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# Advanced Discrete Halanay-Type Inequalities: Stability of Difference Equations

*Journal of Inequalities and Applications*
**volume 2009**, Article number: 535849 (2009)

## Abstract

We derive new nonlinear discrete analogue of the continuous Halanay-type inequality. These inequalities can be used as basic tools in the study of the global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium of certain generalized difference equations.

## 1. Introduction

The investigation of stability of nonlinear difference equations with delays has attracted a lot of attention from many researchers such as Agarwal et al. [1–3], Baĭnov and Simeonov [4], Bay and Phat [5], Cooke and Ivanov [6], Gopalsamy [7], Liz et al. [8–10], Niamsup et al. [11, 12], Mohamad and Gopalsamy [13], Pinto and Trofimchuk [14], and references sited therein. In [15], Halanay proved an asymptotic formula for the solutions of a differential inequality involving the "maximum" functional and applied it in the stability theory of linear systems with delay. Such an inequality was called *Halanay inequality* in several works. Some generalizations as well as new applications can be found, for instance, in Agarwal et al. [2], Gopalsamy [7], Liz et al. [8–10], Niamsup et al. [11, 12], Mohamad and Gopalsamy [13], and Pinto and Trofimchuk [14]. In particular, in [2, 6, 10, 12, 13], the authors considered discrete Halanay-type inequalities to study some discrete version of functional differential equations.

In the following results of Liz et al. [10], authors showed that some discrete versions of these (maximum) inequalities can be applied to study the global asymptotic stability of a family of difference equations.

Theorem 1.

Assume that satisfies the system of inequalities

where and is a natural number. If and

then there exist constants and such that

Moreover, can be chosen as the smallest root in the interval of equation where

By a simple use of Theorem A, authors also demonstrated the validity of the following statement, namely, Theorem B.

Theorem 1.

Assume that satisfies the following inequalities:

If either

holds, then there exist and such that for every solution of

one has

where can be calculated in the form established in Theorem A. As a consequence, the trivial solution of (1.6) is globally asymptotically stable.

The main aim of the present paper is to establish some new nonlinear retarded Halanay-type inequalities, which extend Theorem A, along with the derivation of new global stability conditions for nonlinear difference equations.

## 2. Halanay-Type Discrete Inequalities

Let denote the set of all real numbers, the set of positive real numbers, the set of nonnegative real numbers, the set of integers, the set of positive integers, and . Consider the following nonlinear difference equation:

where , and . Equation (2.1) is a generalized difference equation (see [3, Section 21] and [11]). The initial value problem for this equation requires the knowledge of the initial data . This vector is called the initial string in [6]. For every initial string, there exists a unique solution of (2.1) that can be calculated using the explicit recurrence formula

In this section, we introduce new discrete inequalities which will be used to derive global stability conditions in the next section.

Theorem 2.1.

Let and

where Also, let be a sequence of nonnegative real numbers satisfying the system of inequalities

where is a constant. Then there exist constants and such that

where , and with Moreover, can be chosen as the smallest root in the interval of equation where

with

Proof.

Let be a sequence of nonnegative real numbers satisfying the system of inequalities

where Since it is easy to prove by induction that if and for then and for all

On the other hand, the system (2.7) is equivalent to

where Next we prove, under the assumptions of the theorem, that there exists a solution to system (2.8) in the form with Indeed, such is a solution of (2.8) if and only if

This is equivalent to the existence of a solution of equation where is the polynomial defined by (2.6).

Now, in view of On the other hand, in view of (2.3). As a consequence, there exists such that Hence, is a solution of (2.9) with

For this value of , the pair is a solution of (2.8) for every Thus, choosing we have that , and for all

Hence, using the first part of the proof, we can conclude that , and for all

By the similar argument used in Theorem 2.1, we obtain the following result.

Theorem 2.2.

Let and

with Also, let be a sequence of nonnegative real numbers satisfying the system of inequalities

Then there exist constants and such that

where , and with Moreover, can be chosen as the smallest root in the interval of equation where

with

Proof.

Let be a sequence of nonnegative real numbers satisfying the system of inequalities

Since it is easy to prove by induction that if and for then and for all

Next we prove that, under the assumptions of the theorem, there exists a solution to system (2.14) in the form with Indeed, such is a solution of (2.14) if and only if

This is equivalent to the existence of a solution of equation where is the polynomial defined in (2.13).

Now, in view of , we have in case in case and in case

On the other hand, in view of (2.10). As a consequence, there exists such that Hence, is a solution of (2.15) with

For this value of , the pair is a solution of (2.14) for every Thus, choosing we have , and for all These imply , and for all Hence, using the first part of the proof, we can conclude that , and for all

Remark 2.3.

In [10], a discrete Halanay-type inequality was given as in Theorem A, where the inequalities were replaced by

where and is a natural number. Note that if a sequence of positive real numbers satisfies (2.16), then it also satisfies (2.4). On the other hand, let and Then we might easily show that the sequence satisfies (2.4) but not (2.16). Indeed,

with On the other hand,

Therefore, in the case of positive sequences, the discrete inequality (2.4) is less conservative than the discrete Halanay-type inequality given by (2.16).

## 3. Global Stability of Difference Equations

In order to show the applicability of the previous result, in this section we consider the generalized difference equation

where

Although, for every initial string the solution of (3.1) can be explicitly calculated by a recurrence formula similar to (2.2), it is in general difficult to investigate the asymptotic behavior of the solutions using that formula. The next result gives an asymptotic estimate by a simple use of the discrete Halanay inequality.

Theorem 3.1.

For all assume that satisfies the following inequalities:

where and with If either

(a) and or

(b) and

hold, then there exists a constant for every solution of (3.1) such that

where and can be chosen as the smallest root in the interval of equation where

with

As a consequence, the trivial solution of (3.1) is globally asymptotically stable.

Proof.

Let be a solution of (3.1). Equation (3.1) can be written in the form

Hence, we know that

where Thus, using inequality (3.3), we obtain

Denote for and

for Then we have and, from inequality (3.9), we obtain

for On the other hand, using hypothesis (3.2) in (3.1), we have

Denote We can apply Theorem 2.1 to the system of inequalities (3.10) and (3.11) with and Consequently, Theorem 2.1 ensures the validity of the following inequality:

where and are chosen as in Theorem 3.1. This completes the proof of the theorem.

Next, we obtain new conditions for the asymptotic stability of (3.1) using inequality (3.13) instead of (3.3).

Corollary 3.2.

For all assume that satisfies inequality (3.2) and the following condition:

where and with If

holds, where then there exists a constant for every solution of (3.1) such that

where , and can be chosen as the smallest root in the interval of equation where

with

As a consequence, the trivial solution of (3.1) is globally asymptotically stable.

Similarly, using Theorem 2.2 instead of Theorem 2.1, we obtain the following result.

Theorem 3.3.

For all assume that satisfies the following inequalities:

where and with If and

then there exists a constant for every solution of (3.1) such that

where , and can be chosen as the smallest root in the interval of equation where

with

As a consequence, the trivial solution of (3.1) is globally asymptotically stable.

Remark 3.4.

Equation (3.1) covers a variety of difference equations. For instance, we can consider the following difference equation:

Next, we study the asymptotic behavior of the solutions of (3.21). We can apply Theorem 3.1, Corollary 3.2, or Theorem 3.3 to obtain some relations between coefficients and that ensure the global asymptotic stability of the zero solution. Moreover, from Theorem 3.1 we know that if there exists such that for all and if either

(a) and or

(b) and

hold, then all solutions of (3.21) converge to zero.

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## Acknowledgment

The authors thank the referees of this paper for their careful and insightful critique.

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Agarwal, R.P., Kim, Y. & Sen, S.K. Advanced Discrete Halanay-Type Inequalities: Stability of Difference Equations.
*J Inequal Appl* **2009, **535849 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/535849

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### Keywords

- Difference Equation
- Positive Real Number
- Trivial Solution
- Functional Differential Equation
- Discrete Version