- Research Article
- Open Access

# Jensen's Inequality for Convex-Concave Antisymmetric Functions and Applications

- S. Hussain
^{1}Email author, - J. Pečarić
^{1, 2}and - I. Perić
^{3}

**2008**:185089

https://doi.org/10.1155/2008/185089

© S. Hussain et al. 2008

**Received: **21 February 2008

**Accepted: **11 August 2008

**Published: **9 September 2008

## Abstract

The weighted Jensen inequality for convex-concave antisymmetric functions is proved and some applications are given.

## Keywords

- Convex Function
- Related Result
- Classical Case
- Main Motivation
- Simple Proof

## 1. Introduction

holds for every and every (see [1, Chapter 2]).

where . For the proof, see [2, page 71] or [1, page 53].

holds for every , where (see [1, page 7]).

The following theorem was the main motivation for this paper (see [3] and [1, pages 55-56]).

Theorem 1.1.

Let be Wright-convex on and . If and for , then (1.4) is valid.

Another way of weakening the assumptions for (1.1) is relaxing the assumption of positivity of weights . The most important result in this direction is the Jensen-Steffensen inequality (see, e.g., [1, page 57]) which states that (1.1) holds also if and , where .

The main purpose of this paper is to prove the weighted version of Theorem 1.1. For some related results, see [4, 5]. In Section 3, to illustrate the applicability of this result, we give a generalization of the famous Ky-Fan inequality.

## 2. Main Results

Theorem 2.1.

Let
be a convex function on
and
for every
. If
, and
for
, then (1.1) *holds*.

Proof.

Since the function is convex on and , by Galvani's theorem it follows that the function is increasing on . Therefore, from and we have ; so (2.4) holds.

so the proof is complete.

Remark 2.2.

Remark 2.3.

Neither condition , nor condition , can be removed from the assumptions of Theorem 2.1. To see this, consider the function on . That the first condition cannot be removed can be seen by considering , and . That the second condition cannot be removed can be seen by considering , and . In both cases, (1.1) does not hold.

Remark 2.4.

where is a convex function on , and for . If is concave, the reverse inequalities hold in (2.7).

which is the reverse of the right-hand side inequality of (2.7); so the concavity properties of the function are prevailing in this case.

## 3. Applications

In the following corollary, we give a simple proof of a known generalization of the Levinson inequality (see [8] and [1, pages 71-72]).

Recall that a function is 3-convex if for , and , where denotes third-order divided difference of . It is easy to prove, using properties of divided differences or using classical case of the Levinson inequality, that if is a 3-convex function, then the function is convex on (see [1, pages 71-72]).

Corollary 3.1.

Proof.

It is a simple consequence of Theorem 2.1 and the above-mentioned fact that is convex on .

Remark 3.2.

where (see [6, page 295]).

In the following corollary, we give an improvement of the Ky-Fan inequality.

Corollary 3.3.

Proof.

which by obvious rearrangement implies (3.6).

## Declarations

### Acknowledgments

The research of J. Pečarić and I. Perić was supported by the Croatian Ministry of Science, Education and Sports, under the Research Grants 117-1170889-0888 (J. Pečarić) and 058-1170889-1050 (I. Perić). S. Hussain and J. Pečarić also acknowledge with thanks the facilities provided to them by Abdus Salam School of Mathematical Sciences, GC University, Lahore, Pakistan. The authors also thank the careful referee for helpful suggestions which have improved the final version of this paper.

## Authors’ Affiliations

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## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.