# Certain Classes of Harmonic Multivalent Functions Based on Hadamard Product

## Abstract

We define and investigate two special subclasses of the class of complex-valued harmonic multivalent functions based on Hadamard product.

## 1. Introduction

A continuous function is a complex-valued harmonic function in a complex domain if both and are real harmonic in . In any simply connected domain , we can write , where and are analytic in . We call the analytic part and the co-analytic part of . Note that reduces to if the coanalytic part is zero.

For , denote by the set of all multivalent harmonic functions defined in the open unit disc , where and defined by

(1.1)

are analytic functions in .

Let be a fixed multivalent harmonic function given by

(1.2)

A function is said to be in the class if

(1.3)

where is a harmonic convolution of and . Note that . Using the fact

(1.4)

it follows that if and only if

(1.5)

A function in is called -uniformly multivalent harmonic starlike function associated with a fixed multivalent harmonic function . The set is a comprehensive family that contains several previously studied subclasses of ; for example, if we let

(1.6)

then

(1.7)

(see [1, 2]);

(1.8)

(see [3]);

(1.9)

(see [4]);

(1.10)

(see [5, 6]);

(1.11)

(see [7]);

(1.12)

(see [8]).

Finally, denote by the subclass of functions in where

(1.13)

Let .

In this paper, we investigate coefficient conditions, extreme points, and distortion bounds for functions in the family . We observe that the results so obtained for this main family can be viewed as extensions and generalizations for various subclasses of and .

## 2. Main Results

Theorem 2.1.

Let be such that and are given by (1.1). Then if the inequality

(2.1)

is satisfied for some and

Proof.

In view of (1.5), we need to prove that , where

(2.2)

Using the fact that , it sufficies to show that

(2.3)

Therefore, we obtain

(2.4)

By hypothesis, last expression is nonnegative. Thus the proof is complete.

The coeficient bounds (2.1) is sharp for the function

(2.5)

where .

Corollary 2.2.

For , , if the inequality

(2.6)

holds, then .

Corollary 2.3.

For and , if the inequality

(2.7)

holds, then .

Theorem 2.4.

Let be such that and are given by (1.13). Also, suppose that and . Then

(i)for , if and only if

(2.8)

(ii)for , if and only if

(2.9)

Proof.

According to Corollaries 2.2 and 2.3, we must show that if the condition (2.9) does not hold, then that is, we must have

(2.10)

Choosing the values of on positive real axis where and using , the inequality (2.10) reduces to

(2.11)

where denotes (k+)p[+], denotes (k+)p+ and denotes

Letting , we obtain

(2.12)

If the condition (2.10) does not hold, then the numerator in (2.12) is negative for sufficiently close to 1. Hence there exists in for which (2.12) is negative.Therefore, it follows that and so the proof is complete.

Theorem 2.5.

If , then for , and

(2.13)

These bounds are sharp.

Proof.

Suppose . Let and . In view of (1.13), we get

(2.14)

Using Theorem 2.4(i), we obtain

(2.15)

The proofs of other cases are similar and so are omitted.

Corollary 2.6.

If , then

(2.16)

Theorem 2.7.

Suppose and . Then clco if and only if

(2.17)

where

(2.18)

In particular, the extreme points of are and .

Proof.

Suppose . For functions of the form (2.17), we can write

(2.19)

On the other hand, for , we obtain

(2.20)

Thus , by Theorem 2.4.

Conversely, suppose that . Then, it follows Theorem 2.4 that

(2.21)

Setting

(2.22)

and defining

(2.23)

where , we obtain

(2.24)

Thus can be expressed as (2.17). The proof for the case is similar and hence is omitted.

Theorem 2.8.

The class is closed under convex combinations.

Proof.

For let the functions given by

(2.25)

are in . Also suppose the given fixed harmonic functions are given by

(2.26)

For the convex combinations of can be expressed as

(2.27)

Since

(2.28)

(2.27) yields

(2.29)

Thus the coefficient estimate given by Theorem 2.4 holds. Therefore, we obtain

(2.30)

## References

1. Ahuja OP, Jahangiri JM: Multivalent harmonic starlike functions with missing coefficients. Mathematical Sciences Research Journal 2003,7(9):347–352.

2. Güney HÖ, Ahuja OP: Inequalities involving multipliers for multivalent harmonic functions. Journal of Inequalities in Pure and Applied Mathematics 2006,7(5, article 190):1–9.

3. Ahuja OP, Jahangiri JM: Multivalent harmonic starlike functions. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska. Sectio A 2001,55(1):1–13.

4. Jahangiri JM: Harmonic functions starlike in the unit disk. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 1999,235(2):470–477. 10.1006/jmaa.1999.6377

5. Silverman H: Harmonic univalent functions with negative coefficients. Journal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications 1998,220(1):283–289. 10.1006/jmaa.1997.5882

6. Silverman H, Silvia EM: Subclasses of harmonic univalent functions. New Zealand Journal of Mathematics 1999,28(2):275–284.

7. Ahuja OP, Aghalary R, Joshi SB: Harmonic univalent functions associated with k-uniformly starlike functions. Mathematical Sciences Research Journal 2005,9(1):9–17.

8. Jahangiri JM, Murugusundaramoorthy G, Vijaya K: On starlikeness of certain multivalent harmonic functions. Journal of Natural Geometry 2003,24(1–2):1–10.

## Acknowledgment

This present investigation is supported with the Project no. DÜBAP-07-02-21 by Dicle University, The committee of the Scientific Research Projects.

## Author information

Authors

### Corresponding author

Correspondence to H. Özlem Güney.

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Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Ahuja, O.P., Güney, H.Ö. & Sakar, F.M. Certain Classes of Harmonic Multivalent Functions Based on Hadamard Product. J Inequal Appl 2009, 759251 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/759251

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• DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/759251

### Keywords

• Harmonic Function
• Real Axis
• Coefficient Estimate
• Convex Combination
• Multivalent Function