- Research Article
- Open Access

# On -Quasiclass A Operators

- Fugen Gao
^{1, 2}Email author and - Xiaochun Fang
^{1}

**2009**:921634

https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/921634

© F. Gao and X. Fang. 2009

**Received:**26 June 2009**Accepted:**10 November 2009**Published:**13 December 2009

## Abstract

An operator is called -quasiclass if for a positive integer , which is a common generalization of quasiclass . In this paper, firstly we prove some inequalities of this class of operators; secondly we prove that if is a -quasiclass operator, then is isoloid and has finite ascent for all complex number at last we consider the tensor product for -quasiclass operators.

## Keywords

- Positive Integer
- Tensor Product
- Orthonormal Basis
- Space Operator
- Orthogonal Projection

## 1. Introduction

Throughout this paper let be a separable complex Hilbert space with inner product . Let denote the -algebra of all bounded linear operators on .

Let and let be an isolated point of . Here denotes the spectrum of . Then there exists a small enough positive number such that

Let

After that many authors extended this result to many other classes of operators. Chō and Tanahashi [2] proved that (1.3) holds if is either -hyponormal or log-hyponormal. In the case , the result was further shown by Tanahashi and Uchiyama [3] to hold for -quasihyponormal operators, by Tanahashi et al. [4] to hold for -quasihyponormal operators and by Uchiyama and Tanahashi [5] and Uchiyama [6] for class A and paranormal operators. Here an operator is called -hyponormal for if , and log-hyponormal if is invertible and . An operator is called -quasihyponormal if , where and is a positive integer; especially, when , , and , is called -quasihyponormal, -quasihyponormal, and quasihyponormal, respectively. And an operator is called paranormal if for all ; normaloid if for all positive integers . -hyponormal, log-hyponormal, -quasihyponormal, -quasihyponormal, and paranormal operators were introduced by Aluthge [7], Tanahashi [8], S. C. Arora and P. Arora [9], Kim [10], and Furuta [11, 12], respectively.

In order to discuss the relations between paranormal and -hyponormal and log-hyponormal operators, Furuta et al. [13] introduced a very interesting class of bounded linear Hilbert space operators: class A defined by , where which is called the absolute value of and they showed that class A is a subclass of paranormal and contains -hyponormal and log-hyponormal operators. Class A operators have been studied by many researchers, for example, [5, 14–19].

Recently Jeon and Kim [20] introduced quasiclass A (i.e., ) operators as an extension of the notion of class A operators, and they also proved that (1.3) holds for this class of operators when . It is interesting to study whether Stampli's result holds for other larger classes of operators.

In [21], Tanahashi et al. considered an extension of quasi-class A operators, similar in spirit to the extension of the notion of -quasihyponormality to -quasihyponormality, and prove that (1.3) holds for this class of operators in the case .

Definition 1.1.

Remark 1.2.

In [21], this class of operators is called quasi-class (A, ).

It is clear that the class of quasi-class
A operators
the class of *k*-quasiclass A operators and

We show that the inclusion relation (1.5) is strict, by an example which appeared in [20].

Example 1.3.

Straightforward calculations show that is a -quasiclass A operator if and only if . So if and , then is a -quasiclass A operator, but not a -quasiclass A operator.

In this paper, firstly we consider some inequalities of -quasiclass A operators; secondly we prove that if is a -quasiclass A operator, then is isoloid and has finite ascent for all complex number ; at last we give a necessary and sufficient condition for to be a -quasiclass A operator when and are both non-zero operators.

## 2. Results

In the following lemma, Tanahashi, Jeon, Kim, and Uchiyama studied the matrix representation of a -quasiclass A operator with respect to the direct sum of and its orthogonal complement.

Lemma 2.1 (see [21]).

Let be a -quasiclass A operator for a positive integer and let on be matrix expression. Assume that ran is not dense, then is a class A operator on and . Furthermore, .

Proof.

That is, is a class A operator on .

For any ,

which implies .

Since , where is the union of the holes in which happen to be subset of by [23, Corollary 7], and and has no interior points, we have .

Theorem 2.2.

Let be a -quasiclass A operator for a positive integer . Then the following assertions hold.

for all and all positive integers .

If for some positive integer , then .

for all positive integers , where denotes the spectral radius of .

To give a proof of Theorem 2.2, the following famous inequality is needful.

Lemma 2.3 (Hölder-McCarthy's inequality [24]).

Let . Then the following assertions hold.

for and all .

for and all .

- (1)

- (2)
If , it is obvious that . If , then by ( ). The rest of the proof is similar.

- (3)
We only need to prove the case , that is,

Lemma 2.4 (see [21]).

Let be a -quasiclass A operator for a positive integer . If and for some , then .

Proof.

Hence we may write

Hence and . Since is a -quasiclass A operator, by a simple calculation we have

Recall that if and only if and for some contraction . Thus we have . This completes the proof.

Lemma 2.5 (see [25]).

If satisfies for some complex number , then for any positive integer .

Proof.

It suffices to show by induction. We only need to show since is clear. In fact, if , then we have by hypothesis. So we have , that is, . Hence .

An operator is said to have finite ascent if for some positive integer .

Theorem 2.6.

Let be a -quasiclass A operator for a positive integer . Then has finite ascent for all complex number .

Proof.

We only need to show the case because the case holds by Lemmas 2.4 and 2.5.

So we have , which implies . Therefore .

In the following lemma, Tanahashi, Jeon, Kim, and Uchiyama extended the result (1.3) to -quasiclass A operators in the case .

Lemma 2.7 (see [21]).

Let be a -quasiclass A operator for a positive integer . Let be an isolated point of and the Riesz idempotent for . Then the following assertions hold.

If , then is self-adjoint and

If , then .

An operator is said to be isoloid if every isolated point of is an eigenvalue of .

Theorem 2.8.

Let be a -quasiclass A operator for a positive integer . Then is isoloid.

Proof.

Let be an isolated point. If , by ( ) of Lemma 2.7, for . Therefore is an eigenvalue of . If , by ( ) of Lemma 2.7, for . So we have . Therefore is an eigenvalue of . This completes the proof.

Let denote the tensor product on the product space for nonzero , . The following theorem gives a necessary and sufficient condition for to be a -quasiclass A operator, which is an extension of [20, Theorem 4.2].

Theorem 2.9.

Let , be nonzero operators. Then is a -quasiclass A operator if and only if one of the following assertions holds

(1) or .

(2) and are -quasiclass A operators.

Proof.

Therefore the sufficiency is clear.

To prove the necessary, suppose that is a -quasiclass A operator. Let , be arbitrary. Then we have

From (2.25) we have

where equality holds since is normaloid.

This implies that . Since for all , we have . This contradicts the assumption . Hence must be a -quasiclass A operator. A similar argument shows that is also a -quasiclass A operator. The proof is complete.

## Declarations

### Acknowledgments

The authors would like to express their cordial gratitude to the referee for his useful comments and Professor K. Tanahashi and Professor I. H. Jeon for sending them [21]. This research is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 10771161).

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Stampfli JG:
**Hyponormal operators and spectral density.***Transactions of the American Mathematical Society*1965,**117:**469–476.MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Chō M, Tanahashi K:
**Isolated point of spectrum of -hyponormal, log-hyponormal operators.***Integral Equations and Operator Theory*2002,**43**(4):379–384. 10.1007/BF01212700MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Tanahashi K, Uchiyama A:
**Isolated point of spectrum of -quasihyponormal operators.***Linear Algebra and Its Applications*2002,**341:**345–350. 10.1016/S0024-3795(01)00476-1MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Tanahashi K, Uchiyama A, Chō M:
**Isolated points of spectrum of -quasihyponormal operators.***Linear Algebra and Its Applications*2004,**382:**221–229.MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Uchiyama A, Tanahashi K:
**On the Riesz idempotent of class operators.***Mathematical Inequalities & Applications*2002,**5**(2):291–298.MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Uchiyama A:
**On the isolated points of the spectrum of paranormal operators.***Integral Equations and Operator Theory*2006,**55**(1):145–151. 10.1007/s00020-005-1386-0MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Aluthge A:
**On -hyponormal operators for .***Integral Equations and Operator Theory*1990,**13**(3):307–315. 10.1007/BF01199886MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Tanahashi K:
**On log-hyponormal operators.***Integral Equations and Operator Theory*1999,**34**(3):364–372. 10.1007/BF01300584MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Arora SC, Arora P:
**On -quasihyponormal operators for .***Yokohama Mathematical Journal*1993,**41**(1):25–29.MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar - Kim IH:
**On -quasihyponormal operators.***Mathematical Inequalities & Applications*2004,**7**(4):629–638.MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Furuta T:
**On the class of paranormal operators.***Proceedings of the Japan Academy*1967,**43:**594–598. 10.3792/pja/1195521514MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Furuta T:
*Invitation to Linear Operators: From Matrices to Bounded Linear Operators on a Hilbert Space*. Taylor & Francis, London, UK; 2001:x+255.Google Scholar - Furuta T, Ito M, Yamazaki T:
**A subclass of paranormal operators including class of log-hyponormal and several related classes.***Scientiae Mathematicae*1998,**1**(3):389–403.MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar - Chō M, Giga M, Huruya T, Yamazaki T:
**A remark on support of the principal function for class operators.***Integral Equations and Operator Theory*2007,**57**(3):303–308. 10.1007/s00020-006-1463-zMATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Chō M, Yamazaki T:
**An operator transform from class to the class of hyponormal operators and its application.***Integral Equations and Operator Theory*2005,**53**(4):497–508. 10.1007/s00020-004-1332-6MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Ito M:
**Several properties on class including -hyponormal and log-hyponormal operators.***Mathematical Inequalities & Applications*1999,**2**(4):569–578.MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Ito M, Yamazaki T:
**Relations between two inequalities and and their applications.***Integral Equations and Operator Theory*2002,**44**(4):442–450. 10.1007/BF01193670MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Uchiyama A:
**Weyl's theorem for class operators.***Mathematical Inequalities & Applications*2001,**4**(1):143–150.MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Wang D, Lee JI:
**Spectral properties of class operators.***Trends in Mathematics Information Center for Mathematical Sciences*2003,**6**(2):93–98.Google Scholar - Jeon IH, Kim IH:
**On operators satisfying .***Linear Algebra and Its Applications*2006,**418**(2–3):854–862. 10.1016/j.laa.2006.02.040MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Tanahashi K, Jeon IH, Kim IH, Uchiyama A:
**Quasinilpotent part of class or -quasihyponormal operators.***Operator Theory: Advances and Applications*2008,**187:**199–210.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar - Hansen F:
**An operator inequality.***Mathematische Annalen*1980,**246**(3):249–250. 10.1007/BF01371046MATHView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Han JK, Lee HY, Lee WY:
**Invertible completions of upper triangular operator matrices.***Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society*2000,**128**(1):119–123. 10.1090/S0002-9939-99-04965-5MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - McCarthy CA: “
”
**.***Israel Journal of Mathematics*1967,**5:**249–271. 10.1007/BF02771613MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar - Han YM, Lee JI, Wang D:
**Riesz idempotent and Weyl's theorem for -hyponormal operators.***Integral Equations and Operator Theory*2005,**53**(1):51–60. 10.1007/s00020-003-1313-1MATHMathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar

## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.