- A G Ghazanfari
^{1}Email author and - S S Dragomir
^{2, 3}

**2011**:562923

**DOI: **10.1155/2011/562923

© A. G. Ghazanfari and S. S. Dragomir. 2011

**Received: **11 January 2011

**Accepted: **1 March 2011

**Published: **14 March 2011

## Abstract

We give an analogue of the Bessel inequality and we state a simple formulation of the Grüss type inequality in inner product -modules, which is a refinement of it. We obtain some further generalization of the Grüss type inequalities in inner product modules over proper -algebras and unital Banach -algebras for -seminorms and positive linear functionals.

## 1. Introduction

A proper -algebra is a complex Banach -algebra where the underlying Banach space is a Hilbert space with respect to the inner product satisfying the properties and for all . A -algebra is a complex Banach -algebra such that for every . If is a proper -algebra or a -algebra and is such that or , then .

For a proper -algebra , the trace class associated with is . For every positive there exists the square root of , that is, a unique positive such that , the square root of is denoted by . There are a positive linear functional on and a norm on , related to the norm of A by the equality for every .

Let be a proper -algebra or a -algebra. A semi-inner product module over is a right module over together with a generalized semi-inner product, that is with a mapping on , which is -valued if is a proper -algebra, or -valued if is a -algebra, having the following properties:

We will say that is a semi-inner product -module if is a proper -algebra and that is a semi-inner product -module if is a -algebra.

If, in addition,

then is called an inner product module over . The absolute value of is defined as the square root of and it is denoted by .

Let be a -algebra. A seminorm on is a real-valued function on such that for and : , , . A seminorm on is called a -seminorm if it satisfies the -condition: . By Sebestyen's theorem [1, Theorem 38.1] every -seminorm on a -algebra is submultiplicative, that is, , and by [2, Section 39, Lemma 2(i)] . For every , the spectral radius of is defined to be .

The Pták function on -algebra is defined to be , where . This function has important roles in Banach -algebras, for example, on -algebras, is equal to the norm and on Hermitian Banach -algebras is the greatest -seminorm. By utilizing properties of the spectral radius and the Pták function, Pták [3] showed in 1970 that an elegant theory for Banach -algebras arises from the inequality .

This inequality characterizes Hermitian (and symmetric) Banach -algebras, and further characterizations of -algebras follow as a result of Pták theory.

and call the elements of positive.

The set of positive elements is obviously a convex cone (i.e., it is closed under convex combinations and multiplication by positive constants). Hence we call the positive cone. By definition, zero belongs to . It is also clear that each positive element is Hermitian.

We recall that a Banach -algebra is said to be an -algebra provided there exists on a second norm , not necessarily complete, which is a -norm. The second norm will be called an auxiliary norm.

Definition 1.1.

then is called an inner product -module (or inner product -module).

Let be a seminorm or a positive linear functional on and . If is a seminorm on a semi-inner product -module , then is said to be a semi-Hilbert -module.

If is a norm on an inner product -module , then is said to be a pre-Hilbert -module.

A pre-Hilbert -module which is complete with respect to its norm is called a Hilbert -module.

Since and are self adjoint, therefore we get the following Corollary.

Corollary 1.2.

- (a)
Let be a -algebra and a positive linear functional or a -seminorm on . It is known that is a semi-Hilbert -module over itself with the inner product defined by , in this case .

- (b)
Let be a Hermitian Banach -algebra and be the Pták function on . If is a semi-inner product -module and , then is a semi-Hilbert -module.

- (c)
Let be a -algebra and be the auxiliary norm on . If is an inner product -module and , then is a pre-Hilbert -module.

- (d)
Let be a -algebra and (a semi-inner product) an inner product -module. Since tr is a positive linear functional on and for every we have ; therefore is a (semi-Hilbert) pre-Hilbert -module.

In the present paper, we give an analogue of the Bessel inequality (2.7) and we obtain some further generalization and a simple form for the Grüss type inequalities in inner product modules over -algebras, proper -algebras, and unital Banach -algebras.

## 2. Schwarz and Bessel Inequality

(e.g. [4, Lemma 15.1.3]).

First Saworotnow in [5] proved the strong Schwarz inequality, but the direct proof of that for a semi-inner product -module can be found in [6].

have been proved in [8]. A version of the Bessel inequality for inner product -modules and inner product -modules can be found in [9], also there is a version of it for Hilbert -modules in [10, Theorem 3.1]. We provide here an analogue of the Bessel inequality for inner product -modules.

Lemma 2.1.

Proof.

## 3. Grüss Type Inequalities

Before stating the main results, let us fix the rest of our notation. We assume, unless stated otherwise, throughout this section that is a unital Banach -algebra. Also if is a semi-inner product -module and is a -seminorm on , we put , and if is a positive linear functional on , we put . Let be a finite set of orthogonal elements in such that be idempotent, we set and .

where and , . But for semi-inner product -modules we have the following lemma, which is a generalization of [7, Lemma 1].

Lemma 3.1.

Proof.

Remark 3.2.

By making use of the previous Lemma 3.1, we may conclude the following statements.

(iii)Let be a proper -algebra, let be an inner product -module, and let be a finite set of orthogonal elements in such that are idempotent. Since for every , inequality (3.3) is valid only if

We are able now to state our first main result.

Theorem 3.3.

Proof.

- (i)

- (ii)

then similarly (3.11) is a refinement and a simple form of [9, Corollary 4.3].

Corollary 3.5.

Proof.

The assumptions (3.26) and the elementary inequality for real numbers (3.19) will provide the desired result (3.27).

Example 3.6.

That is interesting in its own right.

Corollary 3.7.

Proof.

The assumptions (3.31) and the elementary inequality for real numbers (3.19) will provide (3.32).

The following companion of the Grüss inequality for positive linear functionals holds.

Theorem 3.8.

Proof.

we deduce (3.35).

## 4. Some Related Results

Theorem 4.1.

Proof.

Corollary 4.2.

Corollary 4.3.

From a different perspective, we can state the following result as well.

Theorem 4.4.

Proof.

Now, inequality (4.13) follows from inequalities (3.15) and (4.16).

The following companion of the Grüss inequality for positive linear functionals holds.

Theorem 4.5.

Proof.

From (4.19) and (4.20), we easily deduce (4.18).

- (i)

- (ii)

## Authors’ Affiliations

## References

- Doran RS, Belfi VA:
*Characterizations of C∗-Algebras, Monographs and Textbooks in Pure and Applied Mathematics*.*Volume 101*. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA; 1986:xi+426.Google Scholar - Bonsall FF, Duncan J:
*Complete Normed Algebras, Ergebnisse der Mathematik und ihrer Grenzgebiete*.*Volume 8*. Springer, New York, NY, USA; 1973:x+301.Google Scholar - Pták V:
**On the spectral radius in Banach algebras with involution.***The Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society*1970,**2:**327–334. 10.1112/blms/2.3.327MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Wegge-Olsen NE:
*K-Theory and C∗-Algebras: A Friendly Approach, Oxford Science Publications*. The Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA; 1993:xii+370.Google Scholar - Saworotnow PP:
**A generalized Hilbert space.***Duke Mathematical Journal*1968,**35:**191–197. 10.1215/S0012-7094-68-03520-5MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Molnár L:
**A note on the strong Schwarz inequality in Hilbert****-modules.***Publicationes Mathematicae Debrecen*1992,**40**(3–4):323–325.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar - Ghazanfari AG, Dragomir SS:
**Schwarz and Grüss type inequalities for****-seminorms and positive linear functionals on Banach****-modules.***Linear Algebra and Its Applications*2011,**434**(4):944–956. 10.1016/j.laa.2010.10.010MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Dragomir SS:
*Advances in Inequalities of the Schwarz, Grüss and Bessel Type in Inner Product Spaces*. Nova Science, Hauppauge, NY, USA; 2005:viii+249.MATHGoogle Scholar - Banić S, Ilišević D, Varošanec S:
**Bessel-and Grüss-type inequalities in inner product modules.***Proceedings of the Edinburgh Mathematical Society*2007,**50:**23–36. 10.1017/S0013091505001021MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Dragomir SS, Khosravi M, Moslehian MS:
**Bessel-type inequalities in hilbert****-modules.***Linear and Multilinear Algebra*2010,**58**(8):967–975. 10.1080/03081080903113361MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar - Bakić D, Guljaš B:
**Hilbert****-modules over****-algebras of compact operators.***Acta Scientiarum Mathematicarum*2002,**68**(1–2):249–269.MATHGoogle Scholar

## Copyright

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.