- Research Article
- Open Access

# Numerical Radius and Operator Norm Inequalities

- Khalid Shebrawi
^{1}and - Hussien Albadawi
^{2}Email author

**2009**:492154

https://doi.org/10.1155/2009/492154

© K. Shebrawi and H. Albadawi. 2009

**Received:**4 November 2008**Accepted:**2 March 2009**Published:**8 March 2009

## Abstract

A general inequality involving powers of the numerical radius for sums and products of Hilbert space operators is given. This inequality generalizes several recent inequalities for the numerical radius, and includes that if and are operators on a complex Hilbert space , then for . It is also shown that if is normal , then . Related numerical radius and usual operator norm inequalities for sums and products of operators are also presented.

## Keywords

- Positive Operator
- Bound Linear Operator
- Nonnegative Function
- Numerical Range
- Complex Hilbert Space

## 1. Introduction

The most important properties of the numerical range are that it is convex and its closure contains the spectrum of the operator.

A unitarily invariant norm on is a norm on the ideal of , satisfying for all and all unitary operators and in . It is called weakly unitarily invariant norm (or invariant under similarities) if for all and all unitary operators .

Thus, the usual operator norm and the numerical radius norm are equivalent. The inequalities in (1.4) are sharp: if , then the first inequality becomes an equality, while the second inequality becomes an equality if is normal. In fact, for a nilpotant operator with , Haagerup and Harpe [1] show that . In particular, when , we get the reverse inequality of the first inequality in (1.4). For a comprehensive account on the theory of the numerical range and numerical radius, the reader is referred to [2, 3]. A detailed study for the field of values of a matrix is given in [4].

where is the absolute value of . The second inequality in (1.5) refines the second inequality in (1.4). For diverse applications of these inequalities we refer to [5, 7].

for and . Other recent inequalities have been obtained in [9, 10], which are related to the Euclidean radius of two Hilbert space operators and -normal operators in Hilbert spaces, respectively.

(see, e.g., [12]).

In Section 2 of this paper, we establish a general numerical radius inequality that generalizes (1.6), (1.7), (1.8), and (1.9), from which numerical radius inequalities for sums, products, and commutators of operators are obtained. Usual operator norm inequalities that generalize (1.11) and related to (1.13) are presented in Section 3.

## 2. A General Numerical Radius Inequality

In this section, we establish a general numerical radius inequality for Hilbert space operators which yields well known and new numerical radius inequalities as special cases. To prove our generalized inequality, we need the following basic lemmas. The first lemma is a generalized form of the mixed Schwarz inequality, which has been proved by Kittaneh [13].

Lemma 2.1.

The second lemma, which is called Hölder-McCarthy inequality, is a well-known result that follows from the spectral theorem for positive operators and Jensen's inequality (see [13]).

Lemma 2.2.

The third lemma concerned with positive real numbers, and it is a consequence of the convexity of the function , .

Lemma 2.3.

The fourth lemma is a norm inequality for the sum of two operators, which can be found in [14].

Lemma 2.4.

Our main result of this paper, which leads to a generalization of (1.6), (1.7), (1.8), and (1.9), can be stated as follows.

Theorem 2.5.

Proof.

For every unit vector , we have

Now the result follows by taking the supremum over all unit vectors in .

Inequality (2.6) includes several numerical radius inequalities as special cases. Samples of inequalities are demonstrated in what follows.

For and , , in inequality (2.6), we get the following inequality that generalizes (1.9).

Corollary 2.6.

For in inequality (2.6), we get the following numerical radius inequalities for sums of operators that generalizes (1.8).

Corollary 2.7.

It should be mentioned here that the inequality in (2.11) generalizes (1.7) in the case .

Remark 2.8.

The last equality can be proved using the polar decomposition. In fact, if and are the polar decompositions of and , respectively, then .

These inequalities, among other related ones, can be found in [2].

For in inequality (2.6), we get the following numerical radius inequalities for products of operators that are related to the above inequalities.

Corollary 2.9.

Remark 2.10.

which follows from the the arithmetic-geometric mean inequality for operators (see [15]). Inequalities (2.23) and (2.24) are not equivalent. This can be seen from the example , , .

The commutator of and is the operator . Commutators play an important role in operator theory. It follows by the triangle inequality that if , then .

For in inequality (2.6), we get the following numerical radius inequalities that generalize (1.9), and give an estimate for the numerical radius of commutators.

Corollary 2.11.

We end this section by the following remark.

Remark 2.12.

## 3. A General Norm Inequality

In this section, we introduce a general norm inequality for Hilbert space operators, from which new inequalities for operators and generalizations of earlier results can be derived. The proof of this general inequality is similar to that of Theorem 2.5 under slight modification.

Theorem 3.1.

Inequality (3.1) yields several norm inequalities as special cases. Samples of these inequalities are demonstrated below.

Corollary 3.2.

For in inequality (3.2), we get the following operator inequalities for sums of operators.

Corollary 3.3.

Remark 3.4.

The inequality (3.5) is a generalized form of (1.11). The normality of is necessary, this inequality is not true for arbitrary operators , as may be seen for and .

For in inequality (3.2), we get norm inequalities for products of operators.

Corollary 3.5.

For in inequality (3.2), we get the following norm inequalities that give an estimate for the usual norm of commutators.

Corollary 3.6.

Finally, we end this paper by the following remark.

Remark 3.7.

## Declarations

### Acknowledgment

The authors thank the anonymous referee for his valuable comments and suggestions for improving this paper.

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Haagerup U, de la Harpe P:
**The numerical radius of a nilpotent operator on a Hilbert space.***Proceedings of the American Mathematical Society*1992,**115**(2):371–379. 10.1090/S0002-9939-1992-1072339-6MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Gustafson KE, Rao DKM:
*Numerical Range: The Field of Values of Linear Operators and Matrices, Universitext*. Springer, New York, NY, USA; 1997:xiv+189.View ArticleGoogle Scholar - Zhan X:
*Matrix Inequalities, Lecture Notes in Mathematics*.*Volume 1790*. Springer, Berlin, Germany; 2002:viii+116.Google Scholar - Horn RA, Johnson CR:
*Topics in Matrix Analysis*. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK; 1991:viii+607.View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Kittaneh F:
**A numerical radius inequality and an estimate for the numerical radius of the Frobenius companion matrix.***Studia Mathematica*2003,**158**(1):11–17. 10.4064/sm158-1-2MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Kittaneh F:
**Numerical radius inequalities for Hilbert space operators.***Studia Mathematica*2005,**168**(1):73–80. 10.4064/sm168-1-5MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Kittaneh F:
**Bounds for the zeros of polynomials from matrix inequalities.***Archiv der Mathematik*2003,**81**(5):601–608. 10.1007/s00013-003-0525-6MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - El-Haddad M, Kittaneh F:
**Numerical radius inequalities for Hilbert space operators. II.***Studia Mathematica*2007,**182**(2):133–140. 10.4064/sm182-2-3MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Dragomir SS:
**Some inequalities for the Euclidean operator radius of two operators in Hilbert spaces.***Linear Algebra and Its Applications*2006,**419**(1):256–264. 10.1016/j.laa.2006.04.017MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Dragomir SS, Moslehian MS: Some inequalities for
-normal operators in Hilbert spaces
*Facta Universitatis. Series: Mathematics and Informatics*2008,**23:**39–47.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Bhatia R:
*Matrix Analysis, Graduate Texts in Mathematics*.*Volume 169*. Springer, Berlin, Germany; 1997:xii+347.Google Scholar - Shebrawi K, Albadawi H:
**Operator norm inequalities of Minkowski type.***Journal of Inequalities in Pure and Applied Mathematics*2008,**9**(1, article 26):1–10.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Kittaneh F:
**Notes on some inequalities for Hilbert space operators.***Publications of the Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences*1988,**24**(2):283–293. 10.2977/prims/1195175202MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Kittaneh F:
**Norm inequalities for certain operator sums.***Journal of Functional Analysis*1997,**143**(2):337–348. 10.1006/jfan.1996.2957MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Kittaneh F:
**A note on the arithmetic-geometric-mean inequality for matrices.***Linear Algebra and Its Applications*1992,**171:**1–8.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar

## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.