Open Access

Analytic Classes on Subframe and Expanded Disk and the Differential Operator in Polydisk

Journal of Inequalities and Applications20092009:353801

DOI: 10.1155/2009/353801

Received: 25 November 2008

Accepted: 28 September 2009

Published: 11 October 2009


We introduce and study new analytic classes on subframe and expanded disk and give complete description of their traces on the unit disk. Sharp embedding theorems and various new estimates concerning differential operator in polydisk also will be presented. Practically all our results were known or obvious in the unit disk.

1. Introduction and Main Definitions

Let and be the -dimensional space of complex coordinates. We denote the unit polydisk by
and the distinguished boundary of by
We use to denote the volume measure on and to denote the normalized Lebesgue measure on Let be the space of all holomorphic functions on When we simply denote by by by by We refer to [1, 2] for further details. We denote the expanded disk by
and the subframe by
The Hardy spaces, denoted by are defined by


For recall that the weighted Bergman space consists of all holomorphic functions on the polydisk satisfying the condition
For the Bergman class on expanded disk is defined by
and similarly the Bergman class on subframe denoted by is defined by


Throughout the paper, we write (sometimes with indexes) to denote a positive constant which might be different at each occurrence (even in a chain of inequalities) but is independent of the functions or variables being discussed.

The notation means that there is a positive constant such that We will write for two expressions if there is a positive constant such that

This paper is organized as follows. In first section we collect preliminary assertions. In the second section we present several new results connected with so-called operator of diagonal map in polydisk. Namely, we define two new maps and from subframe and expanded disk to unit disk and, in particular, completely describe traces of Bergman classes and defined on subframe and expanded disk on usual unit disk on the complex plane. Proofs are based among other things on new projection theorems for these classes.

A separate section will be devoted to the study of differential operator in polydisk. It is based in particular on results from the recent paper [3]. We will use the dyadic decomposition technique to explore connections between analytic classes on subframe, polydisk, and expanded disk. We also prove new sharp embedding theorems for classes on subframe and expanded disk. Last assertions of the final section generalize some one-dimensional known results to polydisk and to the case of operators simultaneously.

2. Preliminaries

We need the following assertions.

Lemma 2 A (see [4]).

Let be a fixed -tuple of nonnegative numbers and let be an arbitrary family of -boxes in lying in the cube There exists a set such that and for all there exists such that

The following proposition is heavily based on ideas from [4].

Proposition 2.1.

Let be a nonnegative summable function on Let Let where and where is a family of all boxes such that is proportional to for some fixed Then the following statements hold:
where and are any positive Borel measures on and such that
where (b) Let Then


Proofs of all parts are similar. The first part of the lemma connected with measure and unit disk can be found in [4]. We will give the complete proof of the second part. To prove the second part let

Fix a point in the and associate an - box such that
We use standard covering Lemma A to construct a set such that - boxes pairwise disjoint, we have
So the lemma will be proved if Let

Let then we will show So where , and constant will be specified later. Hence we will have

The last estimate follows from inclusion
It remains to show the inclusion To show this inclusion we note if then we have Using covering Lemma A we have Hence
It remains to note that we put above
  1. (b)
    Note that for the case of we can step by step repeat the same procedure with instead of and the condition on will be replaced by weaker condition
Note for

Now part (b) can be obtained by direct calculation.

Remark 2.2.

In Proposition 2.1(b) can be replaced by

Lemma 2.3.

Let Then

Estimate (2.11) for can be found in [5] and in [1] for general case. The following lemma is well known.

Lemma 2.4.

Let Then for one has (a) ; (b) ; (c)

Lemma 2.5 (see [3]).

Let Then one has

Corollary 2.6.

Let Then

We will need the following Theorems http://A and http://B.

Theorem 2 A (see [3]).

Let Then
Let Then

Theorem 2 B (see [3]).

Let Then
Let Then

3. Analytic Classes on Subframe and Expanded Disk

Let us remind the main definition.

Definition 3.1.

Let be subspaces of and We say that the diagonal of coincides with if for any function , and the reverse is also true for every function from there exists an expansion such that Then we write

Note when then

where is an arbitrary analytic expansion of from diagonal of polydisk to polydisk.

The problem of study of diagonal map and its applications for the first time was also suggested by Rudin in [2]. Later several papers appeared where complete solutions were given for classical holomorphic spaces such as Hardy, Bergman classes; see [1, 4, 6, 7] and references there. Recently the complete answer was given for so-called mixed norm spaces in [8]. Partially the goal of this paper is to add some new results in this direction. Theorems on diagonal map have numerous applications in the theory of holomorphic functions (see, e.g., [9, 10]).

In this section we concentrate on the study of two maps closely connected with diagonal mapping from subframe into disk where all and another map from expanded disk into disk where and function is from a functional class on subframe or expanded disk

Note that the study of maps which are close to diagonal mapping was suggested by Rudin in [2] and previously in [11] Clark studied such a map.

Theorem 3.2.

Let If

(a) or

(b) then for every function and for every function there exist such that


Note that one part of the theorem was proved in [3] and follows from Theorem A. Let us show the reverse. Let first Consider the following function:
where can be large enough, is a constant of Bergman from representation formula (see [1]), obviously by Bergman representation formula in the unit disk. It remains to note that the following estimate hold by Lemma 2.3:

where can be large enough. Using Fubini's theorem and calculating the inner integral we get what we need.

We consider now case. Let Then
by Bergman representation formula. Obviously , as
where is a map from subframe to diagonal. Using duality arguments and Fubini's theorem we have


We will need the following assertion. Let

Then let

where We assert that belongs to

Indeed using Hölder's inequality we get
where We used above the estimate
Returning to estimate for we have by Hölder's inequality

We used the fact that for all proved before.

The complete analogue of Theorem 3.2 is true for Bergman classes on expanded disk we defined previously.

Theorem 3.3.

Let If

(a) or

(b) then the following assertion holds. For every function belongs to and the reverse is also true, for any function from there exists a function such that for all


We give a short sketch of proof of Theorem 3.3 and omit details. Note that the half of the theorem the inclusion was proved in [3] and follows directly from Theorem A.

For we have to use again Lemma 2.3 and Fubini's theorem. For we first prove if and if
Indeed by Hölder's inequality we have

Hence calculating integrals we finally have

We used the estimate

which is true under the conditions on indexes we have in formulation of theorem and can be obtained by using Hölder's inequality for functions. Using this projection theorem and repeating arguments of proof of the previous theorem we will complete the proof of Theorem 3.3.

Remark 3.4.

Note that Theorems 3.2 and 3.3 are obvious for

Remark 3.5.

Note that estimates between expanded disk, unit disk, and polydisk can be also obtained directly from Liuville's formula

Remark 3.6.

The complete description of traces of classes with and quasinorms on the unit disk can be obtained similarly by small modification of the proof of Theorem 3.2,

We formulate complete analogues of Theorems 3.2 and 3.3 for classes

Theorem 3.7.

Let and Then is in and any can be expanded to such that The same statement is true for pairs

Note that one part of statement is obvious. If, for example, then On the other side, let Then define as above that
is big enough, is a Bergman constant of Bergman representation formula.

Obviously Using Hölder's inequality for functions we get Similarly

It is natural to question about discrete analogues of operators we considered previously.

Let Let
We have for such a function

As a consequence of these arguments and using Lemma 2.4 we have the following proposition, a discrete copy of assertions we proved above.

Proposition 3.8.

Let and Then if and only if

4. Sharp Embeddings for Analytic Spaces in Polydisk with Operators and Inequalities Connecting Classes on Polydisk, Subframe, and Expanded Disk

The goal of this section is to present various generalizations of well-known one-dimensional results providing at the same time new connections between standard classes of analytic functions with quazinorms on polydisk and differential operator with corresponding classes on subframe and expanded disk.

In this section we also study another two maps connected with the diagonal mapping from polydisk to subframe and expanded disk using, in particular, estimates for maximal functions from Lemma 2.3 which are of independent interest. Note that for the first time the study of such mappings which are close to diagonal mapping was suggested by Rudin in [2]. Later Clark studied such a map in [11].

In this section we also introduce the differential operator as follows (see [3, 12, 13]). where

Note it is easy to check that acts from into

In the case of the unit ball an analogue of operator is a well-known radial derivative which is well studied. We note that in polydisk the following fractional derivative is well studied (see [1]):
where , and Apparently the operator was studied in [12] for the first time. Then in [13], the second author studied some properties of this operator. In this section we also continue to study the operator. We need the following simple but vital formula which can be checked by easy calculation:

where This simple integral representation of holomorphic functions in polydisk will allow us to consider them in close connection with functional spaces on subframe

The following dyadic decomposition of subframe and polydisk was introduced in [1] and will be also used by us:
averages in analytic spaces in polydisk can obviously have a mixed form, for example, In [8] Ren and Shi described the diagonal of mixed norm spaces, but the above mentioned mixed case was omitted there. Our approach is also different. It is based on dyadic decomposition we introduced previously.

Theorem 4.1.

Let and Then


Using diadic decomposition of polydisk we have
We used above the following estimate which can be found, for example, in [1]
where are enlarged dyadic cubes (see [1]) and , and
Note further since
We have

We used the fact that

Hence using the fact that is a finite covering of finally we have for all One part of theorem is proved.

To get the reverse statement we use the estimate from Lemma 2.3. Then we have
for any Hence and for by Lemma 2.3
Let Then we may assume that again is large enough. Let Then
We used estimate

Choosing appropriate we repeat now arguments that we presented for above to get what we need. The proof is complete.

Remark 4.2.

The case of averages can be considered similarly. Note in Theorem 4.1 Thus our Theorem 4.1 extends known description of diagonal of classical Bergman classes (see [1, 7]).

In [14] Carleson as Rudin and Clark showed that in the case of the polydisk one cannot expect so simple description of Carleson measures as one has for measures defined in the disk. We would like to study embeddings of the type

where is a positive Borel measure on and is a Bergman class on polydisk or subframe.

Theorem 4.3.

Let , and is a positive Borel measure on If
and conversely if
holds for some where then

Remark 4.4.

With another -sharp" embedding theorem, the complete analogue of Theorem 4.3 is true also when we replace the left side by The proof needs small modification of arguments we present in the proof of Theorem 4.3.

Remark 4.5.

For and Theorem 4.3 is known (see [15]).

Proof of Theorem 4.3.

It can be checked by direct calculations based on formula (4.2) that the following integral representation holds:
Using the fact that in increasing by and (see [1]) we get from above by using the estimate
where is growing measurable,
To obtain the reverse implication we use standard test function and Lemma 2.5


The rest is clear. The proof is complete.

Below we continue to study connections between standard classes in polydisk and corresponding spaces on subframe and expanded disk.


Let us note that Theorems 3.2 and 3.7 of [3] show that under some restrictions on the following assertion is true.

For every function belongs to and the reverse is also true, for any function there exists "an extension" such that
The following Theorem 4.6 gives an answer for the same map from polydisk to expanded disk

for functions from

We will develop ideas from [4] to get the following sharp embedding theorem for classes on expanded disk.

Theorem 4.6.

Let be a positive Borel measure on Then

if and only if


Obviously if then by putting

we have and Hence we get what we need. Now we will show the sufficiency of the condition.


Let Let also and where

In what follows we will use notations of Proposition 2.1. Consider the Poisson integral of a function (see [2]).

Let We will show now as in [4] that
Indeed, this will be enough, since the operator is operator we can apply the Marcinkiewicz interpolation theorem (see [16, Chapter 1]) to assert that
We have as in [4] for

where we used the standard partition of Poisson integral. Hence and so using Proposition 2.1 we finally get

Indeed by Proposition 2.1 we have

Theorem 4.6 is proved.

Theorem 4.7.

Let Then



We use systematically the integral representation (4.18), Lemma 2.5, and it is corollary. The proof of the estimate (4.32) follows from equality
and estimate
obtained during the proof of Theorem 4.3.

The proof of the estimate (4.33) follows from Lemma 2.5 and its corollary and integral representation (4.35).

The proof of the estimate (4.34) follows from equality

Indeed using (4.36) integrating both sides of (4.37) by and using Lemma 2.5 we arrive at (4.34).

Remark 4.8.

All estimates in Theorem 4.7 for are well known (see [1, Chapter1]).

We present below a complete analogue of Theorems 3.2 and 3.3 for a map from polydisk to expanded disk. Note the continuation of function is done again from diagonal Let and

where is a constant of Bergman representation formula (see [1]).

Proposition 4.9.


And reverse is also true:

Let and

then for all functions such that condition (4.38) holds for we have

Let Then

and the reverse is also true:

For any function with a finite quasinorm such that condition (4.38) holds for one has


Proof of estimate (4.39) follows directly from Theorem B.
Indeed from (4.38) and results of [1] on diagonal map in Bergman classes we have It remains to apply Theorem A.
For the proof of we use Theorem 4.6 and get the result we need.

For the proof of we use the same argument as in the proof of part (2.11). Namely first from (4.38) and from a Diagonal map theorem on classes from [1] we get It remains to apply Theorem A.

Remark 4.10.

Note Proposition 4.9 is obvious for

We give only a sketch of the proof of the following result. It is based completely on a technique we developed above.

Proposition 4.11.

Let then the following assertions are true: If then

If then

Let If then Moreover the reverse is also true if condition (4.38) holds for then
The proof of first part of Proposition 4.11 follows from (4.35), (4.36) and Lemma 2.5 directly. The reverse assertion follows from Theorem B and estimate

which can obtained from one dimensional result by induction.

The proof of second part of Proposition 4.11 can be obtained from Theorem A and results on diagonal map on Hardy classes from [1] similarly as the proof of Proposition 4.9. For part is well known (e.g., see [1]) and follows from since for condition (4.38) vanishes by Bergman representation formula.

Remark 4.12.

Theorem 4.6, Propositions 4.9 and 4.11 give an answer to a problem of Rudin (see [2]) to find traces of Hardy classes on subvarieties other than diagonal Note that in [11] Clark solved this problem for subvarietes of based on finite Blaschke products.



The authors sincerely thank Trieu Le for valuable discussions.

Authors’ Affiliations

Department of Mathematics, Bryansk University
Faculty of Organizational Sciences, University of Belgrade


  1. Djrbashian AE, Shamoian FA: Topics in the Theory of Apα Spaces, Teubner Texts in Mathematics. Volume 105. Teubner, Leipzig, Germany; 1988.Google Scholar
  2. Rudin W: Function Theory in Polydiscs. W. A. Benjamin, New York, NY, USA; 1969:vii+188.MATHGoogle Scholar
  3. Shamoyan R, Li S: On some properties of a differential operator on the polydisk. Banach Journal of Mathematical Analysis 2009,3(1):68–84.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. Shamoian FA: Embedding theorems and characterization of traces in the spaces . Matematicheskii Sbornik 1978,107(3):709–725.Google Scholar
  5. Ortega JM, Fàbrega J: Hardy's inequality and embeddings in holomorphic Triebel-Lizorkin spaces. Illinois Journal of Mathematics 1999,43(4):733–751.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. Jevtić M, Pavlović M, Shamoyan RF: A note on the diagonal mapping in spaces of analytic functions in the unit polydisc. Publicationes Mathematicae Debrecen 2009,74(1–2):45–58.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. Shapiro JH: Mackey topologies, reproducing kernels, and diagonal maps on the Hardy and Bergman spaces. Duke Mathematical Journal 1976,43(1):187–202. 10.1215/S0012-7094-76-04316-7MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  8. Ren G, Shi J: The diagonal mapping in mixed norm spaces. Studia Mathematica 2004,163(2):103–117. 10.4064/sm163-2-1MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. Amar E, Menini C: A counterexample to the corona theorem for operators on . Pacific Journal of Mathematics 2002,206(2):257–268. 10.2140/pjm.2002.206.257MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. Shamoyan R: On the action of Hankel operators in bidisk and subspaces in connected with inner functions in the unit disk. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie Bulgare des Sciences 2007,60(9):929–934.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. Clark DN: Restrictions of functions in the polydisk. American Journal of Mathematics 1988,110(6):1119–1152. 10.2307/2374688MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. Guliev VS, Lizorkin PI: Classes of holomorphic and harmonic functions in a polydisk in connection with their boundary values. Trudy Matematicheskogo Instituta imeni V. A. Steklova 1993, 204: 137–159.MathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. Shamoyan RF: On quasinorms of functions from holomorphic Lizorkin Triebel type spaces on subframe and polydisk. In Sympozium Fourier Series and Application, Conference Materials, 2002. Rostov Na Donu; 54–55.Google Scholar
  14. Carleson L: A counter example for measures bounded in for the bidisc. Institut Mittag-Leffler; 1974.Google Scholar
  15. Wu Z: Carleson measures and multipliers for Dirichlet spaces. Journal of Functional Analysis 1999,169(1):148–163. 10.1006/jfan.1999.3490MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. Mazya VG: Sobolev Spaces, Springer Series in Soviet Mathematics. Springer, Berlin, Germany; 1985:xix+486.Google Scholar


© R. F. Shamoyan and O. R. Mihić. 2009

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.