (3.10), we have the following corollary.

Corollary 3.5.

Let be the Dirichlet's character with conductor with . Then one has

Secondly, we will define two-variable twisted Euler --function as follows.

Definition 3.6.

Let be the Dirichlet's character with conductor with . For and with , we define

We consider the well-known identity (cf. [44, 65])

By using (3.12), we define two-variable twisted Euler --function as follows:

We will investigate the relations between and as follows.

Substituting with into (3.12), we have

Thus we obtain the following theorem.

Theorem 3.7.

For with , let be the Dirichlet character with conductor with and with . Then one has

By substituting with into (3.16) and using (3.4), we can obtain

Thus, we see that the function interpolates generalized -Euler polynomials attached to at negative integer values of as followings.

Theorem 3.8.

For , let be the Dirichlet's character with odd conductor . Then one has

Note that if we take , then Theorem 3.8 reduces to Theorem 3.3.

Let and be integers with and . For , we define partial -Hurwitz type zeta function as follows:

By substituting , we have

By substituting (3.2), for , we get

Equation (3.20) means that the function interpolates polynomials at negative integers.

From (3.16) and (3.20), we have the following theorem.

Theorem 3.9.

For with , let be the Dirichlet's character with conductor with and , is any multiple of . Then one has

Remark 3.10.

If we take in (3.22), then we have

From (2.12), if we take , then we have the following corollary.

Corollary 3.11.

For with , let be the Dirichlet's character with conductor with and , is any multiple of . Then one has

## 4. -Adic Twisted Two-Variable Euler -*L*-Functions

In [62], Washington constructed one-variable -adic--function which interpolates generalized classical Bernoulli numbers negative integers. Kim [22] investigated the -adic analogues of two-variables Euler --function. In this section, we will construct -adic twisted two-variable Euler---functions, which interpolate generalized twisted -Euler polynomials at negative integers. Our notations and methods are essentially due to Kim and Washington (cf. [22, 62]).

We assume that with , so that . Let be an odd prime number. Let denote the Teichmüller character having conductor . For an arbitrary character , we define , where , in the sense of the product of characters. Let . Then . Hence we see that

where with .

We denote the subset of by (cf. [62])

Let

be a sequence of power series, each of which converges in a fixed subset such that

(1) as and

(2)for each and , there exists such that

Then for all (cf. [2, 22, 50, 51, 60, 62]).

Let be the Dirichlet's character with conductor with and let be a positive multiple of and .

Now we set

Then is analytic for with , when . For with , we have

is analytic for . It readily follows that

is analytic for with when . Thus we see that

Let and fixed with . Then we have that

If , then , so is a multiple of . Therefore, we have

Then we note that

The difference of these equations yields

Using distribution for -Euler polynomials, we easily see that

Since , for , and , with , we have

From (4.5)–(4.14), we can derive that

Therefore we obtain the following theorem.

Theorem 4.1.

Let be a positive integral multiple of and with , and let

Then is analytic for , provides when . Furthermore, for each , we have

Thus we note that for all , where is twisted -adic Euler --function, (cf. [15, 22]).

We now generalized to two-variable -adic Euler --function, which is first defined by the interpolation function

for .

From (4.18), we have that

By using the definition of , we can express for all and with as follows:

We know that is analytic for , when . The value of is the coefficients of in the expansion of at . Using the Taylor expansion at , we see that

The -adic logarithmic function, , is the unique function that satisfies

By employing these expansion and some algebraic manipulations, we evaluate the derivative . It follows from the definition of that

Thus, we have

Since is a root of unity for , we have

Thus we have the following theorem.

Theorem 4.2.

Let be a primitive Dirichlet's character with odd conductor and let be a odd positive integral multiple of and . Then for any with , one has

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Park, K.H. On Interpolation Functions of the Generalized Twisted -Euler Polynomials.
*J Inequal Appl* **2009, **946569 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/946569

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/946569

### Keywords

- Zeta Function
- Euler Number
- Negative Integer
- Bernoulli Number
- Dirichlet Character